Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Lobster 59, The Dr Strangeloves of the Mind, by Anthony Frewin,

Summer 2010, Lobster 59, The Dr Strangeloves of the Mind, by Anthony Frewin,
A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA's Secret Cold War Experiments, by H. P. Albarelli, Jr. [Walterville, Oregon: TrineDay, 2009] xxvi + 826 pp. Illustrations, notes, index.

At 2.25am on 28 November 1953 Dr Frank R Olson, a U.S. government bacteriologist, fell or jumped to his death from a tenth floor room of the Hotel Statler in New York City. He had travelled up to New York with a colleague, Dr Robert Lashbrook, a Defense Department chemist, to see a doctor as he had been ill for several months with ulcer problems, had become despondent, and was now suffering from a severe psychosis.

That's the story as reported at the time. An open and shut case: Olson had a cocktail of medical problems, both physical and mental, so it is sort of understandable that he self-precipitated (to use the correct nomenclature). Right? There the story should have ended and there were plenty of government departments including the Army, the CIA, the FBI, and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, who were praying that it did. Well, it did, for a while anyway. Twenty years were to pass before the story of MKULTRA and the circumstances of the death began to seep out.

Albarelli writes that 'The story of his strange death has taken up permanent residence in the modern codex of conspiracy legend and lore', and, further, his 'death has become a touchstone for the fear of shadow government, and a focal point for justified paranoia about mad scientists running amok among innocent, unsuspecting populations.'

Following Olson's death there were several secret government investigations into what happened but these were EYES ONLY reports and their authors knew where they could and could not shine a torch. Albarelli exhaustively details these and all subsequent investigations up to and including the 'cold case' review by the New York District Attorney Robert Morgenthau in the 1990s. But he does not keep to the straight and narrow. He has explored what all the main characters and many subsidiary ones were working on and who exactly they were. This has resulted in a highly detailed study of what the US 'secret state' was doing in psycho-chemical (think LSD/'mind control') and biological weapons. This work will now become the first port of call for anyone researching this neck of the woods.

The cast list here must be as extensive as that of War and Peace. Here you'll find new information about James Angleton, James McCord (one of the early Olson investigators and later a Watergate burglar), William Colby, Richard Helms, William Donovan, Allen Dulles (later the intelligence community's 'minder' on the Warren Commission, who had earlier been sacked from the CIA by JFK) and many others, including Dr Harold Abramson and the Dr Strangelove of the whole shebang, Dr Sidney Gottlieb. Like his associates, Gottlieb saw his work – this included dosing unwitting subjects with LSD, many of whom would suffer from psychological scars for the rest of their life, and some who even died – as entirely justified in the interests of national defence.

The scientists, however, are not the only ones who should stand in the dock. How about the Department of Justice? In 1954 CIA General Counsel Lawrence Houston reached an understanding with the Department of Justice that 'allowed the Agency to determine on its own when to report violations of criminal activities by CIA personnel.' In other words, whatever oversight may have existed before, it just left Kansas.

What didn't come out about Olson at the time of his death? One could say just about everything. In 1951 he was a high ranking Special Operations Division officer at Camp Detrick, a chemical and biological warfare laboratory, who held responsibility for project planning and intelligence operations and was an expert in aerosol delivery systems for chemical and biological weapons. Further, he was affiliated to the CIA on various mind control projects. In other words, he wasn't the Joe Shmoe he was painted at the time.

A loose cannon

The problem with Olson, as Albarelli argues and for this writer certainly substantiates, is that he had a big mouth; and the problem began in a small village in the south of France named Pont-St-Esprit in 1951. There, late in summer, hundreds of villagers had fallen seriously ill, hallucinating, behaving in bizarre ways and suffering mental breakdowns. A number even died. The story at the time was that they were suffering either from ergot poisoning arising from contaminated baked bread, or mercury poisoning from a fungicide. In fact this appears to have been a CIA experiment to see the effects of mass-induced LSD that probably had been delivered via one of the methods that Olson had been working on (airborne aerosol most likely).1 (1 Owing to the length of this footnote it has been placed at the end of the piece.)

Olson saw firsthand the effects of this mass psychosis and the question that Albarelli asks but cannot conclusively answer is: 'Was he remorseful or was he boastful?' As a result of this he became a loose cannon. His superiors soon got wind of his talking out of turn and the lid certainly had to be kept on this operation. If he was remorseful would this result in him telling all in the hope of expunging his guilt? Or if he was boastful was he seeking not forgiveness but credit and would he be attempting to take his expertise to an outside contractor? Either way they had to know what he had said to whom and what his plans were.

On Thursday 19 November 1953 Olson attended a meeting at Deep Creek Lake with several of his colleagues and was slipped LSD laced with a 'truth drug' before being interrogated. He began to display strange behaviour, extreme anxiety, and feelings of paranoia. The loose cannon was now ricocheting about like the ball in a pinball machine. He was taken up to New York to see the CIA-approved Dr Abramson who seems to have realised that there was going to be no easy fix here. Then it was decided that Olson should be taken away to a secure CIA-approved asylum and the forcible removal of Olson from the Hotel Statler was entrusted to two 'goons'. Things got out of hand in the hotel room and Olson was precipitated out the window with the goons probably thinking, they'll thank us for this (indeed, they might even have been instructed to do same). The two goons were Pierre Lafitte and Francois Spirito. Who they?

Spirio and Lafitte

Spirito has been dubbed the father of modern heroin traffickers. He was born in Sicily in 1898 and spent his formative years in Marseilles. The 1970 French film Borsalino2

2 Borsalino, directed by Jacques Deray, with Jean-Paul Belmondo and Alain Delon. Based upon a novel by Eugene Saccomano.

was largely based on his life but left out much of his less pleasing side, such as his Nazi collaboration during the war. Just before the Olson business Spirito had been released from Atlanta's Federal Penitentiary where he had been serving a sentence for drug trafficking. Less than three weeks later he was picked up by the US Immigration and Naturalization Service and deported back to France where he died in 1967. Spirito had known Lafitte since about 1939 and they had first met in Marseilles. It was Lafitte who engaged him for the job.3 (3 Albarelli devotes the whole of Book 3, Chapter 4, to this character, 'Who Was Francois Spirito?' pp. 439-49. There's also much about him in Alfred W McCoy's The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade (New York: Lawrence Hill Books, 1991).)

Now let's turn to Lafitte. In 1952 nine large framed paintings including The Flaying of St. Bartholomew, believed to be by Mattis Preti, a famous Neapolitan artist, were stolen from St Joseph's Cathedral in Bardstown, Kentucky. In April 1953 FBI agents arrested three people in Chicago in connection with the theft: Norton I Kretske, an attorney, Joseph DePietro, a deputy bailiff for a Chicago court, and an individual identified as Gus Manoletti. The case went to trial in October and the government's second prosecution witness answered to the name of Jean-Pierre Lafitte but as he approached the stand he was recognised as Gus Manoletti.

Lafitte said he lived in San Diego and had been employed for the last three years as a special investigator for the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Before that he had been employed overseas on 'special missions for the United States government.' He explained that he had been engaged by the FBI to locate the stolen paintings and had posed as a buyer in the art world and after months of undercover work had purchased the stolen paintings from Kretske and DePietro for $35,000. They were then arrested in a sting operation.

Since Lafitte was the government's star witness, the attorneys for the defendants made strenuous efforts to find out more about his background. The prosecutors objected and the judge sustained their objections citing public interest issues and forbidding any disclosure. So, here we have a man trusted by government agencies and seemingly employed by them over many years.

It's unclear when and where Lafitte was born; possibly Corsica in the early 1900s. He certainly grew up in Marseilles and in his early teens, either having run away from home or having been abandoned by his mother, was working in restaurant kitchens where he discovered a natural aptitude for cooking, a talent that would stand him in good stead throughout his peripatetic life.

His involvement in the Marseilles underworld parallels his restaurant work. The late 1930s found Lafitte travelling back and forth between New York, Montreal, Boston, Paris and Marseilles, probably facilitating drug deals. During the 1939-45 war he is thought to have been involved in a number of OSS operations in Nazi-occupied Europe.

Sometime after the war he hooked up with George Hunter White, a buccaneering agent of the Federal Narcotics Bureau, who would provide plenty of work for him. (White had free access to LSD in the early 1950s and was dosing unwitting subjects left, right and centre in the many safe houses he ran for the FNB and other agencies).

In 1951 White enlisted Lafitte's help in a major narcotics case. A Joe Dornay, an alias of Joseph Orsini, was arrested in New York for drug trafficking. When he was placed in a cell on Ellis Island prior to deportation who was his cellmate? None other than Lafitte, put there by the FBN to gather information about Orsini's network. Orsini spilled the beans thinking that Lafitte could mind the store while he was away. As it was, Orsini effectively handed the network on a plate to the FBN and the FBI via Lafitte.

Lafitte's career as a 'non-attributable' agent for various government agencies is described in great detail by Albarelli and includes the remarkable story of Joe Valachi, the Mafia song-bird, who had murdered John Joseph Saupp in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary yard. The US Attorney there had sought the death penalty but Valachi, through a go-between, got a message concerning his predicament through to Robert Morgenthau who was then the US Attorney for the Southern District of New York. The message was that he was prepared to tell all about the mob, as he subsequently did, in exchange for the death penalty going away.4 Albarelli reveals Lafitte was that go-between.

In 1953 Lafitte had been working undercover doing lowly work in several New York hotels, probably for the FBN, certainly for George White. He was working at the Hotel Statler when Olson exited the window.

Shaw, Oswald, New Orleans

Now we'll go to a contemporary 'parallel' universe: Clay Shaw, Lee Harvey Oswald, and New Orleans.

In 1967 the New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison arrested Clay Shaw for conspiracy in the assassination of John F Kennedy. Shaw was a prominent New Orleans businessman and a leading director of the World Trade Center, a 'non-profit association fostering the development of international trade, tourism and cultural exchange.' In 1969 Sidney Gottlieb announced at a staff meeting that the FBI had arrested Lafitte in New Orleans where he was working as the manager-chef of the Plimsoll Club within the World Trade Center5 (Shaw had praised him as 'the best chef in New Orleans'6). Richard Helms, now director of the CIA, wanted to know what was going on and ordered an inquiry.

It transpires that the Feds had little choice but to pick Lafitte up as six years earlier he had swindled a businessman out of $400,000 in an elaborate scam that involved diamond mines in South Africa.

4 Regarding Valachi's testimony on the Mob, Albarelli notes that some crime authorities claim it 'was a well-concocted and coached performance based less on fact than on a law enforcement agenda.'

5 The club still describes itself as 'The Members Club of the World Trade Center of New Orleans' on its website <>. However it has now relocated to a nearby hotel.

6 Others who sang his praises included the Louisiana Governor John McKeithen and Mrs Lyndon Baines Johnson who sent him a letter from the White House. See 'The Gourmet Pirate', Time magazine, 19 December 1969.

However, Lafitte's 'interfacing' with the Kennedy assassination and its aftermath do not end there. Earlier, in 1967 or 1968, with Allan Hughes, a CIA operative who had attended the Deep Creek Lake meeting where Olson had been dosed, and the reporter James Phelan,7 Lafitte burgled Garrison's office to retrieve papers relating to Shaw.8

And there's an even more intriguing connection.

On 9 May 1963 Lee Harvey Oswald applied for work at the William B Reily Coffee Company in New Orleans. The eponymous Reily was a rabid anti-communist who gave financial support both to Sergio Arcacha Smith's Crusade to Free Cuba Committee and Ed Butler's partially CIA-funded propaganda outfit, the Information Council of the Americas (INCA). The Reily vice-president, William Monaghan, was a former FBI agent and was a charter member of INCA. Jim Garrison believed that Reily's was part of an intelligence apparatus. A view bolstered somewhat by Gerry Patrick Hemming's claim that William Reily had worked for the CIA for years.9

Oswald worked for Reily May through July, and Albarelli notes that ‘Around the time of JFK assassination’ Lafitte too was working for the Reily company. The world gets smaller and smaller.

7 Despite his claims to being a fearless and independent journalist, Phelan was a snitch and a shill for the Feds and the intelligence services. See, for example, Joan Mellen, A Farewell to Justice: Jim Garrison, JFK's Assassination, and The Case That Should Have Changed History (Washington DC: Potomac Books, 2005), pp. 144-5.

8 Aside from the burglary, papers were being purloined from Garrison’s office by, amongst others, Gordon Novel and William Gurvich. Mellen (see note 7) goes into some detail.

9 Jim Garrison, On the Trail of the Assassins (London: Penguin Books, 1992), pp. 115-6. There's also much about Reily and Oswald's time there in John Armstrong, Harvey & Lee: How the CIA Framed Oswald (Arlington, Texas: Quasar, 2003), p. 535 et seq

Lafitte is unknown in the literature of the JFK assassination. I checked the indices of some ten works. He's obviously a person for whom further and better partics are needed.

* * *

Now let's go off on another tack and a little nearer home: the writer Gordon Thomas. When the New York Attorney Robert Morgenthau was investigating Olson's death, his son Eric received an affidavit from Thomas that he believed 'could blow the case wide open.' Gordon Thomas was no stranger to the government-sponsored 'mind control' experiments and had authored a book about Dr Ewen Cameron and the appalling MKULTRA experiments he had conducted in Montreal.10 Eric Olson immediately passed on the affidavit to Morgenthau's office.

Thomas' affidavit recounts a series of conversations he claims he had with the British psychiatrist Dr William Sargant (1907-1988) in 1968 and 1969 when Sargant was Director of Psychological Medicine at St Thomas' Hospital in London. Some readers may recall that much publicity attended the publication of Sargant's book Battle for the Mind11 in 1957 and in the ensuing years he was all over the media giving his views on mental illness and psychiatry. He was a rather lugubrious character and looked like Boris Karloff. His confidence in himself was unassailable.

10 Journey into Madness: Medical Torture and Mind Controllers (London: Bantam Press, 1988). The subtitle for subsequent editions was changed to The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse. See also footnote 13 below.

11 Battle for the Mind: A Physiology of Conversion and Brainwashing (London: William Heinemann, 1957). I read this back in the 1960s but couldn't locate my copy while writing this review. It's a book that's worth reading again in the light of what we now know. Does he unwittingly give anything away?

In 1976, as an expert on brainwashing and thought control, Sargant appeared for the defence in the trial of Patty Hearst alongside Drs Louis Joylon West, a CIA contract employee, and Robert Jay Lifton. They argued that Hearst had been brainwashed by the Symbionese Liberation Army.

Thomas says that Sargant was 'a consultant to the British Intelligence Service (MI5/6)' and claims that Sargant told him that he 'had visited Langley [CIA HQ] several times and had met with Dr. Sydney [sic] Gottlieb, Richard Helms and other senior CIA officials.' Further, during the same visits he had also met up with Dr Ewen Cameron, Dr Robert Lashbrook (who had accompanied Olson to New York and shared the hotel room with him in 1953), and Frank Olson himself.
Further in the affidavit:
Subsequently Dr. Gottlieb and Frank Olson visited London and, according to Dr. Sargant, he accompanied them to Porton Down, Britain's main research centre for biological/chemical research. Dr. Sargant's interest in the work going on there was to study the psychological implications of mind-blowing drugs such as LSD. He told me that he developed a rapport with Frank Olson during a number of subsequent visits Frank Olson made to Britain. Dr. Sargant remarked that 'he was just like any other CIA spy, using our secret airfields to come and go.'
Sargant told Thomas he could publish what he was saying, but only after his death. He went on to relate that 'in the summer of 1953 Frank Olson travelled to Britain, once again to visit Porton Down' and:
Olson said he was going to Europe to meet with a CIA team led by Dr. Gottlieb...Sargant was satisfied that the CIA team were [sic] doing similar work that MI6 were conducting in Europe – executing without trial known Nazis, especially SS men...Sargant saw Frank Olson after his brief visit to Norway and West Germany, including Berlin, in the summer of 1953. He said he was concerned about the psychological changes in Frank Olson.
In Sargant's view Olson, primarily a research-based scientist, had witnessed in the field how his arsenal of drugs, etc, worked with lethal effect on human beings (the 'expendable' SS men etc.). Sargant believed that for the first time Olson had come face to face with his own reality. Sargant told me he believed Frank Olson had witnessed murder being committed with the various drugs he had prepared. The shock of what he had witnessed, Sargant believed, was all the harder to cope with given that Frank Olson was a patriotic man who believed the United States would never sanction such acts.
I remember Sargant telling me that he spoke several times in 1953 with Frank Olson at Sargant's consulting rooms in Harley Street, London. These were not formal patient/doctor consultations but rather Sargant trying to establish what Frank Olson had seen and done in Europe.
[Sargant] decided that Frank Olson could pose a security risk if he continued to speak and behave as he did. He recommended to his own superiors at the SIS that Frank Olson should no longer have access to Porton Down or to any ongoing British research at the various secret establishments Olson had been allowed free access to. Sargant told me his recommendation was acted upon by his superiors. He was also certain that his superiors, by the nature of the close ties with the CIA, would have informed Richard Helms and Dr. Gottlieb of the circumstances why Frank Olson would no longer be given access to British research.
Effectively a substantial part of Frank Olson’s importance to the CIA had been cut off. When Dr. Sargant learned of Frank Olson's death...Sargant came to the immediate conclusion that Olson could only have been murdered. I recall him telling me that in many ways the staged death was almost classic.
Pretty hot stuff! Or is it?

Albarelli notes that overseas CIA experimental activities were conducted under the auspices of ARTICHOKE and not MKULTRA, therefore Gottlieb would not have travelled with, much less headed up, any team to Europe. Further, there is no evidence that Gottlieb and Olson ever went together to Europe in the 1950s, and Gottlieb never visited Europe until after 1953.

Thomas’ claim that Sargant visited Gottlieb, Helms and the others ‘several’ times ‘at Langley’ during the period of 1953-55 is impossible because the CIA’s Langley headquarters were built from 1959 onwards and not opened until 1961.

The allegation that a CIA team was executing without trial known Nazis is highly dubious, particularly in light of PAPERCLIP and other operations that were seeking the scientific and intelligence expertise of these very individuals.12

Albarelli states that there is no corroborating evidence that Sargant ever met Gottlieb, Helms, Lashbrook or, indeed, Frank Olson. The reader can feel confident that if there had
been, he would have turned it up.

12 For example, in 1943 Nazi doctors at Dachau were giving mescaline to prisoners to see if it would be possible to ‘control’ their minds. These experiments were carried out under the ‘aviation  medicine’ programme that was headed by Dr Hubertus Strughold (1893-1986). Other experiments included injecting prisoners with gasoline, crushing them to death in high pressure chambers, shooting them so blood coagulants could be tested on their wounds, immersing them in tubs of ice water to see how long it would take before they died. What happened to Dr Strughold? He was one of the PAPERCLIP scientists. He lived in Texas and worked on the US space programme. He was described by NASA as the 'father of space medicine.' See Martin A Lee and Bruce Shlain, Acid Dreams:The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion (New York: Grove Press, 1985), pp. 5-7, John Marks, The Search for the 'Manchurian Candidate':The Story of the CIA's Secret Efforts to Control Human Behaviour (London: Allen Lane, 1979), pp. 4-6, and Marcus Boon's The Road of Excess: A History of Writers on Drugs (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002), pp. 248-9 (this is a compelling and comprehensive study of the literary side of narcotics).

Thomas claims that Sargant handed over all his records relating to work with the CIA and Frank Olson to British intelligence (I return to Sargant's records below).

The affidavit raises other questions. If Sargant was an active intelligence officer or closely related to the intelligence services why was he talking to Thomas? And if we take at face value the claims made in the affidavit, why was Olson opening his heart and breaching security to Sargant when he knew full well who he was, who he worked for, and the likelihood that Sargant would report it upwards, if for no other reason than to keep himself in the clear?

Lastly, Olson's state of mind. There is no evidence that Olson had psychiatric problems or mental health 'issues' at this time. They would come later after the dosing at the Deep Creek Lake meeting.

Albarelli asked Steve Saracco, one of the two attorneys in Morgenthau's office who was working on the case, what his take on the affidavit was. Saracco said, 'Number one it's hearsay, and number two, well, there is no number two. What does it really say? That one person told another person that possibly told another person that they thought Olson's death had been murder? You tell me: What do I do with that?'

One wonders what Thomas thought he was doing with this affidavit, and why hadn't he even checked some basic facts? It wasn't as if he was a stranger in these areas. Albarelli writes: 'Thomas' account of Olson's alleged disclosures to Dr. Sargant lends tremendous credence to the Agency's claim that Olson was unstable.' This, of course, was the original cover story!

Albarelli wasn't finished with Gordon Thomas yet. He details many of the major mistakes and impossibilities in Thomas' 2007 book, Secrets and Lies13 and concludes by saying, 'But the primary reason for discounting Thomas' assertions about the death of Frank Olson is simply that they do not square with the evidence and, instead, dovetail with official versions that were clearly intended as cover up.' (italics added.)

13 London: JR Books. Albarelli writes, 'In many ways the book is a rehash of his earlier work, Journey into Madness, with the exception of its additions about Frank Olson’s death.'

Thomas asserts that George White killed Olson and with a little legerdemain says that he got this from Eric Olson; whereas Eric knew from White's date book that he, White, was not in New York on the night in question, but was 3,000 miles away in California organising his mother's funeral. To support this claim Thomas gives no further evidence beyond statements that he attributes to a dead CIA official, William Buckley, who he says was assigned by Allen Dulles in 1953 to investigate Olson's death. Alas, in 1953 Buckley was still in college and had not yet joined the CIA. Further, as Albarelli documents, Buckley was never involved with MKULTRA operations and certainly never assigned to Dr Gottlieb's TSS branch as Thomas says.

Further claims of Thomas' end up in the Sheol of misinformation. For instance, he says that Gottlieb went to Tokyo in 1950 on orders from DCI Walter Smith; but Gottlieb didn't join the CIA until the following year. Or how about this? Thomas writes, 'By 1953, the year Frank Olson died, there had been nearly 500 other deaths resulting among his fellow workers from being infected by anthrax or Bolivian hemorrhagic fever...'

500 deaths? This would have been America's greatest anthrax outbreak ever and would have been impossible to hide.

Albarelli writes in his notes at the end of the book, 'Many of Thomas' claims in this book [Secrets and Lies] seriously challenge the credulity of his loyal readers. Additionally, many of his claims, besides being wrong in this author's view, are unsupported by any documentation or cited sources.'14

Dr William Sargant is an intriguing figure and may well be the UK's answer to Dr Gottlieb. However, further research needs to be done on him. But what do we know?

First, a little detour. We know that three servicemen were given LSD at Porton Down, the UK government's chemical warfare establishment, in 1953 and 1954 after volunteering to take a drug that they were told was part of a search for a cure for the common cold.
'The research was carried out after British and American governments thought the Soviet Union had developed a "truth drug" which could compel spies and servicemen to yield up important secrets. MI6 scientists decided to test LSD, the closest thing they thought they had to a truth drug, on volunteers to see how they reacted.'15
In February 2006 MI6, through the Ministry of Defence, gave the three servicemen compensation (believed to be under £10,000 each).16

14 Thomas' misinformation has legs and now it's all over the Net and in many books. Take, as an example, and this is one of many, David Black's Acid: A New History of LSD (London: Vision Paperbacks, 2001), pp. 27-34, where the gospel according to Thomas – Olson, White,
Sargant, Porton Down, etc. – is retold as if it were scripture.


16 LSD 'therapy' was also being strongly pursued at the Powick Hospital, a National Health Service psychiatric asylum in Worcestershire, under the aegis of Dr Ronald Sandison who had instituted the treatment in 1952 after visiting the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel where LSD had been discovered by Albert Hofmann in 1938. The treatments continued until 1972 when they were discontinued. In all, over this period, some 683 patients were dosed in some 13,785 sessions. In 1997 250 former patients launched legal action for compensation claiming that they were used as guinea pigs in LSD trials (Worcester News, 26 January 2004). In 2002 the National Health Service agreed to pay £195,000 in settlement with 43 of the patients (British Medical Journal, 2002;324:501).

According to Dominic Streatfield, Brainwash: The Secret History of Mind Control (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2007), p. 96, 'Sandison's research [initially] was conducted on a small scale until a friend stepped in. That friend was Professor Joel Elkes, head of the Department of Experimental Psychiatry at the University of Birmingham, at the time advising Porton Down (and thus M16) on the interrogation possibilities of LSD. Elkes encouraged Sandison's work and eventually ensured that he received a fifty-thousand-pound grant from the regional hospital board to build a special LSD wing at Powick.'

Fifty thousand pounds? A pretty sizeable sum in the early 1950s. Was the regional hospital board really that enlightened or were they merely a conduit for the money?' A question Streatfield fails to ask.


Dr William Sargant was born in London, studied medicine at St John's College, Cambridge, and qualified as a doctor at St Mary’s Hospital in London. In 1935 he switched from general medicine to psychiatry. In 1938 he was awarded a Rockefeller Fellowship and studied for a year at the Harvard Medical School, the first of several trips to the States. During the 1939-45 war he worked at the Maudsley hospital in London treating both military ‘shell shock’ patients and civilians. In 1947 he spent a year in the States as Professor of Psychiatry at Duke University (where Dr J B Rhine was conducting parapsychological experiments with funding from the US Army and the CIA). He returned to England in 1948 and accepted the position as Head of the Department of Psychological Medicine at St Thomas’ hospital in London, and there he stayed for the rest of his career.

What were Sargant's methods of treatment for mental illness? A fellow physician said his approach could be likened to dealing with one of those early black-and-white TV sets that malfunctioned: you just gave it a thump on the top with your fist. Sargant had no time for Freudian or any other analysis. Physical and chemical remedies were the only answer: drugs in large doses, ECT (electroconvulsive therapy), insulin coma therapy, sustained narcosis or Deep Sleep Therapy (DST, keeping the patient asleep for long periods. Sargant's 'best' was some three months), and leucotomy.17 With that arsenal in his hands he figured if they could be cured, they would be.18

Then there was the little problem of patient consent, but Sargant didn't deem this necessary; and if the patient found out what was going to happen and objected he just dosed them up so they didn't know whether they were coming or going. In April 2009 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a documentary by James Maw entitled Revealing the Mind Bender General. Maw interviewed several of Sargant's patients who spoke of their lives being shattered by the treatment they received, and the programme documented the continual routine violation of patients’ rights by him. In fact, some patients even died under the sleep treatment.19

A surprise in the programme was an interview with Dr David Owen (Private Eye's Dr Death) who had been Sargant's registrar in the 1960s and who described him as 'the sort of person of whom legends are made' (like Grendel?).

All of Sargant's patient records from this time at St Thomas' have apparently disappeared, yet his records from the 1940s are safely stored in the Wellcome Library in London, along with other papers. So why should the St Thomas' papers not be available? It could well be that some of the treatments (read 'experiments') were done at the behest of the security services. Or did Sargant dispose of them merely to cover his ass knowing that some, if not much of his behaviour might be considered unethical?

17 Leucotomy and lobotomy are essentially interchangeable terms.

18 Sargant co-authored with a colleague, Eliot Slater, a clinical director at the Maudsley, a textbook extolling these methods: An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry (Edinburgh: E & S Livingstone, 1944). It went through many subsequent editions and was a standard work in UK mental asylums for many years. It is now largely discredited in the US and UK.

19 where Maw's documentary can be heard.

I mentioned above Sargant's 1957 book, Battle for the Mind, which has the sub-title of A Physiology of Conversion and Brainwashing. As Albarelli details it was the fear of ‘mind control’ and 'brainwashing' in the Cold War of the late 1940s that really got the CIA investigating LSD and other drugs. And here was Sargant an expert on those very subjects. Where did he obtain his expertise? Was he involved in the Porton Down LSD tests? It seems likely as there appears to have been no one else about with his knowledge at the time aside from Ronald Sandison and Joel Elkes. Indeed, James Maw interviewed a Don Webb who had been given LSD at Porton Down in the early 1950s and though the name Sargant meant nothing, he was shown a photo of Sargant and said it could well be him. When Maw questioned Porton Down about Sargant he was told they had never 'directly' employed him. But then they wouldn't have, would they? He would have been on secondment, just down to do a specific job.

There's certainly circumstantial evidence pointing to connections between Sargant and the UK intelligence agencies but clearer documentation is needed. The relationship may have been informal and probably his work at St Thomas' was unconnected. However, according to Nigel West he was MI5's in-house psychiatrist while his ward sister recalls him telling tales about 'cloak-and-dagger exploits'.20

Now we do know that while Sargant was promoting and experimenting with deep sleep therapy over here, Dr Cameron was doing the same thing in Montreal, and they were in contact.21 Cameron wouldn't have been talking to Sargant unless he knew he was trustworthy and, one suspects, cleared by the people who were funding him. The CIA, that is.

20 See Dominic Streatfield, Brainwash: The Secret History of Mind Control (see note 16) pp. 253-4. There's also much here about Sargant in Chapter 7, 'Sleep', pp. 219-59, and a good account of Dr Ewen Cameron and his Montreal activities.

21 Sargant's protégé in Australia, Dr Harry Bailey, pursued DST experiments at the Chelmsford Private Hospital in Sydney in the 1960s and 1970s. It has been established that at least twenty-six patients died as a result. He and Sargant were swapping notes, and no doubt cc-ing to Dr Cameron. For the Chelmsford scandal see Brian Bromberger and Janet Fife-Yeomans, Deep Sleep: Harry Bailey and the Scandal of Chelmsford (Roseville, NSW: Simon & Schuster, 1991). For the treatment of one patient there, Barry Hart, see the Parliament of New South Wales' website: <>
Sargant distanced himself from Bailey once the scandal broke and Bailey subsequently committed suicide.

To sum up: Albarelli has produced a remarkable book that anyone with a more than passing interest in mind control and the intelligence services should have on their shelves.

It's striking that the book has not come out under the imprint of some major New York publisher, but I guess like UK publishers, they're too busy publishing celebs.

TrineDay have produced a handsome book, good typography and printing, and good paper. Three cheers for them.

Footnote 1

Albarelli (pp. 356-7) notes that the Member of Parliament Dr Donald Johnson (1903-1978), a GP/MD, visited Pont-St-Esprit to study the effects firsthand, and subsequently wrote about it.

Dr Johnson was keenly interested in hallucinogenic drugs and had an idée fixe about marihuana and hashish and believed there was a strong connection between their use and mental illness. Why he thought this is particularly intriguing. Dr Johnson wrote:
'I was informed that experiments had been made at the Sandoz Laboratories at Basel in which similar psychological symptoms [to Pont-St-Esprit], but lasting only a few hours, had been produced by the injection of a large dose of ergot, but no record of these seems to have been published.'
For ergot read LSD. A pity he didn't follow up this lead, but he wasn't to know.

Dr Johnson writes in his book, A Doctor Returns (1956), pp. 116-7, that the 'highly respected German medical journal' Klinische Wochenschridt, 1949, 27, 672, has an article entitled – and this is his translation – 'Explanation of Strange Mass Poisoning by Contamination of Flour with Datura Stramonium' by Paul Pulewa, the Director of the Pharmacological Section of the Refik Saydam Institute and of the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Ankara (just to let you know we're not dealing with a weirdo). The article describes events in an unnamed Turkish village in 1949 that exactly parallel those of Pont-St-Esprit. The cause according to Pulewa was datura (see below) in the flour. It is remarkable that the only two known instances of such a mass 'poisoning' in modern times were in succeeding years, 1949 and 1950.

What Albarelli fails to note and is unaware of is why Dr Johnson was so keenly interested in hallucinogenic and other drugs. Had he known he would certainly have discussed it.

In October 1950 Dr Johnson and his second wife, Betty, were staying at the attractive Marlborough Arms hotel (worth a visit) in Woodstock, a small town roughly seven miles north-west of Oxford. Dr Johnson had purchased the hotel in 1936 and, after running it for a couple of years, had installed a manager and moved back to Surrey. During the stay the two Johnsons experienced an increasing sense of anxiety which soon escalated into overwhelming paranoia. Dr Johnson experienced 'giddy turns and bouts of automatic talking.' He and his wife believed there were microphones in the bedrooms and their every word was being listened to, and that they were in great danger. The hotel staff became concerned about their very strange behaviour and a local doctor was sent for. He examined Dr Johnson and promptly signed a certificate under the 1890 Lunacy Act that was then rubber-stamped by a magistrate, thus allowing the police to come in and cart him off to the Warneford Psychiatric Hospital in Oxford (Oxford University's Department of Psychiatry) where he was incarcerated. Surprisingly, Mrs Johnson was released into the care of relatives though her symptoms were the same if a little less pronounced, the doctor describing her merely as 'upset' (despite this not being so as attested by two of her relatives and a London solicitor who saw her several days later).

Dr Johnson however was still greatly 'excited' and suffering from pronounced paranoid and other delusions. He spent the next six weeks in the hospital. Dr Johnson was 47 at the time and had no prior history of mental illness and, as far as I can research, would have no history of mental illness.

Later he began to believe he and his wife were victims of 'foul play' and they had been deliberately 'poisoned' with a drug. He wrote: 'I felt that I had been poisoned and continued to say so until I saw that no notice was being taken.'

The psychiatric doctors and nurses saw this claim as evidence of his paranoia and, indeed, it figured in the doctor's committal certificate:
'He was wild and excitable. He stated that all the drinks in the hotel were poisoned. He stated that all rooms in the hotel were contaminated and unfit to live in. He insisted on a guard being posted outside his bedroom door. He suddenly rushed from the room with a scream because he alleged that he was attacked.'
After two weeks in the hospital Dr Johnson writes that the period of anxiety was over and he entered a 'state of revelation': 'Some powerful secret organisation – maybe it was M.I.5, maybe it was some organisation more powerful still – had taken me in here from the ken of the world at large for some special dedicated reason.'

He saw the hospital as a gaol, as indeed it was, and saw himself as a 'prisoner in the Cold War.' Then this curious (and prescient) statement: 'I am the first example of the workings of the Russian truth drug in this country.'

Who would want to 'poison' him? Dr Johnson was a rational man and sought a rational answer. He believed that the manager of the hotel, and possibly other members of the staff were skimming the takings and pilfering, so he started visiting the hotel more regularly to keep an eye on its running. He believed that they put something in his glass of sherry what? Incapacitate him? Kill him? What?

His wife had a sip of the sherry while Dr Johnson consumed the whole glass and this would explain their differing reactions.

It's a major leap from pilfering to poisoning and you wouldn't cover-up an activity like that by possibly murdering someone; but Dr Johnson was clutching at straws in his search for a rational explanation, and he could subsequently find no evidence to implicate the hotel staff or guests (though it's hard to see what evidence he was hoping to find). The local police would say later that there was nothing to investigate as no crime appeared to have been committed (they probably marked his card as a 'loony').

After reading several of Dr Johnson's books one gets a measure of the man. He's an engaging fellow, educated, literate, with an inquiring mind, and compassionate. He was an independent thinker and acted as his conscience told him. Throughout his parliamentary career he pursued the iniquity of the Mental Health laws whereby someone could be sectioned and carted off to an asylum and left to rot. This was something he brought to the forefront of public debate. He also founded a publishing company that produced many worthwhile non-fiction titles.

If it had only been Dr Johnson who had so behaved there would be the possibility that he had a 'breakdown' but his wife behaved in a similar way. Could this have been a folie à deux? Could his wife have been 'infected' by his behaviour and mirrored it? There is that possibility but it seems unlikely.

Dr Johnson was subsequently released and was determined to find out if the psychosis he had suffered was drug-induced as he suspected. A visit to a 'Harley Street doctor and friend' and others convinced him that the 'episode' resulted from a combination of hemp, opium, and datura, a genus of poisonous plants native to Asia.

Datura is D. Stramonium, the Strammony or Thorn Apple, a powerful narcotic. It seems to have been known in the West since the first days of India's colonisation and there is a detailed account of it as early as 1886 in Henry Yule and A. C. Burnell's famous Hobson-Jobson: Being a Glossary of Anglo-Indian Colloquial Words and Phrases (London: John Murray), pp. 298- 9. However, if word didn't get out from Hobson-Jobson it was surely known to the medical profession after the publication in 1924 by the great German toxicologist Louis Lewin of Phantastica: Die betäub-enden und erregenden Genussmittel für Ärzte und Nichtärzte (Berlin: Georg Stilke. English translation as Phantastica: Narcotic and Stimulating Drugs, Their Use and Abuse [London: Kegan Paul, 1931]). Here there is a full account of it.

The suggested combination of these three drugs sounds like someone was talking through ignorance and was trying to fob him off with a 'go away' answer.

After the publication in 1956 of Dr Johnson's book, A Doctor Returns, it was reviewed in the magazine Twentieth Century (August 1957) by Dr Humphry Osmond, the 'counterculture icon', who, it will be recalled, was the man who turned on Aldous Huxley with mescaline in 1953, and had coined the term psychedelic in 1957. In his review Osmond writes, 'In the last five years my colleagues of the Saskatchewan Schizophrenia Research Group with scientists in other centres all over the world have been pursuing substances which reproduce to a greater or lesser extent those symptoms from which the Johnsons suffered.'

Those 'substances' were LSD and Osmond was at the forefront of psychedelic research in the 1950s.

In the autumn of 1957 the Johnsons had two evening guests at their home in Sutton. They were Dr Osmond and his colleague Dr Abram Hoffer who were over from Canada. They discussed the Johnsons' case and Osmond suggested that it may have been an attempt at murder, while Hoffer thought that the most likely poison was an agricultural insecticide. It's very curious that no mention of LSD was made.

The sources for the account here of Dr Johnson are the following books that he authored, all of which were published by his own publishing company, Christopher Johnson, in London: Indian Hemp: A Social Menace (1952), Bars and Barricades: Being the Second Part of 'A Publisher Presents Himself' (1952), A Doctor Returns: Being the Third Part of 'A Publisher Presents Himself' (1956), A Doctor in Parliament (1958). I haven't yet seen The Hallucinogenic Drugs: The Insanity-Producing Drugs: Indian Hemp and Datura: A Neglected Aspect of Forensic Medicine (1953) and I understand it contains little autobiographical material.

As far as I am aware the only subsequent discussion of Johnson to appear anywhere is by Antonio Melechi in his essay, ‘Drugs of Liberation: From Psychiatry to Psychedelia’ in Melechi, editor, Psychedelia Britannica: Hallucinogenic Drugs in Britain (London: Turnaround, 1997), pp. 21-52. Melechi is of incurious mind and dubious about Dr Johnson being spiked and sees this as a psychotic episode producing a genuine psychedelic experience (Psychedelia Britannica is a work that doesn't quite live up to its title).

Was Dr Johnson dosed or did he have an actual psychotic episode? Let's go over the ground once more and conjugate the possibilities:

1) Run-of-the-mill food poisoning.
2) ‘Poisoning’ by the staff of the hotel.
3) An actual ‘psychotic’ episode.
4) Targeted dosing by person or persons known or unknown to Dr Johnson for a specific reason other than hotel staff.

No.1 can probably be dismissed as restaurant food poisoning invariably effects a number of diners (and staff) and not just one person (vide Heston Blumenthal's recent 'little mishap' at his restaurant where up to 400 customers were affected). No.2, 'poisoning' by the staff can be dismissed for reasons already given. This leaves Nos. 3 and 4. An actual 'psychotic' episode? Well, the terminology of psychiatry is pretty much always in a state of flux and a 1950s psychosis may not be recognised as such today. Let's term it a 'severe breakdown' and leave it that, and yes, people can have one off episodes. So, there is a possibility here were it not for the fact that Mrs Johnson showed the same symptoms. To accept it was a one off breakdown one must also accept that the two of them constituted a folie à deux. How likely is this? Here's what Humphry Osmond wrote in his review in Twentieth Century:
'Another possibility is that Mrs. Johnson suffered what is called a folie à deux—though not herself mentally ill, she became influenced to act as she did because she was disturbed by her husband’s behaviour.
It is unusual for such folies to develop as rapidly as this one is said to have done, though I have once seen one occur extremely quickly in identical twins, but what to my mind goes strongly against this is that Mrs. Johnson seems to have remained seriously ill several days after her husband had been taken to hospital. I feel that the folie à deux theory is difficult to support.'
This leaves us with the final possibility, that Dr Johnson was targeted by a person or persons unknown. Let’s ignore the idea that the spiking was done as a lark or by some stranger just passing through the area.Could he have been dosed for a specific purpose? To quote Osmond again: 'Now there are poisonings and poisonings. Dr. Johnson’s choice is for a deliberate, malicious and highly sophisticated attempt on his sanity and well-being.'

So, we are left with another theory: could it be that he had information and it was felt that the only way to wrest it from him was through drugs? This, of course, would point to the security services, and there is no evidence to support this line of argument.

Nevertheless, there are some curious questions hovering over the affair as discussed, not least of which is the alacrity with which the local doctor sectioned Dr Johnson while ignoring his wife. Why?

Then we have Dr Johnson in the psychiatric hospital for six weeks and there is no independent account of exactly what happened to him, who attended him, and what drugs and treatments he was given (the Dr’s own account is limited and confusing as one would expect, certainly for the initial period).

What do we know of Dr Johnson? He was born into a middle class family in Bury, just outside Manchester, where his father was a GP. By his own account he had strong leanings towards libertarian socialism in his youth and early adult life. He found bourgeois life limiting and claustrophobic and when he qualified as a doctor he purchased a practice (these were pre-NHS days) in the working class district of Thornton Heath near Croydon. He stood for parliament as a Liberal candidate unsuccessfully on two occasions (once as an unofficial Liberal candidate), later switched to the Conservatives and was elected MP for Carlisle in 1954, a seat he retained in the 1959 general election. He stood again in 1964 as a 'Conservative and Independent' but lost.

In 1936 Dr Johnson and his first wife, Christiane (subsequently killed in the wartime bombing of London), travelled to Russia. He wanted to see how socialism was working. While in Moscow they attended several functions at the American embassy and Dr Johnson got to know Lieut-Colonel Philip Faymonville (1888-1962) and Tyler Kent (1911-1988) who both worked there. Faymonville was the first US military attaché to the Soviet Union and by all accounts had a very fine understanding of the Russians who considered him a friend. This did not sit well with the State Department and in 1943 Harry Hopkins recalled and demoted him. Kent was then a cipher clerk and was later transferred to the London embassy where in 1940 he was convicted of spying for the Germans after a trial held in camera and given a seven year prison sentence.

A trip to Russia in 1936 might not be given a second thought by the secret state but by 1950 at the height of the Cold War it would be regarded in a very different light.

Dr Johnson was a strong and vociferous opponent of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy and was known in Oxford as a 'Red' at the time.

During the war Dr Johnson knew the Marxist and former member of the Communist Party, Tom Wintringham (1898-1949), who had commanded the British Battalion of the International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War. Wintringham at the time was running his Common Wealth Party.

Is there anything in this brief known history that would be of interest to the security services? Who knows?

Who was at the Marlborough Arms when this breakdown occurred? The only person Dr Johnson mentions by name is an Ivor who turns out to be Ivor Davies (1915-1986), an active member of the Liberal Party and, later, in the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. There may have been other friends there who Dr Johnson chose not to name for fear of involving them in the episode. It would have been useful to see the hotel’s Guest Book for the time but Ann McEwen, who has owned the hotel since 1956, says that it disappeared long ago.

More research needs to be done before a conclusion can be reached about this strange episode. I had hoped his records were still at the Warneford Hospital but the policy there is to destroy records if a patient is not re-admitted after twenty years.

However, there was someone who had his drink spiked by an unknown individual in 1950. It's the more widely known case of Frank Bigelow at a bar in San Francisco. Frank Bigelow? Yes, the character played by Edmond O'Brien in that acclaimed noir film, D.O.A. (directed by Rudolph Maté). Unlike Bigelow, Johnson survived.


Since writing the above I've had several conversations with Christopher Johnson, Donald Johnson's son, who confirmed that his father had no history of mental illness either before or after the 'episode' in 1950. He is as puzzled by the incident as his father was and has no idea who spiked him.

I've also had a chance of reading Donald Johnson's 1953 book, The Hallucinogenic Drugs. It does contain a detailed account of his episode, pp. 27-32, and he further suggests the Pont-St-Esprit incident was down to LSD. The book is quite a remarkable study of these drugs and similar works would not be published until the druggy 1960s. He was a man ahead of his time in this area, not least of which for using the word hallucinogenic. The first occurrence of the word given in the Oxford English Dictionary (2004 edition) is 1952, the year before publication.

Johnson also mentions a lecture given by Professor Joel Elkes at Birmingham University in July 1953 on LSD drug experiments. Further and better particulars are needed on the good doctor.

Anthony Frewin is a novelist and screenwriter.

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

Datura Stramonium - Scopolamine

May 12, 2012, Mail Online, The most dangerous drug in the world: 'Devil's Breath' chemical from Colombia can block free will, wipe memory and even kill, by Beth Stebner,

When VICE initially asked me to go down to Colombia to dig into this scopolamine story, I was pretty excited. I had only a vague understanding of the drug, but the idea of a substance that renders a person incapable of exercising free will seemed liked a recipe for hilarity and the YouTube hall of fame. I even spent a little time brainstorming the various ways I could transport some of it back to the states and had a pretty good list going of different ways to utilize it on my buddies. The original plan was for me to sample the drug myself to really get an idea of the effect it had on folks. The producer and camera man had flown down to Bogota ahead of me to confirm some meetings and start laying down the groundwork. By the time I arrived a few days later, things had changed dramatically. Their first few days in the country had apparently been such a harrowing montage of freaked-out dealers and unimaginable horror stories about scopolamine that we decided I was absolutely not going to be doing the drug. All elements of humor and novelty were rapidly stripped away during my first few days in town. After meeting only a couple people with firsthand experience, the story took a far darker turn than we ever could have imagined, and the scopolamine pranks I had originally imagined pulling on my friends seemed beyond naive and absurd. By the time we were wrapping things up and preparing to leave the country, I couldn’t wait to get as far away from Colombia and that drug as possible. Apologies for a fleeting moment of sincerity, but looking back, I’m pretty proud of the work we did down there. This story, and the people who tell it, truly deserve to be heard.

—VICE Correspondent Ryan Duffy

Scopolamine often blown into faces of victims or added to drinks

Within minutes, victims are like 'zombies' - coherent, but with no free will

Some victims report emptying bank accounts to robbers or helping them pillage own house

Drug is made from borrachero tree, which is common in Colombia

A hazardous drug that eliminates free will and can wipe the memory of its victims is currently being dealt on the streets of Colombia.

The drug is called scopolamine, but is colloquially known as ‘The Devil’s Breath,' and is derived from a particular type of tree common to South America.

Stories surrounding the drug are the stuff of urban legends, with some telling horror stories of how people were raped, forced to empty their bank accounts, and even coerced into giving up an organ.

Scroll down for video

Danger: 'The Devil's Breath' is such a powerful drug that it can remove the capacity for free will

Deadly drug: Scopolamine is made from the Borrachero tree, which blooms with deceptively beautiful white and yellow flowers

VICE’s Ryan Duffy travelled to the country to find out more about the powerful drug. In two segments, he revealed the shocking culture of another Colombian drug world, interviewing those who deal the drug and those who have fallen victim to it.

Demencia Black, a drug dealer in the capital of Bogota, said the drug is frightening for the simplicity in which it can be administered.

He told Vice that Scopolamine can be blown in the face of a passer-by on the street, and within minutes, that person is under the drug’s effect - scopolamine is odourless and tasteless.

‘You can guide them wherever you want,’ he explained. ‘It’s like they’re a child.’

Black said that one gram of Scopolamine is similar to a gram of cocaine, but later called it ‘worse than anthrax.’

In high doses, it is lethal.

It only takes a moment: One drug dealer in Bogota explained how victims are drugged within minutes of exposure

Victims: One Colombian woman said that under the influence of scopolamine, she led a man to her house and helped him ransack it

The drug, he said, turns people into complete zombies and blocks memories from forming. So even after the drug wears off, victims have no recollection as to what happened.

One victim told Vice that a man approached her on the street asking her for directions. Since it was close by, she helped take the man to his destination, and they drank juice together.

'You can guide them wherever you want. It’s like they’re a child.'

She took the man to her house and helped him gather all of her belongings, including her boyfriend’s cameras and savings.

‘It is painful to have lost money,’ the woman said,’ but I was actually quite lucky.’

According to the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, the drug - also known as hyoscine - causes the same level of memory loss as diazepam.

In ancient times, the drug was given to the mistresses of dead Colombian leaders – they were told to enter their master’s grave, where they were buried alive.

Devil's Breath: The drug is odourless and tasteless and can simply be blown in the face of someone on the street; their free will vanishes after being exposed to it

Dangerous: Vice's Ryan Duffy traveled to the capital of Bogota to find out more about the drug

In modern times, the CIA used the drug as part of Cold War interrogations, with the hope of using it like a truth serum.

However, because of the drug's chemical makeup, it also induces powerful hallucinations.

The tree common around Colombia, and is called the ‘borrachero’ tree – loosely translated as the 'get-you-drunk' tree.

It is said that Colombian mothers warn their children not to fall asleep under the tree, though the leafy green canopies and large yellow and white flowers seem appealing.

Experts are baffled as to why Colombia is riddled with scopolamine-related crimes, but wager much of it has to do with the country’s torn drug-culture past, and on-going civil war.


Read more:

Vice: Colombian's Devil's Breath Part 1

Vice: Colombian's Devil's Breath Part 2

Toxicity of Datura Stramonium, Enno Freye MD, PhD


All Datura plants contain tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine, primarily in their seeds and flowers. Because of the presence of these substances, Datura has been used for centuries in some cultures as a poison and hallucinogen [132, 133]. There can easily be a 5:1 variation in toxins from plant to plant, and a given plant’s toxicity depends on its age, where it is growing, and local weather conditions. These wide variations make Datura exceptionally hazardous to use as a drug. In traditional cultures, users needed to have a great deal of experience and detailed plant knowledge so that no harm resulted from using it. Such knowledge is not available in modern cultures, so many incidents result from ingesting Datura. In the 1990s and 2000s, containing stories of adolescents and young adults dying or becoming seriously ill from intentionally ingesting Datura, this explains why in some parts of Europe and India, Datura has been a popular poison for suicide and murder. From 1950 to 1965, the State Chemical Laboratories in Agra investigated 2,778 deaths that were caused by ingesting Datura [132].

Due to the potent combination of anticholinergic substances it contains, Datura intoxication typically produces effects similar to that of an anticholinergic delirium: a complete inability to differentiate reality from fantasy (frank delirium, as contrasted to hallucination); hyperthermia; tachycardia; bizarre, and possibly violent behavior; and severe mydriasis with resultant painful photophobia that can last several days. Pronounced amnesia is another commonly reported effect. No other substance has received as many “Train Wreck” severely negative experience reports as has Datura. The overwhelming majority of those who describe the use of Datura (and to a lesser extent, Belladonna, Brugmansia and Brunfelsia) find their experiences extremely mentally and physically unpleasant and not infrequently physically dangerous.

Karen Silkwood III

November 3, 1956, The New York Times, Stevenson Sees Cover-Up On Bomb; Says Administration Kept Secret Contamination of U.S. Milk by Strontium; Tells How to Find Out, Text of Statement Attachment; Letter From Dr. Evarts A Graham, October 27, 1956, St. Louis, TimesMachine, [Blog]
May 8, 1959, The New York Times, Study Minimizes Fall-Out Danger Advisers of AEC Report Radiation Is 5% of That From Natural Sources, by John W. Finney, TimesMachine, [Blog]
February 11, 1970, The New York Times, Colorado Atom Plant Is Called Radiation Hazard, by Anthony Ripley, [Blog]
April 22, 1979, The New York Times, Grim Legacy of Nuclear Testing, by Patrick Huyghe and David Konigsberg, TimesMachine, [Blog]

March 16, 1970, The New York Times, Radiation Standards Are Facing Review That Could Cripple Atomic Energy Projects, by Anthony Ripley,
August 25, 1974, The New York Times, AEC Penalizes Few Nuclear Facilities Despite Thousands of Safety Violations, by David Burnham, View original in TimesMachine
November 19, 1974, Los Angeles Times, page 2, Saxbe Asked to Probe Car Crash Death of Witness on Radiation,
November 19, 1974, New York Times, Death of Plutonium Worker Questioned by Union Official, by David Burnham,
November 20, 1974, Los Angeles Times, page A2, Death of Witness Spurs Call for Inquiry,
November 20, 1974, New York Times, Plutonium Plant Under Scrutiny; A.E.C. and Justice Agency Act on Allegations Over Death and False Data, by David Burnham,
November 21, 1974, New York Times, FBI to Study Plutonium Factory Critic's Death, by David Burnham,
November 21, 1974, The Washington Post, page A15, Plutonium Accident,
November 21, 1974, The New York Times, FBI to Study Plutonium Factory Critic's Death, by David Burnham,
November 22, 1974, New York Times, Atom Aide's Death Ruled Accidental; Idea Plant Safety Critic Was Forced Of Road. Rejected,
December 8, 1974, The Washington Post, page A3, Radiation Case Leads Reported,
December 19, 1974, New York Times, AEC Studies 3 Accidents at One Plant, by David Burnham,
December 24, 1974, New York Times, Atom Case Death Linked To a 2d Car; Was Hit in Rear, by David Burnham,

January 7, 1975, Los Angeles Times, page 10, AEC Reports Contamination Incident Appears Contrived,
January 7, 1975, New York Times, page 14, Nuclear Fuel Plant Disturbs Its Neighbors,
January 7, 1975, New York Times, page 14, A.E.C. Can't Say How Worker Swallowed Plutonium,
January 8, 1975, The New York Times, A.E.C Finds Evidence Supporting Charges of Health Hazards at Plutonium Processing Plant in Oklahoma, by David Burnham,January 20, 1975, Time, Environment: The Silkwood Mystery, [Text]
January 22, 1975, New York Times, page 10, Atom Worker Death Inquiry Disputed, by David Burnham,
March 30, 1975, New York Times, page 26, Congress Faces 3 Key Decisions On Nuclear Reactors, by David Burnham,
May 2, 1975, New York Times, page 15, Foul Play Doubted By F.B.I. In Death Of Atomic Worker, by David Burnham,
May 3, 1975, Los Angeles Times, page A16, FBI Finds No Foul Play in Auto Death,
July 3, 1975, D.O.J., Inventory of Documents, To; Mr. J.B. Adams,
August 27, 1975, Bangor Daily News [Maine] page 3, Reopening of probe urged,
August 27, 1975, New York Times, Women Press US on Silkwood Case,
August 27, 1975, The Washington Post, page A2, Women's Group Asks U.S. To Reopen Silkwood Case,
September 21, 1975, The Washington Post, pages 33-34, Ms.: The Mystique Is Waning, by Jean Carper,
September 22, 1975, The Daily Reporter [Dover, Ohio] page 21, Has success spoiled 3-year-old Ms. magazine?.
November 6, 1975, New York Times,Conspiracy Laid To Atom Facility In $160,000 Suit, by David Burnham,
November 10, 1975, Los Angeles Times, pages E1-E3, NOW Enters Karen Silkwood Case, by Marlene Cimons,
November 16, 1975, LA Times - SF Chronicle, Anniversary of Car Crash; A Death They Won't Let Die, by Marlene Cimons,
November 17, 1975, The Washington Post, Atom Power Danger Cited, by Patricia Camp,
November 21, 1974, The New York Times, FBI To Study Plutonium Factory Critic's Death, by David Burnham,
November 22, 1975, New York Times, Senators To Study Lab Worker's Death,

April 26, 1976, New York Times, page 9, Plutonium Plant Scored On Safety,
April 26, 1976, UPI - San Francisco Chronicle, FBI Closes Probe Of A-Pant Case,April 27, 1976, New York Times, page 12, Hearing On Plutonium Plant Is Told Of A Conflict Over Health Reports, by David Burnham,
May 8, 1976, The Washington Post, page D5, Publisher Fires a Reporter, Says She Was FBI Informer, by Tom Zito,
May 8, 1976, UPI - San Francisco Chronicle, FBI Linked to Editor,
May 8, 1976, Los Angeles Times, page 12, Newswoman Fired for Alleged FBI Ties; House Prober Says Agent Told of Her 'Special Relationship' With Bureau,
May 8, 1976, New York Times, Newspaper in Nashville Dismisses Writer Linked to the FBI, by David Burnham,
May 8, 1976, AP - The Odessa American (TX) page 27, Editor Is Fired For Link To FBI,
May 8, 1976, AP - The Evening Independent, page 2-A, Jacque Srouji; First She Was Fired, Now She's Disappeared, by William Morrissey,
May 8, 1976, UPI - Idaho Free Press, (Nampa) page 13, Journalists collide with judges, boss,
May 9, 1976, New York Times, page 21, Writer, Threatened Over Link To F.B.I., Secludes Herself
May 9, 1976, AP - Wisconsin State Journal (Madison) page 3, Fired editor hiding out,
May 9, 1976, AP - The Bakersfield Californian, Ex-newswoman, children disappear after FBI-related threats,
May 9, 1976, AP - Washington Post,Fired Editor Reported in Hiding,
May 11, 1976, AP - Clovis News-Journal (NM) page 2, Officials Find Investigation Difficult,
May 12, 1976, AP - Garden City Telegram (Kansas) page 15, Committee Hits FBI 'Runaround',May 12, 1976, AP - Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph, page 1F, Special Relationship With FBI Leads to Copy Editor's Firing,
May 13, 1976, The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC) page 1, Former Nashville Newswoman May Have Been Counteragent For FBI, by William Morrissey,
May 13, 1976, Los Angeles Times, page B12, FBI Asked Copy Editor to Print Story, Publisher Says,
May 14, 1976, New York Times, FBI Investigation of Editor Reported,
May 14, 1976, Los Angeles Times, page 5, Panel to Probe Alleged Role as FBI Agent as Mystery Deepens Around Copy Editor, by Paul Houston,
May 14, 1976, AP - Washington Post, FBI Story Planting Tied to Fired Editor,
May 14, 1976, UPI - Washington Post, U.S. to Provide Private Lawyers For 2 FBI Agents,
May 15, 1976, New York Times, House Panel to Study F.B.I.'s Link to Ex-Reporter, by David Burnham,May 17, 1976, UPI - The Dispatch [Lexington, NC] Four sue FBI,
May 17, 1976, AP - Gadsden Times, [Alabama] page 2, Tennessean workers said seeking files,
May 18, 1976, Washington Post, FBI Data Sought,
May 19, 1976, New York Times,Former Reporter Denies That She Gave Information to FBI About Nashville Newspaper or Its Staff, by John M. Crewdson,
May 19, 1976, New York Times, Ex-Reporter Denies That She. Gave FBI Information of Its Staff About a Nashville Paper Or Members of Its Staff, by John M. Crewdson,
May 19, 1976, AP - San Francisco Chronicle, Fired Editor Denies
Spying in Staff
May 19, 1976, AP - Independent (Long Beach, CA) page 15, Editor denies she snooped for FBI,
May 19, 1976, AP - San Antonio Express, page 7-A, Fired editor says she was not FBI informer,
May 19, 1976, AP - The Washington Post, page A5, Never FBI Informer, Ousted Editor Asserts, by Matt Yancey,
May 19, 1976, Los Angeles Times, page 27, Copy Editor Denies Ever Informing on Staff to FBI,
May 20, 1976, AP - Washington Post,Nashville Publisher Raps FBI Official,
May 21, 1976, New York Times, F.B.I. Bars Data on Ties To a Nashville Journalist,
May 21, 1976, Washington Post, FBI Denies Giving Writer Data, by Walter Pincus,
May 21, 1976, AP, FBI Knew Of CIA Plot To Kill Castro,
May 21, 1976, AP, Six Moslems Hijack Jet; 109 Aboard,
May 21, 1976, The San Bernardino County Sun [CA] Publisher tells of FBI contacts,
May 21, 1976, UPI - San Francisco Chronicle, Publisher Testifies In Odd 'Spy' Case,
May 21, 1976, UPI - The Bakersfield Californian, page 8, Publisher says FBI 'used' his former editor,
May 21, 1976, Boston Globe, page 16, FBI denies influencing atom probe
May 24, 1976, Time, The Press: A Special Relationship, [Text]
May 28, 1976, AP - Lakeland Ledger,Srouji Comments in Question,
May 28, 1976, The Washington Post, page A28, Fired Editor Claims Wide Links With FBI,
May 28, 1976, Press-Telegram [Long Beach, CA] page 14, Fired editor threatens to 'take FBI agents down, too', by John M. Crewdson,
May 28, 1976, New York Times,Reporter Threatens to Discredit Intelligence Aides, by John M. Crewdson,
May 28, 1976, New York Times,Reporter Who Helped FBI Renews Threat to Discredit Intelligence Aides, by John M. Crewdson,
May 28, 1976, Press-Telegram [Long Beach, CA] page 14, Fired editor threatens to 'take FBI agents down, too', by John M. Crewdson,
May 30, 1976, UPI - The Bakersfield Californian, page 1, A-plants get takeover alert.
May 31, 1976, The Washington Post, page D13, Uranium Disappearance, by Jack Anderson and Les Whitten,
May 31, 1976, Time Magazine,Intelligence: A Watchdog at Last, [Text]
June 2, 1976, Danville Bee, page 4, Unsolved Case Of Missing Uranium Cache, by Jack Anderson and Les Whitten,
June 2, 1976, Chicago Tribune, page 6, Hint FBI used 'influence' in quiz,
June 3, 1976, AP - San Francisco Examiner, Death blamed on plutonium racketeers,
June 4, 1976, AP - Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph, page 23, FBI Pressure in Probe Is Charged,
June 5, 1976, AP - The High Point Enterprise (NC) page 1, Illegal Plutonium Sales Alleged, by William Morrissey,
June 6, 1976, AP - San Francisco Chronicle, Death blamed on plutonium racketeers,
June 6, 1976, AP - New York Times, An Illegal Market In Plutonium Hinted,
June 6, 1976, AP - Idaho State Journal (Pocatello) page B11, Nuclear Alerts Continue Thru Election, by Jeffrey Mills,
June 6, 1976, Boston Globe, page 19, Journalist says evidence suggests N-black market
June 14, 1976, AP - The Corpus Christi Caller-Times, FBI contacted Jacqui Srouji, by James Gerstenzang,
June 16, 1976, AP - The Daily Times-News (Burlington, North Carolina) page 8, FBI Didn't Urge Testimony, Says Former Journalist,
June 18, 1976, AP - The Danville Register (Virginia) page 12-B, Conflicts Noted In Reports On Copy Editor's Navy Work,
July 1, 1976, The Gallup Independent (NM) page 20, No Plutonium Thefts Possible,
August 14, 1976, The Kansas City Times (Missouri) Plutonium Cover-up?; Death Puzzle, Bitter Dispute, by Barbara Newman,
October 2, 1976, More Magazine, page 26, The Bizarre Career of Jacque Srouji,
November 6, 1976, AP - The Bulletin, Negligence charged in Silkwood death,
November 6, 1976, AP - Lawrence Journal-World, Radiation Case Lawsuit Filed,
November 6, 1976, AP - The Kansas City Times (Missouri) page 9, Silkwood Family Sues Firm,
November 6, 1976, New York Times, Conspiracy Laid To Atom Facility In $160,000 Suit, by David Burnham,
November 8, 1976, AP - Garden City Telegram (Kansas) 'Plutonium Contamination' Suit Totals $160,000,
November 28, 1976, The Washington Post, page 53, Paper Receives FBI Apology For Official's 'Innuendoes',

February 4, 1977, The Washington Post, page A2, Hill Unit Lawyers Call Death Of Karen Silkwood Accidental, by Judy Fossett,April 10, 1977, Los Angeles Times, pages N1-N3, The Detour in the Path of 'Silkwood', by Andrew Laskos,
April 15, 1977, Los Angeles Times, page G18, Film-Maker Denied First Amendment Protection,
April 18, 1977, Washington Post, The CIA's Journalists; New Charges Raise Old Questions About the Media and Intelligence, by Richard Harwood and Walter Pincus, [Text]
May 18, 1977, In These Times, page 4, Filmmaker Faces Jail in Silkwood Case, by David Keller,
July 31, 1977, Washington Star, The FBI Is a Vacuum Cleaner for Raw Gossip, by John Seigenthaler,
August 2, 1977, Los Angeles Times, page F8, Films Questioning Nuclear Energy Will Be Presented,
August 11, 1977, Los Angeles Times, page D7, Ungagging the Whistle-Blowers, by David Ewing,
August 21, 1977, Boston Globe, page A2, What the FBI tells you about your own files, by John Seigenthaler,
August 25, 1977, New York Times, 'Not Entirely Pure', by Anthony Lewis
August 25, 1977, New York Times, Op-Ed, 'Not Entirely Pure', by Anthony Lewis,
August 28, 1977, The Washington Post, page 116, The Reactors and the Reactions, by Deborah Shapley,
September 20, 1977, The Valley News, (Van Nuys, CA) page 2, Nuclear energy; Danger or not, by Mike Wyma,
September 21, 1977, Valley News (CA) Uneasiness is understandable (Second of two parts) by Mike Wyma,
September 28, 1977, Los Angeles Times, page G12, Film-Maker's Right to Protect Sources Upheld,
October 2, 1977, New York Times, page 32, Court Extends Right of Press To Filming, by Deirdre Carmody,
October 22, 1977, AP - The Courier News (Blytheville, Arkansas) Top Official Denies Hampering Investigation,
October 25, 1977, The Washington Post, page A4, New Papers Detail Role of FBI Informant, by Bill Richards,
Nov.-Dec. 1977, Vol. 1. No. 3, Clandestine America, page 3, Who Killed Karen Silkwood?, [Text]
December 27, 1977, New York Times, C.I.A. Established Many Links To Journalists in U.S. and Abroad, by John M. Crewdson and Joseph B. Treaster, [Text]

January 8, 1978, Los Angeles Times, page D5, Filmmakers Must Shield Their Sources Too, by Stephen F. Rohde,
February 15, 1978, AP - The Paris News (TX) Silkwood papers filed,
April 27, 1978, AP - The Vernon Daily Record (Texas) page 7, Gag Order Lifted In Silkwood Case,
May 7, 1978, New York Times, Dispute Over National Security Emerges in Bitter Suit on Role of Dead Laboratory Worker; Mired in Legal Disputes A More Secret Meeting Not Allowed to Answer, by Seymour M. Hersh,July 23, 1978, AP - The Paris News (TX) Silkwood family's attorney's disbarment asked by journalists,
August 22, 1978, The Free Lance-Star, page 9, Weekly news service cites women's issues, by Nadine Joseph,
November 13, 1978, UPI - New York Times, Around the Nation; Memorial Is Held For Foe of Nuclear Power,
November 13, 1978, The Washington Post, pages C1-C2, Nuclear Power Foes Stage Rally in Park, by James Lardner,
November 14, 1978, Los Angeles Times, page SD A2, Photo Standalone 3 -- No Title, by Len Lahman,
December 3, 1978, New York Times, Around the Nation; 400 Demonstrators Stage Protest on Nuclear Waste,

March 5, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page B13, Jury Being Picked in Oklahoma Plutonium Contamination Case,March 7, 1979, New York Times, Record Of Nuclear Safety Cited, by Richard Halloran,
March 7, 1979, New York Times, Jury Is Empaneled in Nuclear Contamination Case; The Principal.Question Union Officials' Theories Federal Judge's Ruling Subject of Regulation No Sign of Foul Play, by John M. Crewdson,
March 7, 1979, The Washington Post, page A3, Nuclear Power Producers Are Watching Radioactive Contamination Trial, by Bill Curry,
March 8, 1979, The Washington Post, page A5, Chemical Plant Fire Forces Evacuation Of 6,000 in Texas,
March 8, 1979, New York Times, Around the Nation; Plutonium Level Is Debated In Death of Nuclear Worker,
March 9, 1979, New York Times, 2 Arrested Scientist Challenges Safety Of Nuclear Plant at Trial
March 9, 1979, The Washington Post, page A10, 1958 Nuclear Test Created Radioactive Cloud in L.A.,
March 11, 1979, New York Times,Fallout From 'China Syndrome' Has Already Begun; 'The China Syndrome, by Aljean Harmetz,
March 13, 1979, New York Times,Around the Nation; Former Plant Supervisor Testifies at Silkwood Trial,
March 13, 1979, The Washington Post, page A2, Plutonium Lost at Plant Ex-Aide Says,
March 15, 1979, The Washington Post, page A5, Alabama Drifter Is Suspected of 13 More Killings,
March 15, 1979, UPI - New York Times, page A19, Around The Nation; Scientist Describes Hazard From Missing Plutonium,
March 16, 1979, The Washington Post, pages B1-B2, 'Syndrome': Political Power, by Gary Arnold,
March 18, 1979, New York Times, page E1, Uncertainty Grows On Nuclear Safety,
March 27, 1979, UPI - New York Times, page A22, Around The Nation; Silkwood Jurors Hear Tape On Nuclear Contamination,
March 28, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page E7, Hard Questions, Skepticism, Anger Besiege It, by Colman McCarthy,
March 29, 1979, The Washington Post, page A19, Nuclear Industry: Chased By Doubts, by Colman McCarthy,
March 29, 1979, Daily Oklahoman, In 20 Minutes, Silkwood Dead, by Paul Wenske,
March 30, 1979, The Washington Post, pages B1-B2, When Fate Follows Fiction -- The 'Syndrome' Fallout, by William K. Knoedelseder Jr. and Ellen Farley,
April 1, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page A1-A2, U.S. Faces Painful Decisions if Nuclear Power Is Curbed, by Robert A. Rosenblatt,
April 4, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page B16, Silkwood Nuclear Trial Reaches Midpoint, by Myrna Oliver,
April 4, 1979, The Washington Post, page A16, Silkwood Estate Lawyers Wind Up Case, by Paul Wenske,
April 6, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page A21, Plant's Safety Record Examined, by Myrna Oliver,
April 7, 1979, Washington Post, page A2, Karen Silkwood Case,
April 9 1979, Time Magazine, Three Mile Island: Nuclear Nightmare, [Text]
April 11, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page A17, Silkwood Trial Told of Plutonium Particles in Kitchen, by Myrna Oliver,
April 13, 1979, Wichita Falls [TX] Record News, page 10, Physicist defends Kerr-McGee manual,
April 14, 1979, AP - Wichita Falls [TX] Record News, page 5, Silkwoods seek to increase claim,
April 15, 1979, AP - Wichita Falls [TX] Times, page 7, Silkwood suit damages ruling may take month,
April 15, 1979, AP - The Vernon Daily Record, page 5, Silkwood Lawyers May Face Month's Wait on Suit Ruling,
April 18, 1979, Wichita Falls [TX] Record News, page 9, Plutonium smuggling said possible,
April 21, 1979, AP - New York Times, page 46, Witness Says Nuclear Lab Aides Joked About Company Accuser,
April 26, 1979, The Washington Post, page A7, Credibility of Probe Was NRC Concern, by T.R. Reid,
April 30, 1979, Time Magazine, In Oklahoma: The Pangs of Bearing Witness, [Text]
May 1, 1979, AP - New York Times, page A16, Around The Nation; Potential Plutonium Loss Is Cited at Silkwood Trial,
May 3, 1979, The Washington Post, pages D1-D2, May Days for the No-Nukers, by Henry Allen,
May 4, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page B18, Kerr-McGee Chairman Defends Firm's Safety at Silkwood Trial, by Myrna Oliver,
May 6, 1979, New York Times, Trial Nears An End In Silkwood Death; Source of Exposure to Plutonium Is Central to $11 Million Suit Against Nuclear Concern,
May 6, 1979, New York Times, Nuclear Nonsense, by Sara J. Wright,
May 8, 1979, New York Times, Doctor Says Miss Silkwood Wasn't Hurt by Plutonium,
May 10, 1979, The Washington Post, page A26, Defense Rests in Silkwood Contamination Lawsuit, by Paul Wenske, Special to The Washington Post,
May 11, 1979, The Washington Post, page A21, Pop Music Stars Set Two Benefits For Nuclear Foes,
May 15, 1979, New York Times,Silkwood Radiation Case Is Ready for Jurors Today; Trial in Eighth Week Some Samples Were Spiked, by William K. Stevens,
May 15, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page B8, Jury Likely to Get Silkwood Case Today, by Myrna Oliver,
May 16, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page B16, Jury Begins Deliberations in Silkwood Case, by Myrna Oliver,
May 16, 1979, The Washington Post, page A3, Silkwood Contamination Case Goes to U.S. Jury, by Paul Wenske, Special to The Washington Post,
May 17, 1979, New York Times, Jurors End 2d Day of Deliberation In Silkwood Contamination Case,
May 18, 1979, New York Times, Silkwood Jury Asks About Injury,
May 18, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page A1, Karen Silkwood's Children Win $ 10.5 Million, by Myrna Oliver,
May 19, 1979, Los Angeles Times, pages 1-3, $10.5 Million Awarded in Silkwood Trial, by Myrna Oliver,
May 19, 1979, New York Times, Silkwood Heirs Win $10.5 Million In Setback to the Nuclear Industry, by William K. Stevens,
May 19, 1979, New York Times, Uranium a Small Part of Kerr-McGee Corp, by Peter J. Schuyten,
May 19, 1979, New York Times, Industry Fears Decision Could Slow Nuclear Power; Center on Clinch River, by Winston Williams,
May 19, 1979, New York Times, Business Digest; Companies,
May 19, 1979, New York Times, Karen Silkwood: From Activist to Protest Symbol; Apartment Contaminated Too;
May 19, 1979, The Washington Post, pages A1-A2, Silkwood Family Awarded $10.5 Million in Damages, by Bill Curry and Paul Wenske, Washington Post Staff Writers,
May 20, 1979, New York Times, Pursuing the Silkwood Case Became a Cottage Industry, by Richard D. Lyons,
May 20, 1979, New York Times, Silkwood Estate to Use Award for Legal Action,
May 20, 1979, New York Times, Atom Age Award.
May 20, 1979, Los Angeles Times, pages 1-2, Silkwood Kin Win $10.5 Million in Nuclear Case,
May 21, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page A2, Lawyer Asks Nuclear Truth,
May 21, 1979, New York Times, 50 Gather for Ceremony At Silkwood Crash Site,
May 21, 1979, The Washington Post, page A22, The Silkwood Case,
May 23, 1979, The Washington Post, page A7, Deportation for Police Chief,
May 23, 1979, Ottawa Journal, page 13, Bid planned to reopen Silkwood 'N-death' case,
May 23, 1979, Bangor Daily News, page 16, Silkwood probe reopening sought
May 28, 1979, Time Magazine, Nation: Nuclear Setback, [Text]
May 29, 1979, The Washington Post, page B2, Celebrating the Karen Silkwood Victory, by Carla Hall,
June 21, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page A1, Silkwood Verdict OKd,
June 22, 1979, New York Times, Judge Accepts Silkwood Decision,July 1, 1979, New York Times, Public Fears Over Nuclear Hazards Are Increasing; Low-Level Radiation: How High the Risks?, by Richard D. Lyons,
July 1, 1979, New York Times, The Courts Are Becoming The Arbiters of the Atom; A Body of Law That Runs From Invisible to Unthinkable, by David Burnham,
July 6, 1979, New York Times, Books of The Times; Political Risk, by Christopher Lehmann-Haupt,
August 20, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page A1, Silkwood Case Award Upheld,
August 21, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page A10, U.S. Judge Upholds Silkwood Award,
August 21, 1979, AP - New York Times, page A15, Around The Nation; Judge Refuses to Overturn Award to Silkwood Family,
June 4, 1979, People Magazine, Who Killed Karen Silkwood? A $10.5 Million Verdict Still Leaves a Host of Questions,
June 4, 1979, People Magazine, Who Killed Karen Silkwood? A $10.5 Million Verdict Still Leaves a Host of Questions,
September 6, 1979, The Washington Post, page A3, ACLU's Campaign Delineates Threat To Civil Liberties From Nuclear Power, by Joanne Omang, Washington Post Staff Writer,
September 16, 1979, New York Times, page D22, Rock Stars Are Into Politics Again,
November / December 1979, Vol. 9, No. 8/9, Resurgence & Ecologist, pages 291-297, The Mysterious Case of Karen Silkwood, by Jim Garrison, [Text]
November 8, 1979, Los Angeles Times, page SD A14, 'An Invitation To Controversy', by Laura Kaufman,
November 24, 1979, The Washington Post, page A2, Wild West's Past Recalled in Trial of a Fast-Draw Lawman, by Paul Brinkley Rogers,

February 3, 1980, Lawrence Journal-World, No Title, by Jack Anderson,
February 4, 1980, The Washington Post, page C25, FBI Smear Tactics in Silkwood Case, by Jack Anderson,
February 4, 1980, The San Bernardino County Sun [CA] page 18, FBI besets critics, by Jack Anderson,
March 9, 1980, Los Angeles Times, page L4, Silkwood; The Facts and Fiction, by Joe Schleimer,
May 9, 1980, The Washington Post, page E3, The 'Silkwood' Saga, by Jean M. White,
June 17, 1980, Los Angeles Times, page A2, Karen Silkwood Friend Missing,
June 18, 1980, New York Times, Around the Nation; Friend of Karen Silkwood Missing With Book on Case,
June 19, 1980, Los Angeles Times, page A1, Karen Silkwood Friend Surfaces,
June 19, 1980, New York Times, Around the Nation; Friend of Karen Silkwood Is Believed to Be Safe,
June 22, 1980, New York Times, Missing and Presumed Safe Free Huey Makes Good Top Researcher,
September 7, 1980, New York Times, TV Is Reading New Meaning Into Best Sellers; by Ralph Tyler,
December 5, 1980, New York Times, Appeals Court Upholds Dismissal Of Claims by Silkwood Survivors,.

January 1981, Vol. 45, No.1, The Progressive, The Deepening Mystery of Karen Silkwood, by Jeffrey Stein, [Text]
January 25, 1981, NEA - The Southeast Missourian [Cape Girardeau] page 6, Silkwood probe subject to question, by Robert Walters,
February 21, 1981, The Washington Post, page C1-C2, $26.5 Million Libel Award, by Anthony Polk,
March 2, 1981, The Washington Post, page C1-C2, Gerry Spence, the Wyoming Warrior At High Noon, by Tom Lee,
March 15, 1981, The Washington Post, page SM2, The Silkwood Saga,
March 22, 1981, The Washington Post, page BW3, Dying To Tell The Truth, by Gregg Easterbrook,
March 30, 1981, Time Magazine, Law: The Fastest Gun in the West, by Bennett H. Beach, [Text]
April 3, 1981, Los Angeles Times, page A11, Accord Reported Reached in Libel Suit on Silkwood Book,
June 14, 1981, New York Times,Nonfiction in Brief; The Killing of Karen Silkwood; The Story Behind the Kerr-McGee Plutonium Case. By Richard Rashke. by James Traub,
August 6, 1981, Los Angeles Times, page C7, Treating Nuclear Critics as Enemies, by David Kaplan and Dan Noyes,
September 7, 1981, Time Magazine, What Makes Meryl Magic, by John Skow, [Text]October 13, 1981, New York Times, After 2 Years, ABC Movie Division to Make 3 Features, by Aljean Harmetz,
November 13, 1981, New York Times, Books of the Times, By John Leonard Who Killed Karen Silkwood? By Howard Kohn.
November 13, 1981, New York Times, Index - International"Who Killed Karen Silkwood?" is reviewed C31,
November 13, 1981, New York Times, Books of the Times, By John Leonard, Who Killed Karen Silkwood? by Howard Kohn,
December 1, 1981, The Washington Post, page B2, Anatomy of a Death, Reviewed by James Conaway,
December 7, 1981, Time Magazine, Books: Notable: Dec. 7, 1981, [Text]December 12, 1981, Los Angeles Times, $10.5-Million Award to Silkwood Struck Down in Nuclear Case,December 12, 1981, The Washington Post, page A7, Plutonium Worker's Damages Overturned,
December 13, 1981, The Washington Post, page A3, Karen Silkwood's Estate To Challenge Rejection Of $10.5-Million Judgment,
December 12, 1981, New York Times,Silkwood Award Is Reversed,...A Federal appeals court today reversed a $10.5 million award to the estate of Karen Silkwood, a worker at an Oklahoma plutonium plant who
December 13, 1981, New York Times, 10 Who Killed Karen Silkwood?, by Howard Kohn.
December 13, 1981, New York Times, The Life and Death Of An Idealist, by Pete Hamill,

January 10, 1982, Los Angeles Times, page K4, A poisonous question: exhaustive, exhausting, by Howard Kohn,
January 21, 1982, The New York Review of Books, How Not to Crack the Silkwood Case, by John M. Crewdson,
February 14, 1982, New York Times, Paperbacks - New and Noteworthy,
April 29, 1982, The New York Review of Books, The Silkwood Case; David Burnham and Howard Kohn, reply to John M. Crewdson,August 27, 1982, The Washington Post, page A16, Unlikely Wyoming Posse Saddles Up for Energy Fight, by Dale Russakoff, Washington Post Staff Writer,
September 24, 1982, New York Times, At the Movies - Director who thrives on the unpredictable, by Chris Chase,

January 11, 1983, New York Times, Business Digest - Tuesday, January 11, 1983 - The Economy,
January 11, 1983, Los Angeles Times, page B10, Justices Will Rule on $10-Million Silkwood Award, by Jim Mann,
January 11, 1983, New York Times, News Summary - Tuesday, January 11, 1983,
January 11, 1983, New York Times, Justices Accept Appeal by Family of Woman Tainted by Plutonium, by Linda Greenhouse,
January 11, 1983, The Washington Post, page A3, Supreme Court to Review $10.5 Million Claim in Silk wood Case, by Fred Barbash,
April 25, 1983, The Washington Post, page D1-D2, Nora Ephron's Open Sock Drawer, by Stephanie Mansfield,
June 20, 1983, New York Times, For a Labor Crusader, The Play's the Thing, by Barbara Gamarekian,
September 10, 1983, New York Times, 5 Films with Political Statements Due In Fall, by Aljean Harmetz,
September 11, 1983, New York Times, Topical Issues Lend Special Drama To Movies, by Janet Maslin,
October 5, 1983, The Washington Post, page A3, High Court Hears Silkwood Suit, by Fred Barbash,
October 6, 1983, The Oklahoman, Silkwood: Law and Legend,
October 19, 1983, New York Times, Return Of the Budget-Buster Movie, by Aljean Harmetz,
November 14, 1984, The Oklahoman, Silkwood Remembered On Death Anniversary, by Gypsy H. Gilmore, diigo,
November 14, 1983, Time Magazine, In New Mexico: High-Tech Junkyard, by Jane O'Reilly, [Text]
December 7, 1983, Los Angeles Times, pages G1-G2, Nail-Biting Time At Kerr-McGee, by Deborah Caulfield,
December 11, 1983, The Washington Post, page L1-L3, 'Silkwood': Martyrdom Or Fantasy? , by Nick Thimmesch,
December 11, 1983, New York Times, Fact and Legend Clash In 'Silkwood', by William J. Broad,
December 11, 1983, The New York Times, Fact And Legend Clash In 'Silkwood', by William J. Broad,
December 14, 1983, LA Times - Chicago Sun-Times, page 77, Kerr-McGee Condemns Film,
December 14, 1983, Los Angeles Times, pages J1-J2, Movie Review, by Sheila Benson,
December 14, 1983, New York Times, Film - Karen Silkwood's Story, by Vincent Canby,
December 14, 1983, The Washington Post, page D1-D2, Silkwood as Saint and Sinner, by Gary Arnold,
December 14, 1983, The Washington Post, page D10, Silkwood Partisans Speak Out, by Carla Hall,
December 16, 1983, Washington Post, page 23, Review of Silkwood, directed Mike Nichols, by Rita Kempley,
December 17, 1983, Los Angeles Times, pages F1-F2, 'Silkwood' Reaction In Oklahoma, by Deborah Caulfield,
December 18, 1983, New York Times, ABC'S Brandon Stoddard Bids For the Larger Screen, by Sally Bedell Smith,
December 19, 1983, Time Magazine, Cinema: A Tissue of Implications, by Richard Schickel, [Text]
December 25, 1983, New York Times, The Chicanery of 'Silkwood',

1984,, Silkwood v. Kerr-McGee Corp. - Case Brief, diigo,
January 1, 1984, New York Times, Film View; Tidying up a Few Matters as '83 Fades From the Screen, by Vincent Canby,
January 6, 1984, Los Angeles Times, pages G1-G2, Kerr Keeps An Eye Out For Bigger Roles, by Clarke Taylor,
January 6, 1984, The Washington Post, page A19, 'Silkwood": The Paranoid Style, by Edwin M. Yoder, Jr.,
January 7, 1984, New York Times, Letter - On Docudramas What 'Silkwood' Is - and Is Not,
January 7, 1984, New York Times, Cher Hoping 'Silkwood' Is Her Turning Point, by Janet Maslin,
January 8, 1984, New York Times, On Telling the Real Karen Silkwood's Story,
January 9, 1984, New Yorker, page 99, Review of Silkwood, directed by Mike Nichols, by Pauline Kael,
January 11, 1984, New York Times, A Substantially Accurate Drama About Karen Silkwood,
January 11, 1984, Los Angeles Times, page A2, Award to Silkwood Kin Reinstated,
January 11, 1984,, U.S. Supreme Court; Silkwood v. Kerr-McGee Corp., 464 U.S. 238, diigo,
January 12, 1984, The Washington Post, page A1-A2, Silkwood Damages Suit Revived, by Fred Barbash,
January 12, 1984, Los Angeles Times, pages 1-2, $10-Million Silkwood Award Reinstated, by Jim Mann,
January 12, 1984, Los Angeles Times, pages H1-H2, Ruling Held Timely For 'Silk Wood', by Deborah Caulfield,
January 12, 1984, LA Times, page 1, Ruling Held Timely for 'Silkwood', by Deborah Caulfield,
January 12, 1984, New York Times, High Court Clears Award In Karen Silkwood Case,
January 12, 1984, New York Times, Thursday, January 12, 1984 International
January 13, 1984, The Oklahoman, Silkwood's Teen Daughter Wishes Case Would End, diigo,
January 15, 1984, Los Angeles Times, page E4, The Silkwood Decision,
January 23, 1984, Time Magazine, Milestones: Jan. 23, 1984, [Text]
January 24, 1984, The Washington Post, page A12, Silkwood: Suspicious Circumstances, by Steven Wodka,
January 29, 1984, The Washington Post, page K10, Justice and the Silkwood Case,
February 12, 1984, New York Times, Screen Credit - A Reporter Who Said No, by David Burnham,
February 12, 1984, New York Times, Film View - Toward Women, Movies Are Two-Faced, by Vincent Canby,
February 17, 1984, New York Times, 'Endearment' Tops Oscar Nominations, by Aljean Harmetz,
March 7, 1984, New York Times, Moguls Take To the Slopes For Deals, by Aljean Harmetz,
March 14, 1984, New York Times, Books of the Times, by Walter Goodman,
April 9, 1984, Los Angeles Times, page OC D1, 'Silk Wood' 10 Years In the Making, by Randy Lewis,
April 20, 1984, New York Times, ABC Profit Up By 71.9%, by Pamela G. Hollie,

February 10, 1985, New York Times, Former Guard at Indian Point Files Suit, by Edward Hudson,
August 1, 1985, The Washington Post, page A12, Silkwood Case Reopened,
August 2, 1985, The Oklahoman, Karen Silkwood Trial Redux, diigo,
September 27, 1985, New York Times, Film - Spacek in 'Marie', by Janet Maslin,
November 7, 1985, New York Times, Books Of the Times, by Christopher Lehmann-Haupt,
December 7, 1985, New York Times, Silkwood Epilogue - Fuel-Rod Debate Lingers On,
December 7, 1985, NYT - Eugene Register-Guard, page 12B, Fuel Rods in Silkwood case work fine, Hanford reports, by Bruce Brown,
December 9, 1985, NYT - The Sydney Morning Herald, page 9, A nuclear epilogue to the deeds of Karen Silkwood, by Bruce Brown,
December 29, 1985, New York Times, In Short - Nonfiction, by Carl H. Lavin,

January 6, 1986, New York Times, Kerr-McGee Is Cutting Troubled Nuclear Role,
January 7, 1986, The Washington Post, page A3, A-Fuels Plant Death Caused By Chemical, by Thomas O'Toole
January 8, 1986, Los Angeles Times, page A7, Oklahoma Town Ponders Impact of Nuclear Fuel Plant's Fatal Accident, by J. Michael Kennedy,
March 24, 1986, Chicago Tribune, page 3, 12 Jurists Tried and True, Seminar of Legal Eagles Shows Claws For Success, by Paul Galloway,
May 6, 1986, New York Times, Supreme Court Roundup; Case Focuses on Evolution and Creation,
July 25, 1986, The Washington Post, page D1-D2, Meryl Streep & The Human Connection, by Paul Attanasio,
August 23, 1986, New York Times, Kerr-McGee will pay the estate of Karen Silkwood $1.38 million, diigo,
August 23, 1986, New York Times, News Summary - Saturday, August 23, 1986,
August 23, 1986, New York Times, page 1, $1.3 Million Accord Reached in Lawsuit by Silkwood's Heirs,
August 23, 1986, New York Times, Business Digest - Saturday, August 23, 1986,
August 23, 1986, The Washington Post, page A11, Kerr-McGee Settles Silkwood Lawsuit,
August 23, 1986, AP - Chicago Tribune, page 3, Kerr-McGee, Silkwood's Family Agree To Settle Suit Out Of Court,
November 9, 1986, New York Times, The Whistle Blowers' Morning After, by N.R, Kleinfield,
December 1, 1986, Time Magazine, Video: What If Oswald Had Stood Trial?, by Richard Zoglin, [Text]

July 12, 1987, Los Angeles Times, pages F1-F2, Arms Scandal Brings Christic Institute New Visibility, by Kathleen Hendrix,
July 20, 1987, New York Times, Washington Talk: Investigations; A Liberal Group Makes Waves With Its Contra Lawsuit, by Keith Schneider,
August 21, 1987, New York Times, Pop/Jazz; The Fugs Look Back to 1967's 'Summer of Love', by Stephen Holden,
September 29, 1987, New York Times, Music: Reworking Faust, by Will Crutchfield,
November 16, 1987, New York Times, Converted Radioactive Waste Used to Fertilize in Oklahoma, by Keith Schneider,
November 21, 1987, Los Angeles Times, page C2, GA Tech to Buy Kerr-McGee's Uranium Plant, by Chris Kraul,
November 30, 1987, Time Magazine,Environment: Making Fertilizer from What?, by Michael D. Lemonick, [Text]

February 14, 1988, Los Angeles Times, pages A1-A3, New Breed of Bounty Hunter to Hit Polluters, by Richard Paddock,
August 26, 1988, New York Times, Review/Film; 'Coverup,' Iran-Contra Affair, by Walter Goodman,
September 11, 1988, The Washington Post, page C1-C2, The Ultimate Conspiracy, by Mark Hosenball,
November 6, 1988, New York Times, The Flip Side of Dad,

February 6, 1989, New York Times, Trial Is Approved On Job Conditions,
February 8, 1989, Chicago Tribune, page 1, Businesses see 'chilling effect' of safety liability, by William Grady,
February 11, 1989, The Washington Post, page B12, Christic Institute Fights to Survive, by William Bole,
May 7, 1989, New York Times, Throwing the Book at the Courts, by Seymour Wishman,
May 16, 1989, The Washington Post, page C1-C3, The Passions of Barbara Newman, by Myra MacPherson,
June 4, 1989, New York Times, Home Entertainment/Video: Critics' Choices; Completely and Believably Someone Else, by Stephen Holden,

February 13, 1990, Chicago Tribune, page 1, When Nora met Alice . . . Pals Ephron and Arlen muse on their script for success in high-stakes Hollywood, by John Blades,
February 17, 1990, New York Times, Marcos Switches to Maverick for Her Defense, by Craig Wolff,
February 17, 1990, The Washington Post, page A17, Imelda Marcos Shifts Attorneys Before Her Trial,
March 25, 1990, New York Times,Headliners; A Woman's Honor,
September 2, 1990, Chicago Tribune, It's the Streep mystique Once she's into a character what she does goes way beyond acting, by Gene Siskel, Movie columnist,
March 17, 1991, New York Times, That Madcap Meryl. Really!, by Joy Horowitz,
April 29, 1991, The Washington Post, page A1-A2, Uranium Pollution Probed at Oklahoma Plant, by Thomas W. Lippman,
August 16, 1991, The Washington Post, page C4, 'Silkwood' Actor Jehane Dyllan Reuther Dies, by Claudia Levy,
October 5, 1991, The Washington Post, page A2, NRC Closes Oklahoma Plant After Finding Uranium Leaks, by Thomas W. Lippman,

October 9, 1991, Chicago Tribune, page 10, Whistleblowers at arms plant report threats,
December 28, 1991, The Washington Post, page A6, 2 Women at Rocky Flats Plant Tell Of Intim

March 4, 1992, New York Times, pages B1-2, What Debt Does Hollywood Owe to Truth?, by William Grimes,
March 5, 1992, New York Times, What Debt Does Hollywood Owe to Truth?, by William Grimes,
March 8, 1992, Chicago Tribune, page 3, Laugh lines Nora Ephron coaxes comedy from life's struggles, by Dana Micucci,
May 27, 1992, The Kerrville Times [TX] page 8, Father wants probe reopened in death of Karen Silkwood,
June 11, 1992, Chicago Tribune, A 'Real People' Lawyer's Hardest Case, by Kevin McCullen,

June 20, 1993, Chicago Tribune, page 1, Argonne Fights For Nuclear Lifeblood, by Jon Hilkevitch,
October 15, 1993, New York Times, A Triumph of One Man's Personality: The American Courtroom's Buffalo Bill, by Jan Hoffman,

July 23, 1994, Indiana Gazette (Indiana, PA) page 44, More To Women's News Than Carrot Cake Recipes,

September 6, 1995, The Washington Post, page C1-C2, Gerry Spence, Attorney At Lore, by Thomas Heath,
November 23, 1995, Los Alamos Science, Vol. XXIII, The Karen Silkwood Story, Reprinted at PBS Frontline,

March 6, 1996, Chicago Tribune, page 1, Nuclear POwer Industry Knows Where To Come Clean, by Julie Deardorff,
December 15, 1996, New York Times, Sounding the Trumpets For Whistle-Blowers, by Laura Mansnerus,

January 24, 1998, New York Times, Judge Frank G. Theis, 86; Presided Over Silkwood Case,

February 1, 1999, Chicago Tribune, page 8, Nuclear Whistleblower Faces Cloud of Disapproval, by Duncan Mansfield,
June 13, 1999, Chicago Tribune, page 8, Radiation Expert Dr Karl Morgan,
June 13, 1999, New York Times, Karl Z. Morgan, 91, Founder of the Field Of Health Physics, Dies in Tennessee, by Matthew L. Wald,
October 24, 1999, New York Times, The Guide, by Eleanor Charles,
November 17, 1999, New York Times, My Job; Leading, Acting and Choosing,
November 21, 1999, New York Times, Unearthing the New Nashville's Wax Castoffs, by Neil Strauss,

January 2000, UE News, Remembering Karen Silkwood, Union Martyr, diigo
January 17, 2000, New York Times, Media Talk; Abrupt Departure By Executive Editor Of The Oklahoman, by Felicity Barringer,
January 17, 2000, AP - Chicago Tribune, page 2, A Dispute Rages Over Disposal of Nuclear Waste In the Rockies, by Mead Gruver,
March 28, 2000, Chicago Tribune, page 7, U.S. Halts Plan For Idaho Nuclear Incinerator Outcry Forcing Energy Agency To Look For Alternatives To Burning, by Judith Graham,
August 14, 2000, Chicago Tribune, page 8, Radiation Poisons Navajo Communities Many Former Miners Have Died After Digging Uranium Ore For US
November 26, 2000, New York Times, Movies: Critic's Choice, by Anita Gates,

October 7, 2001, Chicago Tribune, page 1, Think about it: Whistleblowing not easy money, by David Greising,

January 8, 2002, BBC News, Karen Silkwood - Campaigner,
January 23, 2002, Chicago Tribune, page 1, Blowing the whistle is no guarantee of glory, by Barbara Brotman,
May 31, 2002, Chicago Tribune, page 1, 5 Films With a Nuclear Glow, by Robert K. Elder,
August 18, 2002, Chicago Tribune, page 5, Tell-tale risks ; Whistleblowers say exposing an employer can deal a career-crushing blow, by T. Shawn Taylor,
October 7, 2002, Reuters - Chicago Tribune, page 7, Anthony Mazzocchi, 76 ; Labor leader who fought for workplace health legislation,
October 9, 2002, New York Times, Anthony Mazzocchi, 76, Dies; Union Officer and Party Father, by Steven Greenhouse,

January 9, 2003, New York Times, Television Review; Violations, Fines and Business as Usual at an Iron Foundry, by Nancy Ramsey,
September 7, 2003, New York Times, The New Season/Film; How Hollywood Handled the Story Of an Irish Folk Hero, by Stephanie Zacharek,

April 1, 2011, Time Magazine, Couch Potato Briefing: Covert Ops, Cricket and Learning from Lawrence, by Tony Karon, [Text]
June 1, 2011, Chicago Tribune, page 3., Death Notice: John H. Crotty,

June 27, 2012, Chicago Tribune, page 7, Nora Ephron: 1941-2012, by John Horn,

September 1, 2013, Counterpoint Press, The People's Advocate: The Life and Legal History of America's Most Fearless Public Interest Lawyer, by Daniel Sheehan, [Text: Chapter 21]

February 19, 2014 (Updated) U.S. NRC, Kerr-McGee - Cimarron, diigo,
July 11, 2014, New York Times, John Seigenthaler, Editor and Aide to Politicians, Dies at 86, by John Schwartz,


January 15, 1975, Chemical Week, Mixed grades for Kerr-McGee,

February 24, 1975, Newsweek, Pulling the Plug on A-Power,

n.d.,, The Life and Mysterious Death of Karen Silkwood, by Tricia Romano,

January 8, 1975, The New York Times, A.E.C Finds Evidence Supporting Charges of Health Hazards at Plutonium Processing Plant in Oklahoma, by David Burnham,

May 31, 1976, The Sedalia Democrat (Missouri) Monday, - Page 6

December 14, 1947, New York Times, Review of the Week, Notes On Science;Bacterial War,

December 14, 1947, New York Times, Review of the Week, New AEC Aid for Scientific Research, View original in TimesMachine