Saturday, February 11, 2012

70th to 75th Annual Reports, New York State Library, 1887-1892.









To the Legislature of the State of New York:

The Regents of the University, Trustees of the State Library, pursuant to the provisions of law, hereby submit to you their seventieth annual report, covering the year ending September 30, 1887.

The following summary will show the additions that have been made to the library, and also its present condition:

At the beginning of the year October 1, 1886: Volumes.
In the general library 92,230
In the law library 38,575
Total 130,805

Added during the year ending September 30, 1887:
To the general library 2,296
To the law library 1,292
Total 3,588

At the close of the year ending September 30, 1887:
In the general library 94,526
In the law library 39,867
Total 134,393

Of the additions to the library:Acquired by purchase 2,265
Acquired by donation and exchange 1,323
Total 3,588

During the past year the library has been compelled to remain in the temporary quarters which were provided for it. In consequence of the contracted space which it is allowed to occupy, it has been impossible to expand it as much as under other circumstances would be feasible. Some additional shelving, made necessary by the increase in the number of volumes, and additional store-room for duplicates have been constructed.

It is important to call the attention of the Legislature to the condition of the duplicates belonging to the library. When, in 1883, the old library building was torn down, it was expected that the new quarters for the library would be ready within a year. Under these circumstances a room was fitted up in the basement to hold the duplicate volumes belonging to the library and the legislative documents which are entrusted to the care of the library. Long ago that room was entirely filled and the material in it packed in such a way as to be in a great part inaccessible. It has come to be one of the most important duties of the trustees of the library to provide a new and suitable place for these duplicates. It is the purpose of the trustees to use the two pavilions which are over the rooms to be occupied by the library as places where the duplicate stock of the library may be kept. But a, small amount of expenditure would be necessary to place one of these pavilions in order. This could be done without in any measure interfering with the work which may be done upon the general preparation of the rooms which are designed for the library. The room has been examined and an estimate of the cost of making the necessary fittings for the purposes intended has been made, and it is estimated that rough shelving and partitions, such as would be suitable for the purpose, could be put up for a sum not exceeding seven hundred dollars.

If this can be done, the relief occasioned will be very great. Not only will it be possible to arrange the material in such a way that it will be possible to obtain what is sought for, but the material will be safe from the destructive causes which now are inevitable.

It is interesting to mention that some additional manuscripts connected with those that the library before possessed, have been secured. Professor Jameson, of the Johns Hopkins University, found it necessary in his historical researches to have copies made of the manuscripts left by Usselincx. These were additional to the Usselincx manuscripts possessed by the State Library, to which Professor Jameson had had access. After completing his historical work, Professor Jameson offered to sell to the library the manuscripts of which he had obtained copies. These were purchased from him and are now added to those which the library already owned. They go far towards making complete the records of the early discoveries of this country which the library now possesses.

For the usual operations of the library during the year, the trustees refer to the reports made to them by the librarians. They desire to express their high appreciation of the assiduity and ability with which, under the present embarrassments, the work has been conducted. The absence for the entire year of Librarian Homes threw a great amount of extra work upon the others connected with the library. The want of Dr. Homes' experience and activity has been most severely felt; at the same time these have been very far supplemented by the activity of others.

Mention should be here made of the work which has been done during the past year upon the manuscripts in the possession of the State Library. Mr. Fernow has continued his services upon these manuscripts, and during the year has, under the authority of the Legislature, published a volume chiefly occupied with the military services of the citizens of the State during the Revolutionary War. This volume contains all that is known of the organization and composition of the regiments furnished by the State of New York in that war. The volume is already found to be of great interest and value to those who are studying the services of their ancestry in that great struggle.

During part of the past year Mr. George W, Kirchwey has been employed by the trustees in continuing and completing the work begun by Judge Clinton. This work, by the sudden death of Judge Clinton, was left in a condition which made it of very little use to historical investigators. Mr. Kirchwey is revising the calendar and index which Judge Clinton began. His work will render available the volume of manuscripts which compose the Clinton papers.

The trustees desire to make known to the Legislature the great loss which the library has sustained in the death of Dr. Henry A. Homes, the librarian of the general library. Dr. Homes was appointed an assistant in the State Library in 1854. Since that time he has devoted his time and energy to the management of this important trust. In 1857 he was appointed the librarian of the general library, Mr. Alfred B. Street being at the same time appointed librarian of the law library alone. Since that time Dr. Homes has continued without change as the librarian of the general library up to the time of his death, November 3, 1887. The trustees desire to express their great grief at the loss which the State has sustained, and their appreciation of the fidelity and ability with which he fulfilled his responsible duties. Since his death the trustees have received from all parts of the United States, and from European libraries, expressions of grief at the death of one who had come to be recognized as one of the chief librarians of the world.


(January 1893)
Anson J. Upson, D. D., LL. D., Chancellor
William Croswell Doane, D. D., LL. D., Vice-
Roswell P. Flower, Governor
William F. Sheehan, Lieutenant-Governor
Frank Rice, B. A., Secretary of State
James F. Crooker, Sup't of Public Instruction

1873 Martin I. Townsend, LL. D. - -
1874 Anson J. Upson, D. D., LL. D.
1876 William L. Bostwick, B. A.
1877 Chauncey M. Depew, LL. D. -
1877 Charles E. Fitch, M. A.
1877 Orris H. Warren, D. D.
1878 whitelaw Reid, LL. D. -
1881 William H. Watson, M. I).
1881 Henry E. Turner, - -
1883 St Clair Mckelway, LL. D. -
1885 Hamilton Harris, LL. D. - -
1885 Basil Beach, LL. D. - -
1886 Willard A. Cobb, M. A. -
1888 Carroll E. Smith, -
1890 Pliny T. Sexton, -----
1890 T. Guilford Smith, M. A., C. E. -
1892 William Croswell Doane, D. D., LL. D. -

Two vacancies Elected by the regents
1888 Melvil Dewey, M. A., Secretary - - -

The Vice-chancellor, Chairman
Chauncey M. Depew
William H. Watson
Charles E. Fitch
St Clair Mckelway
Whitelaw Reid
Pliny T. Sexton

For the year Ending Sept. 30,1888.


Report of the Trustees Ix 


To the Legislature of the State of New York:

The Regents of the University, Trustees of the State Library, pursuant to the requirements of law, hereby submit to you their seventy-first annual report, covering the year ending September 30, 1888.

The chief event to be reported at this time in regard to the State Library is its expected transfer to the quarters provided by the State Legislature for its reception. The trustees of the library at their annual meeting in January, 1888, appointed a special committee, charged with the duty of bringing to the attention of the Legislature the subject of the completion of the rooms for the books of the State Library. This committee has labored with great earnestness and activity, and the progress of the work as we are now able to report it to you must be largely attributed to it. By chapter 578 of the Laws of 1888, an appropriation was made for finishing the rooms designed for the State Library. This law appointed the Lieutenant-Governor, the President pro tempore of the Senate, the Speaker of the Assembly and the Commissioner of the New Capitol as supervising commissioners for this work. These commissioners at once began the work of planning and pushing forward to completion the preparation of the rooms for the library. They appointed Mr. Melvil Dewey, the librarian of the library of Columbia College, as their consulting librarian. Under his enthusiastic zeal and the care and fidelity of Commissioner Perry, the work has made great progress. At the time the Legislature will have met the rooms for the law library will be entirely finished, and we hope that the books of that department may be transferred to the place permanently designed for them. The work on the remaining part of the library is being pushed forward, and in a few weeks it is expected that the whole will be ready for occupancy.

In devising the plans it early became evident that it would be a great addition to the conveniences of the library if the rooms now occupied by the Regents of the University for their offices could be consolidated with the rooms already designed for the library. The entire west front of the Capitol on the third floor, from Washington avenue to State street, would then be a succession of rooms and alcoves for the use of the library.

The Regents of the University, who are trustees of the State Library, saw at once the importance of making this change. They unanimously, therefore, by a resolution passed at their semi-annual meeting in July, agreed to surrender the rooms that were then in their possession, taking instead the rooms upon the fourth floor. The library is now being fitted up with the purpose of occupying the entire space on the third floor, and a portion of the space above. The Regents will have for their offices the rooms directly over the ones now occupied by them.

The current operations of the library have gone forward with the usual regularity and activity. During the time when the work of preparing new rooms was in progress, it seemed to the trustees unwise to take any steps for filling the vacancy that was occasioned by the death of Dr. Homes, the librarian of the general library. That vacancy still exists.

The work in the general library has been performed by the chief assistant, Mr. G. R. Howell, who has acted as librarian. His report and that of Mr. S. B. Griswold, the librarian of the law library, are referred to for the details of the work that has been done. With the small amount of space available, it has been impossible to carry forward the increase in the books with as much activity as would have been otherwise possible. The system of exchanges, by which a large part of this increase is attained, has been in a great measure suspended owing to the crowded condition of the rooms in which the duplicates are kept.

No appropriation having been made for continuing the work upon the Clinton papers, that part of the operations of the library was discontinued when the old appropriation had been exhausted. It had been attempted to make a calendar of the papers from the beginning, and then to make an index by means of which reference might be made to any subject treated in these papers. Very material progress has been made in this work, but it is not yet completed and consequently is not in a condition to be made use of by those who wish to consult the papers. Whenever this can again be taken up no very great length of time will be required to put this important series of historical papers in a condition where they can be available for those who desire to consult them.

The accumulation of historical manuscripts in the library is a very notable portion of the collections. The library already contains the Sir William Johnson papers, the Vermont manuscripts, the Daniel D. Tompkins papers, the George Clinton papers, and the papers transferred to the State Library from the offices of the Comptroller and Secretary of State by chapter 120 of the Laws of 1887. In the arrangements for the rooms of the library, the trustees designed to make adequate provision for the care and completion of the work upon these historical papers. The collection of works in the library largely pertains to American history, and especially to the history of the portion of the United States now included in the State of New York. It may fairly be said of the library, to be one of its important functions to gather into one locality as many of the papers relating to the early history of the State and country as may be possible.

In connection with this subject, the trustees desire to report that in the last supply bill there was included an appropriation of $800 for the purpose of procuring copies of manuscripts relating to the early history of the country, which are now in the National Library at Paris, and in the national archives of the French government. A list of desirable papers was furnished to the trustees, and from these a selection was made and orders given for the copies which the library might make use of. A very considerable number of these papers have already been furnished, and the entire appropriation has been exhausted.

It is earnestly recommended that an additional appropriation of $500 be made for the purpose of procuring copies of some of the papers still remaining. It is very desirable that the State Library should contain as much of the material as possible relating to the early history of this country. The manuscript material in European libraries is a source, to a great extent as yet unexplored, of the events connected with the discovery and exploration of America. The State Library has already a very considerable stock of these historical documents, and it is one of the ends to which the policy of the library has been directed to equip it well with material bearing on American history.

The following is a list of the papers which have already been furnished:

1. Extrait du Journal des Services principaux de Paul Jones.
2. Mémoire sur les limites des colonies.
3. Relation des fêtes de Paris à l'occasion des victories remportées en Amérique.
4. Mémoires politiques et militaires du chevalier de Ricard à l'occasion de la guerre d'Amérique, lr* tome.
5. Mêmes mémoires, 2m" tome.
6. Découverte de l'embouchure du Mississipi.
7. Lettre écrite à 45 lieues de l'embouchure du Mississipi.
8. Lettre zur le voyage de M. de Châteaumorand à l'embouchure du même.
9. Description du pays où les Français du Canada se sout nouvellement établis.
10. Lettre de M. d'Iberville.
11. Extrait relatif au différend de M. de Pointis avec les flibustiers.
12. Relation du voyage du prince de Bloglie en Amérique.
13. Mémoire touchant l'enterprise de M. de Pointis sur Carthagène.
14. Information concernant l'affaire du Darien.
15. Mémoires de M. de la Salle.
16. Fragment d'autres mémoires de M. de la Salle.
17. Relation de la mission du Père Antoine Gaulin.
18. Voyage au continent américain par un français, en 1777 et réflexions sur la nouvelle république.
19. Campagnes du comte d'Estaing en Amérique.
20. Mémoire au sujet des d'Amérique. *
21. Succès sur les Anglais dans la nouvelle Amérique.
22. Relation de la prise de l'Alcide.
23. Note sur les opérations navales d'Amérique.
24. Découverte de l'Amérique.
25. Campagne de la Renommer sur le Mississippi.
26. Voyage de la Badine et du Marin à 1' embouchure du même.
27. La reprise de la Floride par le chevalier Zourgue.
28. Mémoire sur la navigation et le commerce d'Amérique.
29. Lettre du marquis de Lafayette.
30. Lettre du vicomte de Mauroy.
31. Lettre de Washington.
32. Etat des troupes anglaises en Amérique, en 1776.
33. Voyage de M. de Beauchêne dans la mer du sud.
34. Lettre du Fort Louis, sur l'éstablissement du Mississipi.
35. Lettre historique touchant le Mississipi.
36. Etat de l'Amérique et de ses souverains au XVIII siècle.
37. Relation des découvertes de Mathieu Sagean.
37. Bis. Note jointe à cette relation.
38. Lettre de Rochefort sur la colonie du Mississipi.
39. Découverte et conquête du Quivira et du Chequaye.
40. Lettre de Rochefort sur les voyages de M. d'Iberville au Mississipi.
41. Extrait d'une lettre de M. de Conty sur la rivière du Mississipi.
42. Mémoire sur la même rivière.
43. Extrait d'une lettre de la Rochelle sur les découvertes de M. d'Iberville.
44. Extrait d'une autre lettre sur le même objet.
45. Relation des voyage de M. de Beauchêne au Chili.
46. Mémoire et lettre sur les bords du Mississipi
47. Extrait d'une lettre de la Mobile, sur le même pays. 48. Autre relation curieuse de l'exploration de M. de Beauchêne.
49. Abrégé de la relation de Mathieu Sagean.
50. Lettre de Rafelis Brove sur les succès de la guerre d'Amérique.
In concluding this report the trustees desire to give the following as a summary of accessions and present condition of the library on the 1st day of October, 1888.

At the beginning of the year, October 1, 1887:

In the general library 94,526
In the law library 39,867
Total 134,393

Added during the year ending September 30, 1888:
To the general library 2,434
To the law library 1.364
Total 3,798

At the close of the year ending September 30, 1888:

In the general library 96,960
In the law library 41,231
Total 138,191

Of the additions to the library, acquired by purchase.. 2,298
Acquired by donation or exchange 1,500
Total 3,798

Respectfully submitted.

To the Regents of the University, Trustees of the State Library:

The number of volumes added to the general library during the twelve months ending September 30, 1888, is 2,434, making the whole number of volumes in this department of the library 96,960. Of these 2,434 volumes, 1,432 were obtained by purchase, and 1,002 by gift or exchange.

During the past year the library has been greatly strengthened in the acquisition of books on American history. This class of literature necessarily embraces works on prehistoric America, early discoveries, colonization and national, State, county and town history and biography, to the present day. Of these the most frequently and eagerly sought for by readers from all parts of the State are local histories and genealogies. The aim in purchasing, therefore, has been to secure all of the latter class of works as promptly as possible, inasmuch as every year adds to their commercial value. Such works as are of direct assistance to the various departments of the State government have been purchased to a moderate extent, and in their purchase regard has been had to the limited appropriation for the purchase of books and to the general instructions of the Regents in the building up of the library. A moderate purchase has also been made to supplement the encyclopedias on several subjects, such as electricity, political economy, literary history, costume and practical science. Long existing deficiencies in periodicals indexed in Poole's Index, and therefore frequently sought for, have in several works been supplied and the sets made perfect. Regimental histories relating to the civil war of 1861-65 are purchased as opportunity is presented, and the collection of the State Library on this subject is believed to be equal to that of any public library in existence.

The use of reference books in this department of the library has been gradually increasing, and must increase still more in the larger and more commodious apartments now being provided. The larger number of rooms thrown open to the public will require a corresponding increase of the staff of the library. The work of preparing a new subject index, which is recommended to be printed in 1890, should be begun during the coming year, and I would suggest that this should embody with the manuscript index of 1882 to 1889 the supplementary index published in 1882. Or, what might be still better, to incorporate the printed subject indexes of 1872 and 1882 with all subsequent manuscript additions into one volume.

All which is respectfully submitted.
Acting Librarian



State Library, December 1, 1888.To the Regents of the University of the State of New York:

The number of volumes added to the law department of the library during the year ending September 30,1888, is 1,364, which increases the total number of volumes in this department to 41,231. Of these 1,364 volumes, 866 were acquired by purchase, and 498 by donation and exchange.

The character of the books added has not varied materially from that of former years, a large part being continuations of American, British and Colonial reports, statutes, state papers, law periodicals and standard elementary works. The purchases have been strictly confined to those classes of books which your honorable body has, from time to time, indicated as desirable to be added to the library.
The effort to supply deficiencies existing in the collections of American statute law and law periodicals has been continued, and has resulted in the addition of nearly fifty rare volumes to these collections. It is not possible, within the limits of the present annual appropriation for the purchase of books, to purchase within any one year more than fifty of the volumes needed to supply existing deficiencies in the library collections.

The library is now in possession of the British parliamentary papers complete for the sessions of 1811 to 1832, 1842 to 1859,1868 to 1886, making a collection of over 2.200 folio volumes. Since the session of 1868 these papers have been obtained by annual subscription. The sessions prior to 1868 have been obtained by purchase in large lots, as opportunity occurred, and paid for out of special appropriations made therefor by the Legislature. There is now an opportunity to purchase in London these papers for the years 1860 to 1867, comprising 523 folio volumes, for a sum which, together with the charges for transportation, will amount to about seven hundred dollars. In view of the fact that the addition of these years will complete the library collection of these papers from the year 1842 to the present time, the importance of obtaining them becomes apparent. The librarian would, therefore, recommend that an application be made to the next Legislature, by your honorable body, for a special appropriation of $700 for the purchase of these papers for the sessions of 1860 to 1867, inclusive.

During the past ten weeks, in addition to the ordinary service in the library, about 15,000 volumes have been dusted, rearranged by the librarian and assistants, and the entire law library put in readiness for its removal to the new apartments — an event which will gladden the hearts of those for whose use the library is maintained, and who have been subjected to most serious inconvenience during the five years of its occupancy of the present temporary quarters.
Respectfully submitted.

Librarian of the Law Library.

Appendix III.

By Donation or Exchange, from Oct. 1, 1887, to Sept. 30, 1888.

[The Laws of 1869, Ch. 529, made the State Library and State Museum departments of the University.]

ANSON J. UPSON, D. D., LL. D., Vice-Chancellor
DAVID B. HILL, Governor
EDWARD F. JONES, Lieutenant-Governor Ex-oflicio
FRANK RICE, Secretary of State
ANDREW S. DRAPER, Sup't of Public Instruction .

In order of election by the legislature
GEORGE WILLIAM CURTIS, LL. D.. 1364 - - West New Brighton
FRANCIS KERNAN, LL. D., 1870 Utica
ANSON J. UPSON, D. D., LL. D., 1874 Glens Falls
CHAUNCEY M. DEPEW, LL. D., 1877 New York
CHARLES E. FITCH, 1877 Rochester
ORRIS H. WARREN, D. D., 1877 Syracuse
LESLIE W. RUSSELL, LL. D„ 1878 New York
WHITELAW REID, 1878 New York
WILLIAM H. WATSON, M. D., 1881 - - - -. - -' Utica
HENRY E. TURNER, 1881 Lowville
St. CLAIR McKELWAY, 1883 Brooklyn
HAMILTON HARRIS, 1885 - Albany
DANIEL BEACH, LL. D., 1885 Watkins
WILLARD A. COBB, 1886 Lockport
CARROLL E. SMITH, 1888 Syracuse
PLINY T. SEXTON, 1890 - Palmyra
T. GUILFORD SMITH, 1890 Buffalo
MELVIL DEWEY, M. A., Secretary Albany
ALBERT B. WATKINS, Ph. D., Assistant Secretary - - Albany Standing Committee of the Regents on the State Library
Chancellor GEORGE WILLIAM CURTIS, Chairman

State Library Staff
MELVIL DEWEY, M. A. (Amherst) Director
S. B. GRISWOLD Law Librarian
GEORGE R. HOWELL, M. A. (Yale) Librarian
WALTER S. BISCOE, M. A. (Amherst) - - - Catalogue Librarian
DUNKIN V. R. JOHNSTON, M. A. (Hobart) - - - Sub-librarian
HARRY E. GRISWOLD Sub-librarian (Law)
NINA E. BROWN, M. A. (Smith) Shelf lifter
FRANK C. PATTEN Curator of Catalogue
MAY SEYMOUR, B. A. (Smith) Classifier
MARY WELLMAN LOOMIS, B. A. (Lenox) - - - Accession Clerk

In Senate:

March 25, 1890

For The Year Ending September 30, 1889


To the Legislature of the state of New York:

I have the honor to submit herewith, pursuant to law, as the 72d annual report of the Regents of the University on the New York State Library the report of the director of the library with appendices.




1 Report of the librarian of the general library xviii
2 Report of the catalogue librarian xix
3 Report of the law librarian xxiii
4 Report of the sub-librarian (law) xxiv
5 Report on the library school xxvi
6 List of books and pamphlets added to the library by gifts
and exchanges 1
7 Books added to the general library 26
8 Books added to the law library , 53


To the Regents of the University of the State of New York:

I have the honor to submit the following brief report of progress in the library during the year ending September 30, 1889:

Building.— As will be apparent to the committee, not a little work which it was hoped to do still remains undone. The veto of the appropriations made by the legislature for completing the library rooms made it necessary to suspend work just on the eve of its completion. Our floors are uncovered, our heating, lighting and ventilation incomplete, our elevators not running, our entrance stairs unbuilt, and our rooms are furnished only with odds and ends picked up for temporary use. It is impossible till the building is made more available to make any substantial progress in our main plans. Meanwhile we carry on the routine work, help readers as well as we can under the circumstances, and use every spare minute in preparing catalogues and getting ready for the active use of the library, which seems assured as soon as we can make ready for it. We have [Senate, No. 50.] however moved all the books of the law and general library into their new quarters where they are safely stored. Though embarrassed in our daily work by the presence of workmen and by annoying delays, we fully realize that the commission in charge and the capitol commissioner have done all in their power to meet our wishes and we are suffering our present embarrassments with patient hope for the future.

Removal.— In spite of serious difficulties in occupying unfinished rooms we promptly moved all the law books from the golden corridor to the new shelving provided in the north end of the new library. After these the books of the general library were moved into the south stack, and the temporary quarters were vacated a day before we had promised the rooms for the use of the second division of the Court of Appeals. Protection against injury and theft, and convenience in handling made it economy to put into cheap boxes the many thousand quarto volumes of the colonial and natural history which had been stored in a half-dozen places on the second floor. Every volume was thus boxed and moved to the fifth story where the duplicate department is to be established.

There remain nearly 100,000 volumes in the basement of the capitol more exposed to injury than any others. The need for other state use of the rooms where the other books were stored made it imperative that they should be moved first. We have now to deal with the fact that the books which were being ruined by heat are still unprotected. The importance can not be overestimated of getting these into safe quarters at once, and I respectfully urge that an appropriation for fitting up the necessary shelving be asked from the legislature at the opening of the next session.

Laws of 1889, ch. 529, § 18 is as follows

"The regents shall have charge of the preparation, publication and distribution, whether by sale, exchange or gift, of the colonial history, natural history and all other state publications not otherwise assigned by law. To guard against the waste or destruction of state publications, and to provide for the completion of sets to be permanently preserved in American and foreign libraries, the regents shall maintain in the State Library a duplicate department, to which each state department, board or bureau, shall send not less than five copies of each of its publications when issued, and after completing its distribution, any remaining copies which it no longer requires. The above publications, with any other books and pamphlets not needed in the State Library, shall constitute the duplicate department, and the rules for sale, exchange or distribution from it shall be fixed by the regents, who shall use all receipts from such exchanges or sales for the increase of the State Library."

There is almost daily demand from American and foreign libraries for books which this duplicate department can furnish, and its claims must be added to those of the books now being slowly burned.

Books.—We have not begun any systematic buying but have merely kept up the old lines. Next year our more than doubled appropriation will enable us to make substantial additions. We have arranged to buy serials, American books and foreign books from three thoroughly responsible firms who will serve us better and at large reductions from the prices heretofore paid. Recommendation slips (of which a sample is attached) have been provided and a complete system for thorough but economical work in the ordering and receiving department has been devised. The library receives by the fast Cunard and North German Lloyd steamers each week the latest books and serials from England and the continent, and a regular box of new American publications is to come weekly from New York. Periodicals and books which under the old system came only once or twice a year will now be available in the State library at once on publication and at less expense than formerly.

Staff.—Mr B. Fernow's ($1,500) resignation took effect April 1 and Mr James Boynton's ($1,300) on May 1. By reorganizing, redistributing and systemizing the work we shall be able to accomplish quite as much as before and save these salaries, or $2,800 a year.
This sum will help materially in paying the new employes which our enlarged quarters and new facilities make absolutely necessary. The mere safety of the books requires a much larger force in our more than 20 rooms than sufficed in the three old ones. As the $10,000 in the supply bill for meeting these expenses was vetoed, it becomes necessary to defer much of our important work and to postpone the real opening of the library quarters for one year longer than we planned.

With the money left because of the death of Dr Homes and the resignation of Messrs Fernow and Boynton, we have been able to employ three pages at $150, $240, and $300 a year, a catalogue librarian at $2,000 and five assistants at $800 each.

The work accomplished since April 1 has been wholly satisfactory. In the general library about 60,000 volumes have been given their proper places in a scheme of about 5,000 topics. All these have been inventoried and a shelf list and subject catalogue in book form have been written.

Till this inventory is completed we can give only an estimate as to the number of books missing. There has been no shelf list heretofore and no systematic inventory. The inventory which I ordered in the law library has been taken by the sub-librarian and is given as appendix 4. Its result is very gratifying when we consider how many years are covered in the trifling losses.

Manuscripts and historical records.The work resigned by Berthold Fernow on April 1 was at once taken up by librarian George R. Howell, who was given entire charge of this department. A separate locked room has been set apart for manuscripts and it is hoped that we shall be able to complete in due time the needed indexes to the great mass of valuable manuscript matter in our charge.

Use.—No effort whatever has been made to increase the use of the library, nor is it really practicable till our rooms are completed and our books catalogued and classified. We try to do the best possible under the circumstances with the readers who come to us but shall not consider the library running on the new system till we are fairly settled in our new quarters. It is however gratifying to find that in spite of annoyances . and inconveniences the number of readers is steadily increasing. Inevitably any radical changes must be confusing to old users of the library, just as a housewife would find herself less ready in putting her hands on any given bottle if the random grouping on the shelves to which she had been long accustomed should be changed into the rigid and scientific order of the pharmacist. Yet no one doubts the wisdom of adopting a proper order when the number of bottles, boxes and jars becomes very large, as in a drug store.

This library has now become so large that it is a matter of necessity to reorganize it on a more comprehensive plan, and its future growth is sure to be so rapid that this plan should not require expensive modifications when a generation or two later we shall have upwards of a million books.

Association of State Librarians.— On May 8-11, 1889, there was held, in connection with the annual meeting of the American Library Association in St. Louis, a convention of state librarians at which 25 states were represented by their librarians or by proxies. After mature deliberation it was deemed wise by all present to found a permanent association, and a constitution was adopted and plans were made which promise to be of great practical utility to state library interests. Your director, by vote of the Library committee, attended as your representative and was honorably and unanimously elected to the presidency of the new association. The new interest and activity resulting from this organization will certainly have a favorable effect on the future of our own library.

Visits to other libraries.— Beside visiting several state libraries in the southwest, I spent my summer vacation in inspecting anew the leading libraries of Scotland, England and Paris. Our catalogue librarian, Mr W. S. Biscoe, accompanied me throughout the trip, and together we brought back much more information and material than would have been possible to either alone. We visited over 50 libraries beside the museums and universities. No time spent for the state library since my election will be more profitable in the end than that given to the personal study of the methods of many of the best libraries abroad. It was also our privilege to attend the annual meeting of the Library Association of the United Kingdom at its London meeting, Oct. 2-4. Beside the practical lessons to be learned from a study of foreign methods, I was able to arrange for a large number of very valuable exchanges, and for gifts to the state library which could not have been secured except by this personal effort.

General library interests.— During the past year the following votes have been placed on the official minutes of the regents:

Dec. 12, 1888. Resolved, That hereafter the secretary and treasurer of the board be given general charge and direction of the state library with the title of secretary and director of the state library, and that Mr George R. Howell be continued as librarian in immediate charge of the general library, and My S. B. Griswold be continued as librarian in immediate charge of the law library, each to act under the supervision and direction of the secretary and director as aforesaid.

Jan. 9, 1889. Resolved, That the books, maps, pamphlets and other material now composing the museum library be transferred to the New York State Library.

Jan. 10,1889. At the close of the secretary's address the following preamble and resolution was presented from the University Convocation of 1888.

Whereas, This Convocation believes that the time has come when certain of our public libraries should be recognized as an essential part of the state system of higher education, and as properly a factor with the academies and colleges in the composition of the University of the State of New York; and,

Whereas, To secure to the state the full advantages of such recognition, it is necessary that proper provision should be made by the state for advisory supervision and guidance of existing institutions and for stimulating the formation of new libraries; therefore,

Resolved, That this convocation requests the regents of the University to take such action as may seem to them expedient for giving to such libraries as their official inspection shall show to be worthy the distinction, their proper place as a part of our state system of higher education.

On motion it was unanimously

Resolved, That the regents heartily approve the request of the University Convocation of 1888, that such libraries as may be found worthy the distinction shall be officially recognized as a part of the University of the State of New York, and given a seat in the University Convocation.

Resolved, That the officers of this board be directed to submit to the regents at their next meeting plans for determining what libraries are entitled to the proposed recognition and for carrying into effect the proposition of. the Convocation so far as existing laws permit.

Resolved, That the Chancellor and the committee on legislation be requested to procure any needed legislation to enable the regents to comply fully with the request of the Convocation for the official recognition of certain libraries as a part of the University of the State of New York.

Free public libraries.—The Superintendent of Public Instruction introduced and supported the following resolutions which the regents adopted Mar. 12, 1889:
Resolved, That the board is of the opinion that legislation is needed looking to the building up of township public libraries throughout the state: that a distinction should be drawn between libraries for the use of schools and public libraries for the general use of the people ; that the former should be managed and directed through school officers and teachers and supported from public school moneys while the latter should be supported through the joint action of the state and the several cities, villages or townships and should be placed under the charge of this board and in connection with the work of the State Library.
Resolved, That the committee on legislation be requested to seek legislation making provisions for the establishment and maintenance of such free public libraries.

The new law has provided fully for the admission to the University of such libraries as the regents shall find worthy the honor. May I respectfully urge that the interests of the State Library as the natural center of general library interests of the state, demand that at the next session of the legislature there should be passed a satisfactory law for founding new libraries, and for a wiser use of the $50,000 a year granted by the state for the district public libraries, which, as pointed out by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, should properly be connected officially with the State Library.

I submit the reports of the three librarians and the usual list of additions for the year, and also as appendix 5 a separate report on the Library School, as made to the chairman of the Library committee, July 10, with alterations bringing it up to Sept. 30.Looking back over the nine months since my election as director, I must report the result of the year's work, in spite of the unexpected drawbacks in the completion of the rooms, as a very satisfactory beginning of the great task before us.

Respectfully submitted
Albany, December 10, 1889.

Appendix I


Albany. December 9, 1889.

To Melvil Dewey, Director of New York State Library,

Sir :— The number of volumes apparently added to the general library during the year ending September 30, 1889, is 779, of which 491 were by purchase and 288 by gift or exchange. The actual number added during this year is greater than this by several hundred, though not more than half the number annually added during the last ten years.

The additions have been mostly works of American history and genealogy.

The collection of manuscripts has been put in such order as is possible on the temporary shelving provided. Of these about 25 volumes, mostly from the Stevens papers, need to be bound soon to prevent loss or injury.

Since removal to the present quarters there has been an increased use of the library, and a still larger use is anticipated when the great central room with its ample accommodations shall have been completed and furnished.

Librarian of the general library.

Appendix 2
December 10, 1889.

To Melvil Dewey, Director of New York State Library:

I submit herewith the condition of the cataloguing work at the present time:
Accession Department.
The work of entering books on the new accession book was begun Sept. 18; 1,804 volumes have been since recorded.

Order Department.
The first orders completely recorded by the new system were sent to our regular agents Nov. 11; 203 orders have been sent and 127 received.

Card Catalogue Department.
The regular cataloguing work was begun Nov. 1; 1,502 cards, 665 author, 169 title and 668 subject, have been written and placed in the new catalogues.

Shelf Department And Classification.

In this department is included most of the work thus far done. The large alphabet of books in the general library has been roughly classified and arranged on the shelves and an inventory made. This was done before Oct. 1 and includes 58,349 volumes. A tabulated list appended shows the number of books thus recorded in each of the 100 divisions and a summary for each of the 10 classes of the classification. Since Oct. 1,19,837 volumes have been classified and entered on the inventory.
Number Of Volumes Entered On The Shelf List In Each Of The 100 Divisions, October. 1, 1889.

Total 3,017100 
Philosophy 84
110 Metaphysics 25
120 Spec. met. topics 35
130 Mind and body 236
140 Systems 6
150 Psychology 74
160 Logic 30
170 Ethics 386
180 Ancient philos 60
190 Modern philos 166
Total 1,102200 

Religion 506
210 Natural theol 143
220 Bible 857
300 Sociology 194
310 Statistics 230
320 Political science 1,052
330 Political economy 722
340 Law 582
350 Administration 779
360 Associations 859
370 Education 1,392
380 Commerce 472
390 Customs, etc 263
Total 6,545400 

Philology 53
410 Comparative 59
420 English 594
430 German 105
440 French .. .( 112
450 Italian 14
460 Spanish 20
470 Latin 120
480 Greek 103
490 Minor languages 248
Total 1,428

Subject Divisions of the decimal number. classification.

800 Literature 183
810 American 1,830
820 English 2,983
830 German 306
840 French 716
850 Italian 270
860 Spanish 75
870 Latin 747
880 Greek 489
890 Minor languages 133
Total   77,732

900 History 454
910 Geography 6,429
920 Biography. 6,443
930 Ancient history 378
No. America .
So. America..
Total 22,925

Summary Of Classes.
General works 3,017
Philosophy 1,102
Religion 6,949
Sociology 6,545
Philology 1,428
Natural science 4,223
Useful arts 3,248
Fine arts 1,180
Literature 7,732
History 22,925

The remaining volumes of the library have been counted so far as at present possible. They are scattered in a number of small collections, most of them of a few hundred volumes each, and make 10,883 volumes in all.


Printing societies 42"
Periodicals, 4°, not yet classified 1,279
Registers and annuals l,VSl
Directories  2,296
United States documents 770
Colleges 601
Reference books 160
Patents not yet classified 717
Newspapers 600
Rare books in mss room 310
Folio volumes >3<
Miscellaneous 2,036

The work of assigning final class and book numbers has been begun and 874 volumes have been finished. This work will proceed more rapidly as soon as the other preliminary work is done.
The total volumes thus far accounted for are:
Classified and listed 78,186
Counted, not yet inventoried 10,883

Besides these there is a collection of newspapers stored in the basement with the duplicates.

A brief comparison of the printed and manuscript catalogues with the inventory indicates not more than 1,000 volumes missing, and that many of these are duplicates which have been withdrawn or exchanged. Most of these volumes are of little pecuniary value, many of them old editions and nearly all could be replaced.Respectfully submitted

Catalogue librarian.

Appendix 3


Albany. November 20, 1889. To Melvil Dewey, Director of New York State Library,Sir :—1,166 volumes have been added to the law library during the year ending September 30, 1889, of which 528 were acquired by purchase and 638 by gift and exchange.

The additions have been principally continuations of American and British reports, statutes, law periodicals and standard elementary works. During the year ten rare volumes have been added to the collection of constitutional journals and debates, and several rare volumes of session laws have also been secured. 83 volumes, with an index thereto, prepared by the sub-librarian, have been added to the collection of New York Court of Appeals cases, which increases the number of volumes in the collection to 1,243. This collection is much consulted, and is one of the most important in the library.

I respectfully renew the recommendation contained in my report to the regents a year ago, that the British parliamentary papers for the sessions of 1860 to 1867 be bought at the first favorable opportunity. This would complete the library set of these papers from 1842 to the present time.

I also recommend that the effort to supply existing deficiencies in the collections of statute law and law periodicals be continued until these collections are as complete as it is possible to make them.

Respectfully submitted
Law librarian.

Appendix 4


Albany, November 18,1889. To Melvil Dewey, Director of New York State Library:
The inventorying of the law books of the New York State Library was commenced June 24 and continued until July 12. The work was again taken up August 19 and completed September 9. During the 36 days occupied in this inventory the regular routine work of the library was attended to, including accessioning books, preparing court of appeals cases for binding and making a table of cases to the same when bound, and attending to the wants of readers.

The inventory shows the following books missing:

1 Aikens, A. Reports of cases in the supreme court of the state of Vermont, from December 1825 to March 1828. Windsor 1827-28. 2 vols. 8°.
2 Angell, J. K., and Ames, S. A treatise on the law of private corporations aggregate. Ed. 3. Boston 1846. 8°.
3 Broom, H. A selection of legal maxims, classified and illustrated. London 1845. 8°.
4 Cabinet lawyer; a popular digest of the laws of England. Ed. 10. London 1837. 12°.
5 Collyer, J. A practical treatise on the law of partnership; with notes of American cases by W. Phillips and E. Pickering. Springfield 1834. 8°.
6 . The same. 3d Am. from the 2d Eng. ed., with large additions by J. C. Perkins. Boston 1848. 8°.
7 Grotius, H. The rights of war and peace, in three books: wherein are explained the law of nature and of nations, and the principal points relating to government. Translated into English; to which are added all the large notes of Mr. J. Barbevrac, London 1738. f°.
8 Lutwyche, A. J. P. Inquiry into the principles of pleading the general issue. London 1838. 12°.
9 Parsons, T. The law of contracts. Boston 1853-55. 2 v. 8°.
10 Stephen, H. J. Treatise on the principles of pleading in civil actions; comprising a summary view of the whole proceeding in a suit at law. From the 3d and last London ed.: 3d Am. ed., by F. J. Troubat. Philadelphia 1837. 8°.
11 Taylor, J. N. Treatise on the American law of landlord and tenant; having reference to the statutory provisions and decisions of the several United States. Ed. 2. Boston 1852. 8°.
12 Tidd, W. Practical forms and entries of proceedings in the courts of the Queen's Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer of Pleas. Ed. 8. London 1840. 8°.
13 Wharton, F. Precedents of indictments, adapted to the use both of the courts of the United States, and those of all the several states; with notes on criminal pleadings and practice. Philadelphia 1849. 8°.
14 Whittaker, H. Practice and pleading under the codes original and amended; with appendix and forms. New York 1852. 8°.
15 Cobbett, J. P. The law of pawns or pledges, and the rights and liabilities of pawnbrokers. Ed. 2. London 1849. 12°.
16 Davies, J. An exposition of the laws which relate to the medical profession in England.... London 1844. 8°.
17 Langmaid, Miss J. A. The murdered maiden student: a tribute to the memory of. By Rev. S. C. Keeler. Pembroke N. H. 1878. 12°. .
18 Moir, J. M. Capital punishment, based on Prof. Mittermaier's "Todesstrafe." London 1865. 8°.
19 Taylor, J. N. Law of executors and administrators. New York 1851. 12°. Total 21 volumes.

Of the foregoing the first 14 are unimportant old editions now of little or no value. Three of the remaining five works are desirable and can be bought for less than $10.

 Respectfully submitted
Sub-librarian (Law).

Appendix 5


To the Hon. Henry R. Pierson, LL. D., Chairman of the Library committee:
At the meeting of the regents on Jan. 12, 1889, the secretary read the letter from Acting President Drisler of Columbia College consenting to the transfer of the library school, and gave oral explanations of the work of the school, after which the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:

"Resolved, That this board approves the plan submitted by the director of the state library for training librarians and cataloguers in connection with the work of the library, giving them instruction and supervision instead of salary for services rendered to the library.

"Resolved, That the director of the library be authorized to employ such assistants as are found best fitted for the work and are willing to give their services for a satisfactory time without other compensation than the instruction and supervision furnished by the library.

"Resolved, That this board accepts the proposition submitted by the trustees of Columbia College through its committee on course and statutes and its acting president to transfer to the state library the system of training conducted for the last three years in Columbia College under the name of the Columbia College School of Library Economy.

"Resolved, That the Library committee be directed to submit to a later meeting of this board a complete scheme for conducting this library training as a permanent feature of the state library."
Under the authority thus given, the director of the library about April 1 received from Columbia College the entire collection of books, pamphlets, appliances and other collections bought for or given to the library school. With the close of the winter term on March 30, the Columbia authorities carried out their agreement to transfer the system of training to the state library, by formally discontinuing the school and after"settling all its accounts, transferring $548.05 to the regents, this sum being the total balance on hand received from tuition fees after deducting all incidental expenses of the school, not met by the gifts of its friends.

As in each preceding year, at the close of the winter term many of the pupils had desirable positions at good salaries waiting their acceptance. Those who did not take other positions, by arrangement with the director, under the authority given by the above resolutions of the regents, presented themselves on April 10 at the state library where they have continued their studies and work under the supervision of the library staff. Appended is a list of the 13 who came, with notes of residences and in four cases of the positions to which they have already been called from the state library.


Banks, Mrs M. H. G. 1 July, accepted position in Newark Public Library as cataloguer.
Knapp, August. 15 May, accepted position in New Jersey.
Ward, Ama. 1 June, became librarian Y. W. C. A., N. Y. City.
Cattell, S. W. 8 June, accepted position as cataloguer in Norfolk, Ct
Burdick, E. E. Graduate Albany Normal School.
Clark, J. A, A. B. Smith College.
Fowler, M., A B. Cornell University.
Loomis, Mrs M. W. University of Michigan.
Sutermeister, L. M. Kansas City, Mo.
Temple, Mabel. North Adams, Mass.
Underhill, Adelaide, A. B. Vassar College.
Weeks, Mary F. Newark, N. J.
Fearey, C. S. Mt. Vernon, N. Y.

On account of the confusion from workmen in the library, a circular was sent out early in the summer saying that no new class would be admitted this year, but in response to urgent requests the following students were selected from over twice as many applicants:

Esther Elizabeth Burdick, Brewster, N. Y* Graduate Albany Normal School. Library School, 1888-89.
Sarah Ware Cattell, Germantown, Penn. Library Scboo], 1888-89; cataloguer Norfolk (Ct.) Free Library, summer 1889. Elizabeth Harvey, Wilkes-Barre, Penn. Cataloguer Osterhout Free Library, 1888-89. Library School, 1888. Mrs Maiy (Wellman) Loomis, Cherokee, la. B. A. Lenox College, 1879. University of Michigan, 1883-85. Library School, 1888-89. Mary Camilla Swayze, N. Y. City. Smith College, 1880-81. Library School, 1887-88. Librarian Y. W. C. A of N. Y, 1888-89. Mabel Temple, North Adams, Mass. No. Adams Public Library, 1886-88. Library School, 1888-89.

Lucy Ball, Grand Rapids, Mich. Grand Rapids Public Library, 1889. Ada Bunnell, Flint, Mich. University of Michigan, 1878-1882. William Savage Burns, Bath, N. Y. B. A. Yale College, 1887. Eva St. Clair Champlin, Alfred Centre, N. Y. M. A. Alfred University, 1888; librarian Alfred University, 1888-89. *
Esther Crawford, Ames, la. B. L. Iowa Agricultural College, 1887. Iowa Agricultural College Library, 1889. Lydia Aurelia Dexter, Chicago, 111. B. A. University of Chicago, 1884. Charlotte Fearey, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. Mary Coffin Jacobs, Boston, Mass. Weston Public Library, 1888-89. Alice Bertha Kroeger, St. Louis, Mo. St. Louis Public Library, 1882-89. Jennie Young Middleton, Andover, Mass. Ripon College, 1887-89. Charles William Plimpton, Charles River Village, Mass. Harvard College, 1865-66. Celia F. Waldo, Jackson, Mich. Jackson T. M. A. Library, 1883-84. Jackson Free Public Library, 1885-89. Martha Y. Wheeler, Albany, N. Y.

The first term was of necessity an experiment as so many of the conditions were new. That experiment however proved an entire success. It has been found that the state library in its organization and appointments, rooms and other facilities is much better adapted to this work than was the Columbia College library. It has also been made clear that the services of the pupils can be used in our library to excellent advantage, so that it will be practicable to carry on the school successfully without asking any large appropriation for its support. With the great amount of cataloguing and other work to be done in our great library, this apprentice help can be used here to much better advantage than at Columbia, where nevertheless the school proved a marked success without a dollar from the treasury for its support.

This experience makes it perfectly safe for the regents to make this training a permanent feature of the state library, which under the new law is an integral part of the University. Such a course is justified by the warm approval with which the plan has been received and by the evidence from all parts of the country, and also from abroad, that the school is doing an urgently needed educational work which, if it be maintained and developed to meet the growing demands, will bring the University great credit. In addition to the many commendations in the press and from individuals the most noteworthy since the last meeting is the hearty indorsement by the American Library Association at its national convention held in St. Louis, May 8-11. As this association represents all the leading librarians of the country its action seems entitled to be submitted in full.

(Extract from official minutes of American Library Association.)

President C. A. Cutter, of the Boston Atheneum.— I call upon Mr Foster, of the committee on the Columbia library school, to report upon it. As I also am of the committee, I will say that, when I lectured before it last winter, I noticed, I thought, less of that dangerous high pressure which Mr Green pointed out two years ago, but no diminution of interest on the part of the students. I am not familiar enough with other schools to say how this stands comparatively in this respect, but I do not see how any students could show more interest in their work than these did. It evidently was their whole life while they were there.

W: E. Foster, of Providence Public Library.— There is no more important matter than the training of library assistants. I have been three times to the school. It is a most impressive experience, and grows more interesting from year to year. Nowhere is a soberer view taken of library methods and responsibilities. The school has been fortunate in its material from the beginning. There is an intelligent sdt of minds, ability to learn, and the students show a perfect grasp of the situation. An important change puts it on a firmer basis, and I would suggest that we express recognition of this fact

S: S. Green, Worcester Free Public Library.— L think it important to express our confidence in the value of the school In my visits I have been struck by the intelligence and enthusiasm of the students and teachers. The admirable work done there is of the greatest value to the community. The experiment is now an assured success. The excellent assistants sent out prove that it has been of great advantage to have a course of technical education. There is good ground for believing that it is well that the library school has been transferred to Albany. There is hope that the scope of the work will be enlarged, that it will become a part' of the normal education of the state, and that the school will receive students from outside the state. We ought to give formal assurance of our interest in the school to the regents and encouragement to the secretary. I therefore move that the Executive board of the A. L. A. add to its standing committees one of three or more on the library school.

After further approval from prominent members the resolution for a standing committee was adopted unanimously.

Later in the session the committee on resolutions introduced the following which was also unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That the American Library Association hereby expresses its high appreciation of the action of the regents of the University of the State of New York, in continuing the School of Library Economy; and, with a desire to aid in securing the greatest efficiency of the school, the Library Association appoints a committee of three as a committee of correspondence with the authorities of the school. Said committee is hereby instructed to inquire in what way they can be of service in promoting the objects for which the school is conducted, and to render such service to the extent of their power.

The committee elected was:

Prof. R. C. Davis, Librarian University of Michigan.
Rev. E. C. Richardson, Librarian Hartford Theological Seminary.
Miss C. M. Hewins, Librarian Hartford Library.

The school is no longer an experiment but a conspicuous success, sure, if properly maintained, to accomplish great good and to win widespread approval for the practical work of the regents. It is to meet no prospective or imaginary demand but one that is already real and beyond its capacity to supply. Still more important, its development does not involve the labor and mistakes incident to most new enterprises, for its period of first experiments has been successfully passed at Columbia and it is our good fortune to have with us on our staff nearly every person who contributed in any considerable degree to that success.

Finally, so long as necessary, the school can be creditably carried on without special appropriation from the legislature, though of course it is desirable that a small sum should each year be placed at its disposal so that it shall not be wholly dependent on the gifts and gratuitous services of its friends for necessary expenses above the payments of its pupils.

In view of these unusual facts the director of the library feels it his duty to urge on the regents, through their Library committee, the wisdom of such action as shall insure a healthy, normal growth of the important educational interest which has thus been committed to their care.
Your honorable committee was directed by resolution of Jan. 12,1889, to submit to a later meeting a complete scheme for making the system of training librarians a permanent feature of the state library. After very careful consideration and consultation with many eminent librarians specially interested in the subject, the director recommends the following plan for your approval:


1. That the system of training maintained by Columbia College for the past few years under the name of the Columbia College School of Library Economy, which, under the authority of the regents, was on April 1 transferred to the state library, and which has been successfully carried on during the few months past, shall be made a permanent feature of the state library to be known as the "library school."

2. That the school may occupy, for needed instruction or other purposes, so much as may be needed of the director's room and the room adjoining on the third floor of the library, or, at the option of the Library committee, any rooms on the fourth or fifth floors, occupancy of which will not interfere with the rights of readers or with the regular work of the library.

3. That the money paid as tuition fees or given to the school, shall be devoted solely to its use and special expenses, and that no charge be made for the use of the rooms, the books or other facilities provided for others and readers of the state library; but that so long as the legislature makes no appropriation for the support of the school, its pupils are to expect no further expenditure, and only such time from the officers of the library as may be a fair equivalent for the services rendered the library by the pupils in their work under supervision.

4. That the director be authorized to arrange for such lectures and other instruction, outside that given by the library staff, as may be volunteered or paid for out of the money received from the pupils or other sources for the benefit of the school.

5. That, inasmuch as the school is not a charge on the treasury of the state, pupils from other states who pass the examinations for admission required from residents of this state, may be admitted on the payment of such fee, not exceeding $100 a year, as may be necessary to cover the special school expenses of the year; for residents of this state, the annual fee shall not exceed $50, and both these fees may be modified or remitted in special cases by the Library committee.

6. That instruction be given for five days of each week from October to June of each year except legal holidays, and Christmas recess.

7. That the subjects studied be as follows, subject to modification for reasons satisfactory to the director:

Junior Year.

1 Oct—23 Dec Twelve weeks' instruction in cataloguing, shelf listing, accessioning and elementary library economy. One lecture daily.
24 Dec.— 2 Jan. Ten days Christmas recess.
January. Four weeks on dictionary cataloguing, with one lecture daily.February. Four weeks on classification, with one lecture daily.
March and Apr. Two months on library economy, with three lectures daily.
May and June. Apprenticeship work in state library and visits with teachers to other libraries. July, Aug. and Sept. Vacation.

Senior Year

During 9 months, Oct..— June. Two hours daily work for state library under supervision. Also, one hour daily, as follows: Mondays. Seminar, under M. S. Cutler. Tuesdays. Bibliography, under W. S. Bisooe. Wednesdays. Cataloguing, under M. S. Cutler. Thursdays. Classification, under W. S. Biscoe. Fridays. Library economy, under director.

Also special instruction as follows:

October. Advanced classification.
November. Advanced library economy.
December. Advanced classification.
January. Advanced cataloguing.
February. Advanced dictionary cataloguing.
March and April. Advanced library economy.
May and June. Advanced work in library.

8. That the department of Regents' Examinations shall, at such intervals as may seem to the officers expedient, conduct examinations in bibliography, library economy, cataloguing and classification, and shall award to those who satisfactorily pass the same, suitable pass-cards, certificates and diplomas, generally corresponding to those awarded for other studies.

9. That there be established by the regents, to be conferred only on conditions to be hereafter prescribed, the degrees of B. L. S. and M. L. S. on examination, and causa honoris, D. L. S., for bachelor, master and doctor of library science.

10. That the secretary be authorized, on application from any school, library or museum which either is or applies to become a member of the University, to detail one of the staff to visit and give needed advice and assistance in starting or reorganizing the same, provided that the necessary traveling and hotel expenses shall be borne by the institution asking the service.

11. That the office include in the annual report full information as to the library school, and reprint in separate form, such parts as are needed for wider circulation.

12. That the receipt of gifts to be disbursed as fellowships, scholarships or otherwise, to deserving students in the library school, be authorized, provided that such receipt and distribution shall be in accordance with the rules made by the regents or the Library committee.

13. That for the double purpose of securing better services for the state library, and to encourage higher attainments among library pupils, the Chancellor be authorized to appoint the most successful students from the school as junior assistants in the state library, so far as the needs of the library may require and the appropriations for salaries allow, and graduates so appointed may be reported as holding state library fellowships, and undergraduates as holding state library scholarships. At least one fellowship yielding $500 a year, shall be assigned to that graduate standing highest and passing the best competitive examination therefor, and at least one scholarship of the value of $100, $150, $200, $250, or $300, as may be determined in each case, shall be assigned similarly each year to that undergraduate in the school, who, beside excelling in scholarship, can render, in addition to school duties, services in the library of the value of the scholarship assigned.
After discussion of the above report the regents unanimously

Resolved, That the board has heard with satisfaction the report of the director, touching the school for the education of librarians in connection with the state library, and without committing itself to the details set forth in the report, approves the general action of the director in the premises as well as the continuance of the same, provided no financial liability on the part of the state be incurred.Respectfully submitted
N. Y. State Library, Dec. 10,1889.

Appendix 6. Books and Pamphlets Received by Gift or Exchange, Oct. i, 1888, to Sept. 30,1889. From Foreign.Countries.

Building. I regret that I cannot report the completion of the library rooms already in active use. The magnitude of the building and the unsurpassed beauty of the work which Commissioner Perry is doing for us, demand much time and patience. We are forced to defer much work which we confidently expected would be well started before this time. On the other hand, this delay has given more time for general preparation.

During the year considerable additions were made to the shelving, 10 new oak desks were supplied for the staff, and five of the ll reading rooms were furnished with oak tables and reading chairs. The three southern rooms which were not tiled have been covered with parquetry floors of quartered oak laid in blocks five inches square, thus securing greater beauty and a cleanliness impossible where carpets are laid in a public building to which, as the attendants report, there is an average of 1000 visitors daily. The cost of the oak was no more than that of the carpets supplied to other departments while it will outwear them a hundred fold. By this departure a great ultimate economy is secured.

Albany, December 10,1890

[Senate no. 74]

APPENDIX 1: REPORT OF ARCHIVISTTo Melvil Dewey, Director of New York State Library
Since the last annual report a more thorough arrangement of the manuscripts has been made. On a count of this collection made in November of this year, 1343 separate volumes were found. Tbis number may be slightly diminished by the binding together of two or more thin volumes where these are now unbound and in long sets. In the first eight months of the current year I spent considerable time in the translation of some French manuscripts, lately acquired, for publication, but have temporarily laid them aside for other work. This work is the preparation of another volume of the New York colonial history, which, it is expected, will be ready for publication during the coming year. About one-third of my time is occupied in library correspondence, assisting readers to books or information, and in searching catalogues for the purchase of books on American history and genealogy, or other employment in the general library.


Library Committee 4
Library Staff 4
Chancellor's Letter Of Transmission 5
Director's Report 7
Size And Growth 7
Building 7
Books 8
Rules 9
Bindery 13
Staff 14
Library School 14
New York Library Association 15
Library Statistics 21
Library Lectures 24
Serials And Binding 25
Appendix 1: Archivist's Report 27
"2: Catalogue Department Report 28
"3: Reference Department Report 35
"4: Law Department Report 39

Rules. On April 9, 1890, the library committee adopted the following code of rules, which actual use has proved admirably adapted to the requirements for which they were intended:—
[Any suggestions for making the library more useful are invited and any reader having cause for complaint will greatly oblige the director by reporting the facts personally or by note ]

1. These rules shall be publicly posted in the library and a copy given to every borrower, and no violation of them will be excused on the plea of ignorance.

2. No suspension of a rule shall be made except by the library committee on a written statement of satisfactory reasons.

3. All departments of the state library shall be kept open from 9 A. M. to 5 p. M. daily, except on Sundays and legal holidays. On holidays when its business departments are closed, the reading-room shall be open, and books shall be supplied to readers during the usual hours of opening.

4. Members of the legislature, judges of the court of appeals, justices of the supreme court, heads of the several state departments, their deputies and clerks officially resident in Albany, donors to the library to the amount of $100, all institutions of the University, such other libraries as may be approved by the library committee, and, by written permission of a regent, others having special claim on its facilities, may borrow books, subject to recall if specially needed. Books shall be lent only to registered borrowers, and delivered only on personal application or on a written order, by which full responsibility for books so delivered is assumed. No book shall be lent by a borrower.

5. The reading-rooms and reference library shall be free to all persons conforming to the rules; but no reader shall be entitled to retain for use in the library any book required for immediate official use by any state officer, court, department or committee in the capitol.

6. Readers shall not, without special permission from a librarian, accumulate on their desks law or other reference books, but all volumes not in actual use shall be promptly returned to the shelves.

7. No one but officers of the library shall have access to its private rooms, unless with an attendant or a written permit from a librarian.

8. No one shall keep from the library, without special permission of the director, more than three volumes at a time, nor any volume longer than two weeks without renewal. A book renewed after being out one week may be kept only two weeks from the date of such renewal. Books may be renewed any time during the second week of loan, either in person or by note addressed "State library loan desk, Albany," but the sender must take all risks of the mail.

9. No borrower shall keep a book more than two days after notice from the library that it is wanted. Thus notice sent May 7 allows May 8 and 9 in which to return the book. If a note requests renewal of a book " reserved" under rule 10, notice of recall will be sent and two days will be allowed for its return.

10. No book shall be renewed if the word " reserve " is on its register card. A book which has been lent will be reserved for the applicant for two days only after its return, if he leave, on the blank provided at the loan desk, his address and the title of the book. This "reserve" will be dated and sent him immediately on return of the book.

11. Books marked on the book plate and in the catalogues "REF " are for reference only, and will not be lent. Those marked " ref" will be lent and those marked "per " can be consulted, only on written permit from the librarian in charge.

12. No book shall be removed from the room in which it belongs without permission of the librarian in charge.

13. Books issued on call slips are for use in the reading rooms only. To be taken away from the library they must be charged at the loan desk, and any person taking from the library a book without having it so charged, will be fined 50 cents for each offense.

14. Any book, unreturned after one week's notice, may be sent for at the expense of the borrower.

15. Any book, unreturned after one month's notice, may be considered lost, in which case the borrower shall pay its value.

16. No reproductions by photography, tracing, etc. shall be made without permission from a librarian.

17. Notes, corrections of the press, or marks of any kind on books belonging to the library, are unconditionally forbidden. Any person violating this rule or otherwise injuring a book shall pay a fine satisfactory to the library committee or take the book and pay all costs of replacing it. The borrower is responsible for all injuries, however caused, to any book while charged to him, and if he finds a book mutilated or defaced should report the fact without delay at the loan desk. Books are assumed to be in proper condition when issued, and the borrower will be held responsible if a book be found mutilated or injured on its return.

18. Silence and decorum must be strictly observed in the reading rooms. The use of tobacco, all conversation except necessary questions, begging, circulating petitions, offering * articles for sale, or any act that may annoy readers is forbidden. Dogs must be left outside.

19. For wilful violation of any library rule the director may suspend the offender from all use of the library till the case is considered by the committee.

20. No person, except the director, superintendent of the building, and designated members of the library staff shall have a key to the library, and no key shall be lent for any purpose whatever.

Shelf department.— The tdtal number of volumes now on the shelf list as shown by table D is 89050 an increase of 30701 from 1 Oct. 1889. There still remain about 7000 volumes which are grouped mostly by subjects and which for various reasons it has seemed undesirable to move till they could be finally classed and assigned their permanent location. Among these are the newspapers and other large folios which are waiting suitable shelving; the college and academy catalogues which will be catalogued and finished gradually during the coming year; the U. S. documents, the books in the ms. room, etc. The number of volumes in each subject is shown in table E; this does not include the law library which would give a large increase in the subjects of Political science, 320; Law, 340; and Administration, 350.
Most of the duplicates are now stored in the fifth story, over the library, and will be classified and arranged as soon as shelving is provided. The statistics of duplicates in table D includes only those collected during the year from gifts, exchauge and careful collation of books in the library.

Respectfully submitted


New York State Library
for the Year Ending Sept. 30, 1891

George William Curtis, LL. D., L.H.D., Chancellor
Anson J. Upson, D. D., LL. D., Vice- Chancellor
Roswell P. Flower, Governor
William F. Sheehan, Lieutenant-Governor
Frank Rice, B. A., Secretary of State \Ex offit
Andrew S. Draper, LL. D., Sup't of Pub. Instruction ,
Melvil Dewey, M. A., Secretary - Albany
Albert B. Watkins, Ph. D., Ass't /Secretary - Albany

The Chancellor, Chairman
Chauncey M. Depew William H. Watson
Charles E. Fitch St Clair Mckelway
Whitelaw reid Pliny T. Sexton

List of regents *
Library committee *
Letter of transmittal *
Library staff'
Director's report ■
Staff changes'
Divisions of library work 8
Acquisition 8
Selection =
Exchange -•"
Gifts 13
Samples of printed forms 16
State medical library 16
Utilization 18
Bulletin of additions 18
Index to law periodicals 18
Law books of the year '19
Law division; report of librarian 19
Manuscripts and archives '21
Catalogues 21
Classification on shelves 22
Reference use 23
Loans 24
Preservation 26
Binding 26
Shelving 29
Building 30
Library school 31
Appendix 1: Summaries of state library statistics 86
Appendix 2: Statistics of New York libraries 49
Appendix 3: Summary of subjects and entries in Bulletin of state
legislation no. 2 62
Appendix 4: Gifts 84

To the Legislature of the State of New York

I have the honor to submit herewith, pursuant to law, as the 74th annual report of the regents of the University on the New York State Library, the report of the director of the library with appendices.


State Library Staff
Melvil Dewey, M. A. (Amherst) .... Director
S. B. Griswold Law librarian
George R. Howell, M. A. (Yale) Archivist
walter S. Biscoe, M. A. (Amherst) - - Catalogue librarian
dunkin V. R. Johnston, M. A. (Hobart) - Reference librarian
Mary Salome Cutler (Mt Holyoke), B. L. S. (N. Y.) Vice-director Library School
Harry E. Griswold - Sub-librarian (Law)
W: B. Shaw, B. A. (Oberlin) - - Sub-librarian (Legislation)
May Seymour, B. A. (Smith) - - Sub-librarian (Education)
Nina E. Brown, M. A. (Smith), B. L. S. (N. Y.) - Shelflister
Ada Alice Jones Cataloguer
Frank C. Patten Curator of catalogue
Florence Woodworth Cataloguer
Elizabeth Harvey ------ Cataloguer
Mabel Temple Cataloguer
Ada Bunnell, B. L. S. (N. Y.) - Cataloguer
Charles W: Plympton ----- Accession clerk
Martha T. Wheeler Indexer
J. Murray Downs ... - . . Junior clerk
Mary C. O'brien Junior clerk
Judson T. Jennings Page
Patrick F. Driscoll - - - Page
Roscoe B. Wills - Page
Chester Utter - - - - Page
John Mcdonald Page


To the Regents of the University of the State of New York:

I have the honor to submit the following report of the State Library for the year ending September 30, 1891.

Staff. A full list of the staff precedes this report; changes of the year are summarized in the table below.

a This large increase in the working force has been absolutely necessary because of the remarkable growth in the use of the library and the fact that it is now kept open twice as many hours during the year as formerly.

Divisions of library work. Besides general supervisory and executive duties, the work of every library divides itself into three main classes, acquisition, utilization and preservation; the three great functions of the librarian being, to get, to use, to keep. In the older conception of librarianship the librarian's chief duty was to preserve safely the volumes committed to his care. To that has been almost universally added the business of acquiring new books for the collection, and many of the most earnest librarians were content to follow the motto "get all you can and keep safe all you get." But the modern librarian recognizes that of these three, to get, to keep, to use, the greatest is to use. That is, not only to use himself, but to make as useful and accessible as possible to others. Following these plain divisions I shall, from year to year, lay before the regents in the annual report such records of our doings and statements of our aims and methods as seem worth attention and preservation.


Selection. In buying a book, it is not enough to decide whether it is a good book for the library, but also whether, all things considered, we could with the same money buy another book that would be not only good but better. Vet we believe it wiser to add to the library a second best book that some reader will use than one which, though intrinsically better, may possibly stand on the shelves for years unused.
We invite all interested in the library to indicate their judgment as to the most valuable additions. Readers are supplied free with printed recommendation blanks of the following form:

The circular below sent to each of the 410 institutions of the University illustrates our effort to use the money at our disposal in buying the books that will really be of greatest service to the state:


Each of the 410 institutions of the University is entitled as such to borrow books from the state library on the same terms as state officers, and we are anxious to make the library each year more practically valuable to all parts of the University and the state. I enclose a package of the library rules calling special attention to the supplementary note on loans of books outside Albany.

Our book appropriation is largely consumed in keeping up the great line of law books, serials and various sets and in doing needed binding; but after paying these fixed charges, we have a few thousand dollars for buying, and are anxious to spend this in a way to help most the largest number of those entitled to use the library. I enclose with return envelopes blanks on which books are recommended for purchase, and will gladly send as many more as you and your faculty may need. We suggest that this letter be read in faculty meeting and that the recommendation blanks be distributed to those interested. It would probably be more convenient to arrange that the recommendations should be handed in to some one person or dropped in a box provided and be forwarded from time to time in one package, than for each one to send his own. Orders are sent at least every week from the library, and every day if there are books for which there is special haste. Obviously we cannot promise to buy every book recommended, but we will undertake to select from these recommendations so far as our appropriation will allow, and make the additions that will best serve the largest number of institutions. Printed bulletins of books added will be mailed three or four times each year. If indicated on the recommendation blank, prompt postal notice of the receipt of any book, or, if specially requested, the book itself will be sent to the library of an institution or to the president or principal.

We believe it better to buy a second choice book that some professor or teacher needs and will be unable to see unless he gets it from the state library, rather than buy a book in itself better but which may possibly stand on our shelves for years before it is actually used.
These recommendations should not include books which the institution itself can buy. The State Library should supplement local libraries by owning books that only a few wealthy individual institutions can afford. Of many works, a single copy in Albany lent ae needed from college to college may properly supply the wants of the state.

Your cordial cooperation is invited in selecting the most desirable books thus to supplement the libraries of local institutions. 

'Each librarian and senior aid is responsible for being well abreast of some specific subject, for seeing that the best books are recommended, and for giving personal attention to selecting from the titles submitted those most needed in our collection In this way we get a consensus of judgment enabling us to make a much better selection than would be possible for any librarian or library staff without such cooperation.
Buying. Most of our American books are bought from a single agent at wholesale prices, and each week's list of publications is regularly checked up for those that should be added promptly. On foreign books we save the twenty-five per cent duty and get them promptly by having our European agents ship a package by fast steamer each week. Foreign periodicals come also in this way, with the result of receiving them quite as promptly, while they are clean and flat instead of crushed and soiled by the ocean mails. We also less often miss a number by this system, and the total cost to the state is less than three quarters of what it had been; for, though we sometimes pay our agent more than the old net price, we have eliminated entirely agents' commissions and charges for packing, cases, consul's certificates, custom house fees, postage and other incidentals which in the aggregate largely increase the cost of foreign books for which the bill may name a moderate price, and on which there is no direct duty.

Orders for which there is no haste are held back and from time to time, when found by the reference librarian in any of the hundreds of auction and second-hand catalogues which he scans yearly, are bought for a fraction of what they would otherwise cost. In buying large sets and filling gaps, we also utilize largely the principle of competition by sending to several prominent dealers the lists of our wants and ordering of the lowest responsible bidder. The records show that the new system is effecting savings in cost of several thousand dollars yearly, and at the same time raising the average character of our additions.

Exchange. As nearly our whole collection of books available for exchange (100,000 volumes) is in boxes, or wholly inaccessible, this source of additions from which we should have several thousand volumes yearly is practically closed to us till we can get the needed shelves for arranging our duplicates. We have many opportunities for such exchanges already registered, and as soon as our duplicates can be handled shall make important additions to the library without other expense thian the labor of sending books for which we now have no use.

The law librarian, who is in charge of exchanges, reports the following books and pamphlets sent out as exchanges:

New York court of appeals reports 284
New York supreme court reports I-6
New York session laws
New York legislative journals and documents 1704
New York regents reports 160
New York state museum reports 207
New York state museum bulletins ^
New York state library bulletins 335
Other volumes and pamphlets 114
Total 3,657

The following provision in 1771 shows how early the need was felt of such a system of exchanges as our duplicate department now provides.


Whereas an interchange of the laws passed and to be passed from time to time, in the several United States, may be of public utility; be it enacted, etc., That the person administering the government of this state for the time being, shall be, and is hereby authorized and required to transmit, from time to time, three copies of all the laws passed and to be passed by the legislature of this state, to the honorable the congress of the United States, and to the executive authority of each of the said United States, and to request a reciprocal interchange from each of the said states.(Laws of New York, 2d session, ch. 11, 17 Feb. 1770.)

As the largest of the states New York of course gives much more than it receives. We publish ten or twenty times as much as some of the smaller states, yet in exchange we get only a full set of their publications for a full set of ours.

Gifts. Reference to the year's statistics will show remarkable increase in gifts received. This is due not to accident or to an abnormal desire on the part of publishers, authors and book owners to give something to the great state of New York, hut to our persistent search for gifts and the systematic use of 17 different blanks, by means of which, at trifling cost, we are able to show these publishers, authors and book owners the advantage of sending copies to our collection. This represents not only a great saving to the state of books which might otherwise be bought, but, more important, it represents acquisition in our tire-proof library of an immense mass of literature otherwise unobtainable; for many of these gifts are books privately printed and others not in the ordinary channels of trade, and many find their way only to a few permanent fire-proof repositories. Persistence for a series of years in our present plan will make this library famous for its resources in legislation, law, public and social institutions, education and our other specialties.
The following forms, omitting usual heads and signatures illustrate the system.


Dear Sir: We are making as complete a collection as possible of books and pamphlets in all branches of and find that we lack of your publications all except those noted on the back of this sheet. Will you kindly complete our set to date, and put us on your distributing list for future publications. We should also be grateful for any other material on this subject that you can send us.

Pamphlets are specially desired; for not only are they more difficult to obtain than books, but frequently they contain more valuable . matter and our system makes them almost instantly available.

The state has provided for the library unexcelled quarters in absolutely fire-proof rooms having every comfort and convenience for readers, to whom they are always open freely from 8 A. M. to 10 p. M. throughout the year, including vacations and holidays. In the departments in which we are making special collections, the library will afford unequaled facilities to students, and obviously books and pamphlets on these subjects can nowhere be more widely useful to special investigators than in such a library. We hope for the active cooperation of all scholars, and all interested in these subjects, not only in giving such books, pamphlets and other material as they may individually be able to send, but' in enlisting the cooperation of others interested in providing the best possible facilities for those who wish to study broadly and deeply these important questions.

We send our own publications, postage and express paid, to libraries wishing to catalogue and preserve them. When there is no provision for such expenses, packages may be sent to us by express unpaid, or we will send stamps to prepay postage on notice of the amount.
When more convenient, foreign packages may be sent, marked New York State Library, to our agent Gustav E. Stechert, 30 Wellington street, W. C, London, or Hospital Strasse no. 10, Leipzig, who will forward them weekly.


is one of the many desirable publications which our appropriation does not allow us to buy. If you are willing to give it, we shall be glad to catalogue and permanently preserve it.

The library is fireproof and is open daily from 8 A. M. to 10 P. M., including Saturdays, holidays and vacations. If requested, we will send an equivalent of our publications.


Dear Sir: If you can give or any other similar works that you wish brought to the notice of educators, we shall be glad to give them a place in the new state educational library.

A permanent pedagogic exhibit has been begun, closely classed by subjects to show side by side textbooks of different publishers and, also various forms of school appliances. This exhibit will always be open to any one interested, and publishers and manufacturers are invited to cooperate in making it as complete as possible, both for their own advantage and that of the rapidly increasing number of students of educational methods wishing to examine it.

The state has provided for the library unexcelled quarters in absolutely fire-proof rooms having every comfort and convenience for readers, to whom they are open freely from 8 A. M. to 10 p. M. throughout the year, including vacations and holidays. In the departments in which the library is making special collections, it will afford uuequaled facilities to students, so that obviously books and pamphlets on these subjects can nowhere be more widely useful to special investigators than here. We hope for the active cooperation of all scholars, and all interested in these subjects, not only in giving such books, pamphlets and other material as they may individually be able to send, but also in enlisting the cooperation of others interested in providing the best possible facilities for those who wish to study broadly and deeply these important questions.

If requested, we will send an equivalent of our own publications.
University Publications


By a new law the regents maintain a duplicate department, which includes not only the publications of the five departments of the University, aggregating several thousand pages a year of reports, bulletins, memoirs, etc. of which the editions are insufficient to meet the demands, but also surplus copies of publications of other state departments, bureaus, boards and commissions. Therefore many hundred different works are available for exchange, ranging from small pamphlets to large scientific quartos costing many dollars each.

1 Substantial equivalents must be had for publications exchanged. We interpret this liberally, but can not send a dozen equivalents for one book or pamphlet received; nor can we, under guise of an exchange, send costly works for those of little value.Constant calls come in about this form: "Please send by early
mail, to John Smith." Sometimes John Smith is an earnest student, who needs and will make the best use of what he aslis. In other cases he is perhaps a street boy who has learned that state and government departments often find it easier to send what is asked for than to inquire whether it ought to be sent, and that a dollar's worth of post cards shrewdly distributed will bring him post-paid a quantity of documents which he can sell for old paper at a large profit. Sometimes he is a book dealer or his tool, who, by urging how much he needs the volumes in pursuit of his studies, etc. finally secures a set more complete than that of many large libraries, and then offers it to them at a high price. Sometimes John Smith asks for a five cent pamphlet, sometimes for a valuable set of reports.

Obviously a clearly defined system is imperative to prevent reckless distribution of costly publications to those who really care little for them, with the result of leaving no copies to complete sets in great libraries to be preserved for centuries, available to all scholars.

2 We maintain a large exchange list and readily send corresponding publications in return for those sent the state library from all parts of the world; but in view of these difficulties and abuses, and to enable those really needing our publications to secure them, they are now sent (preference always being given to New York institutions or citizens) only as follows: —a To leading libraries at home and abroad which agree to catalogue and preserve them permanently for public use;

'b To educational and scientific institutions engaged in similar work, and sending us their own publications;

C To individuals who have given tin such books, pamphlets, specimens or services as merit recognition Ijy complimentary copies;d To others having nothing suitable to offer in exchange who value the publications enough to pay the nominal price charged to protect unjust waste.
This price covers merely cost, of paper, printing and postage, no allowance being made for cost of original preparation. Editions printed are only large enough to meet the special claims above and probable sales. When the number printed for sale is exhausted, copies will be supplied, so far as they can be secured, at such prices as rarity and demand may determine. 

Certain volumes are specially difficult to obtain because a smaller edition was printed, or because part of the edition has been destroyed. Applications for these are all tiled, and as fast as we secure copies from gifts, auction or other sources, they are supplied to applicants, preference being given to libraries that preserve complete sets for public use.

Those having any New York state publications which they no longer require, are urged to send them to the State Library to be used in completing sets. Due credit will be given and the sender will be entitled to other books of similar value from the duplicate collection now numbering about 100,000 volumes.


Dear Sir: We should be glad to receive
in exchange for an equivalent in publications of the University of the State of New York.
Inclosed is a circular on exchanges and a list of publications from which to select, if you are willing to make the desired exchange.


We have received only of
As we send you our publications, will you kindly send us the other issues and put us on your exchange list.
Please address "Serials section, N. Y. State Library."
State medical library. The legislature at its last session passed the following:

Laws of N. Y. 1881, ch. 377, approved May 21, 1881
To provide for the acceptance and care, by the regents of the University, of the medical library donated to the state by the Albany medical college.

§ 1 The sum of $5,000 is hereby appropriated out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be paid by the treasurer on the warrant of the controller, on vouchers duly authenticated by the regents of the University, for the necessary expenses of providing suitable shelving and furniture to receive the medical library offered to the state by the Albany medical college, and for the necessary expenses of shelving, arranging and cataloguing the said library.

§ 2 The said medical library shall be a part of. the New York state library under the same government and regulations and shall be open for consultation to every citizen of the state at all hours when the state law library is open and shall be available for borrowing books to •'very accredited physician residing in the state of New York, who shall conform to the rules made by the regents for insuring proper protection and the largest usefulness to the people of the said medical library.

§ 3 This act shall take effect immediately.

By request of the governor before he signed this law, Ave examined the library of the Albany medical college and were gratified to find in it many large and valuable sets, which, in connection with the great medical indexes, have the highest value for research. AVe hope, as soon as the needed new shelving is built, to receive the books and start what gives good promise of being one of the most useful divisions of the library.

It is worthy of record that old school, homeopaths and eclectics joined heartily in urging the passage of the bill. In the hearings granted they proved to the ways and means and the finance committees that every citizen of the state had a direct interest, because his family physician might at any hour have need of the assistance which the medical library offers to every registered physician in the state. The request was for $5,000 for removal of the gift as a nucleus and for equipment, and for a second $5,000 to buy the new books without which the library will have little practical value. Leading members of the finance committee assured the physicians that when the books were received and in order there would be no difficulty whatever in securing an annual appropriation of $5,000 for additions and maintenance. As the present library is almost wholly of older books, including main' valuable sets, it is useless as a general medical library till the gaps are filled. We shall, therefore, not expect any use of the library to begin till after the next appropriation has been made and expended.

This includes not only the catalogues, classification and other aids to making a library valuable and useful, but also reference and home use.

Bulletin of additions. While the number of persons coming to the library has greatly increased, yet to reach the state at large much of our work must be done through printed agencies. We are, therefore, maintaining a series of publications worth preparing and printing simply for use in the library, but becoming more than doubly valuable since they can be placed in the hands of people interested all over the state. The improvement in the form of printing the lists of books added to the library each year, fully described on page 8 of the last report, has proved even more useful than anticipated. We propose, therefore, to print in October, January and April each year shorter bulletins of the latest new books omitting gifts, old books bought at auction or secured by exchange, binding, etc. These lists will serve a double purpose: smaller libraries throughout the state will learn from the carefully edited titles which are the latest and best books, and "will also get the exact classification in the full scheme as here used and now adopted by nearly 300 different libraries. In this way a single publication will announce important new additions to the state library, and suggest to libraries and readers throughout the state the best recent books from which to make their own selections. As all these bulletins, like the one already issued, will be closely classed and indexed by recognized experts, they will have a value far beyond anything else available.

Index to law periodicals. We shall also print a classified index, calling attention of the courts and bar to such articles in the great mass of leading periodicals received in the state library as are likely to be of special value. The number of law serials has become so great that neither judges nor practitioners have leisure to search them through, with a chance of occasionally finding something wanted. We are assured that our proposed index will be of great practical service to both bench and bar.

Law books of the year. This state has so large a body of lawyers, and they use the state library so much, that we shall, for their convenience, issue an annual list, not only of the law books which we add, but including all others published in English during the year, indicating such as are not in this library. Competent judges have pronounced the New York law library the best in the country in American law; and we are compelled, in meeting the demands and maintaining our reputation, to buy so large a portion of all that is published each year that it will not be a serious matter to enlarge our plan and make the bulletin an annual bibliography of law, which will be of great service to all other libraries.

Subject catalogue of law. There is need of bringing down to date the admirable subject law catalogue of' this library, which includes books to December 31, 1882. Nothing else will help our readers more, or be more useful in the various law libraries in the courts and state departments, or owned by the state. We plan to print this supplement as soon as practicable after December 31, 1802, when the 10 years are completed.

Necessary delay. I report these plans matured for bulletins, annual law index, animal law bibliography and 10-year subject catalogue. Any visitor to the library, however, sees in the great growth in duties how difficult it will bo to get an extra hour from the present staff. Unless we should ask an added appropriation it will probably be two* or three years before it trill be possible to get these needed publications started. Meantime, we are adjusting our work with the knowledge that we shall, at an early day, have these important aids.

Law division. The following statement is from the report to me of S. 15. Griswold, law librarian:

During the year ending September 30, 1891, 1,510 volumes were added to the law division, of which 872 were bought, and 038 were gifts or exchanges. 958 were continuations of sets already on the shelves.

The most important purchase was of British parliamentary papers for 1860 to 1867, consisting of 517 folio volumes. The library now has these papers for 1811 to 1832, 1842 to 1890, making over 3,000 volumes. As these papers prior to 1860 are out of print it will be exceedingly difficult to fill the gap from 1833 to 1841, except at the sale of the library of some member of parliament of that period. For such an opportunity we are watching.

The effort to supply deficiencies existing in the collection of American statute law has resulted in the following additions:

Vols. Alabama. Acts, 1819 1
Delaware. Acts, 1792, 1793, "1794 3
Florida. Acts, 1828 1
Georgia. Laws, 1801, 1802, 1803, 1805 4
Indiana. Laws, 1807 *. 1
Missouri. Laws, 1804-35 2
New Hampshire. Laws, 1799 1
New Mexico. Laws, lbi>6-7 1
Ohio. Acts (lpcal), 1831-2 1
Pennsylvania. Acts, 1813-14 1
Rhode Island. Acts, 1745-52 1
Public laws, 1817-19 1
South Carolina. Laws, 1782 '. 1
Wisconsin. Acts, 1837-8, (original ed.) 1
Important additions have been made to the reports and law periodicals among which are:
Am. and Eng. patent cases, v. 1-18, Wash. 1887-90.
('ape law journal, v. 1-7, Grahamstown 1886-90.
Gibson's law notes, v. 1-8, Lond. 1882-89.
Law students' journal, v. -11, Lond. 1879-90.
Pump court, v. 1-9, Loud. 1884-89.
Southern law journal, v. 1-2, Nashville 1881.
Texas law review, v. 1-5, Austin 1883-85.
U. S. treasury decisions, 1865-9 ). 24 v. Wash. 1869-91.
Weekly jurist, v. 1-2, Bloomington 1880-81.

The present annual book appropriation will not permit extended additions on foreign law. Among the years additions are:

Germany. Bundes Gesetzblatt, 1867-71. 5 v. Her. 1867-71.
Reichs Gesetzblatt, 1872-90. 19 v. Ber. 1872-90.
Code de commerce, Par. 1881.
Code d'org. judicaire. 2 v. Par. 1885.
Code de proc. civile, Par. 1887.
Code de proc. penale, Par. 1884.
Hungary. Code penale Par. 1885.
Italy. Code penale Par. 1890. ,
Netherlands. Code penale Par. 1883.
Zurich. Code civile Par. 1890.

Manuscripts and archives. 

George K. Howell, archivist, reports as follows:

Since the last report from this department I have finished the revision of the manuscript for another royal octavo calendar of the archives of the state, being a calendar of 32 volumes of manuscripts of much interest to the student of the early history of New York. These volumes cover the period from the surrender of the colony' to the crown of England in 1661 to the revolution in 1776. They contain records of the official transactions of the governor and council, decrees of courts, and give details of the transfer of the colony from the Dutch to the English power.

Six volumes of land papers, mostly the original drafts of land patents, have been indexed by name, date and locality.

As a beginning, two volumes of the important Clinton papers have been indexed.

A list of the manuscripts has been made.

Copies of the original Dutch records of land patents with translations are occasionally needed, and have been furnished for evidence in court.

Nearly one half of my time has been spent in necessary work in the general library, chiefly in attending to the wants of readers who express a desire for my assistance, or in preparing answers for letters sent to me or referred to me for information, or in selecting accessions to the library on American history and genealogy.
Besides publishing the calendar volume before mentioned, it would seem to be desirable, if not a duty, for the state to publish at least a calendar with index of the Clinton papers, which cover the time of the revolutionary war and the formative period of the state, continuing through the first quarter of the century.

There is a very urgent need of setting up the permanent shelving for the manuscript volumes, both for their protection and for their accessibility and convenient use.
Catalogues. We have kept up, in its most approved form, the accession book, which belongs, of course, in the accession department, but is often spoken of as a catalogue. In this the last entry is no. 156,056. We have also the shelf list or inventory which, since the books are closely classified on the shelves, makes the best possible brief subject catalogue in book form. Our catalogues proper are:

1 The author or name catalogue, arranged in a single alphabet and including authors, titles of anonymous books, subjects of biographies, criticism, and other entries that are most conveniently and readily found when arranged alphabetically by definite names. It is chiefly an index of authors and editors with biographies, bibliographies and criticisms indicated by entries on green, blue and yellow cards respectively.

2 The subject catalogue closely classed and used by means of the full printed index of about20,000 topics, each followed by a simple number referring instantly to the place in numerical order in the catalogue where all entries under that subject will be found. Fifty copies of the full scheme of classification with its index were given to the library by the author in order that they might be freely provided at the catalogue cases and in each room.

The form of these catalogues has been determined after careful study of scores of methods, and it is believed that they are the best known for the uses of this library. As to their execution it is the common remark of visitors familiar with catalogues that in beauty and legibility of handwriting, in number and convenient arrangement of guides by which the labor of consultation is reduced one half, and in details of arrangement and storage they are unsurpassed. Hurriedly written cards could be made with much less labor and cost, but it is wiser to secure the maximum of legibility, thus increasing the labor of the cataloguer who makes the card but once, but greatly lessening the labor of every consulter of the catalogue, many of the cards of which will be read thousands of times.

Classification on shelves. Our books, pamphlets, newspaper clippings and other material are all arranged on the shelves by the same minute classification used in the catalogues, bulletins and indexes. As fast as time can be found from the rapidly increasing daily work of meeting demands from readers, labels and guides are being placed freely on the shelves showing the position of each division and section. There is growing appreciation among users of the library of the great advantage of finding together in one place its resources on the subject in which they may be interested, and an increasing number are coming from distant points to avail themselves of the advantage of working in a large library so arranged. When our plans are fully carried out, we can give any applicant access to what the library contains on any subject with the least possible delay. To enable the reference librarian to give at once to any reader the book, pamphlet, article or chapter, winch then and there and for him is the most valuable thing the library contains, requires a very carefully organized system carried out with great intelligence and skill. The labor involved in making the necessary catalogues and indexes to meet this ideal is beyond the conception of any one who has not made a special study of these problems, but once done on the new plan adopted it is done permanently; the work stands as long as the library lasts, and obviously it would be false economy to do this work hastily and imperfectly so that it would have to be done over again in the future. Compared with the few libraries in the world doing similar high-grade permanent work, it will "be seen that the progress made by our limited cataloguing force is most creditable to their industry.
From the report of W. S. Roscoe, catalogue librarian, I extract the following:

Accession. 476 orders wore sent to agents, 534 orders received and five canceled, leaving 127 orders outstanding October, 1891. This does not include orders sent to auction sales.

Card catalogue. Beside the regular additions of the year, the books in the class 920, genealogy, were finished and those in 920, biography, 930, ancient history, and 940-43, history of Europe, Great Britain and Germany, were also catalogued.

Shelf department. Of the volumes reported as not on the shelf lists last year, about 5,000 are still unmarked. They include the folios, newspapers, a portion of the U. S. documents, patents, etc.

Reference use. The rapidly increasing number of readers coming to the building has forced us to occupy the central room before completion. Desks of the reference librarians are placed in each end with an attendant at the entrance in the center. Though our rooms are unfinished and it requires a guide to find the way through the scaffolding and masonry outside the library door, and though as yet we have made no effort to increase the number of readers, a steady and substantial growth has filled our available rooms on busy days, and we have been compelled already twice to increase permanently the number of tables and chairs. The library has been ready since October 1, 1890, to keep open until 10 p. M., but suspension of work on the building for a year and delays in completing the electric-light plant have made it impossible. It is only the present week that we are promised early opportunity to open our doors. There is every indication that when we are fully in operation the use of the library will be several times greater than in the past.

Loans. As we circulate no popular books and do not undertake the functions of a public library for Albany and vicinity, a comparison of our circulation with that of an ordinary library is as misleading as to compare the circulation of a scholarly book with that of a great daily newspaper. For a reference library to supply a score of earnest students with books without which their studies might have been largely fruitless, is a greater work than to supply 1,000 volumes of popular novels. An increasing number of institutions of the University are using the library to supplement their own collections. Fears expressed by some that this might seriously impair the usefulness of the library at the capitol have been found almost groundless. We do not send away ordinary reference books or others in constant demand. Each institution is supposed to have the more common books at its disposal, and we lind in practice that the books called for from various points throughout the state for use for a day or possibly a week or two, are seldom called for in Albany duringtheir absence. Of many books a single copy which can thus be lent to one library and another about the state will supply the 'whole demand, and in no way can the same money do so much to encourage libraries and education as to provide that single copy in the state library to be lent as allowed under present rules.

From the report of D. V. R. Johnston, reference librarian, I quote:

The library has been open to readers every day, except Sunday, from 8 A. M. till 6 r. M., except during the mouths of November, December and the first two weeks of January, when the absence of artificial light made it necessary to close at 5 P. M.

Early in the year the pressure of the public in the smaller reference rooms forced us to move into the large central room before it was finished. The occupancy of this room in its unfinished condition has led to some inconvenience to readers as well as to staff; but constantly increasing use has more than proved the wisdom of the step, without which we could not have accommodated our readers.

It has not been found practicable to record the regular use of the library for reference, but its incidental use for lending is readily tabulated from the loan desk records.

The number of volumes drawn from the library under rule 4, are by months, as follows:

October, 1890 456 June, 1891 464
November, 1890 547 July, 1891 338
December, 1890 539 August, 1891 202
January, 1891 730 September, 1891 264
February, 1891 695
March, 1891 075 Total, 1891 0,176
April, 1891 537 Total, 1890 2,120
May, 1891 639

Under authority of rule 4, 31 institutions have drawn books during the year, and 55 persons have been registered as special borrowers. Beside books sent to institutions, a number of books have been sent out to special students; but as all books sent from the city are transported at the borrower's expense, the books have been such as were impracticable for the persons or institutions to procure at home. This use, though of great service to the public, lias not impaired the use of the library for official purposes in the city.

The percentage of books drawn from the ten main classes has been approximately as follows:

0 General works 33 7 Fine arts 2
1 Philosophy 1.25 8 Literature 20.4
2 Religion 2.5 9 History 19
3 Sociology 15.75
4 Philology 1.2 100
5 Natural science 3.2
6 Useful arts 1.7

This head includes such matters as pertain to the safe keeping of books, pamphlets and other library property.

Binding. The experiment of the year has proved the wisdom of doing much of our own binding. We submitted to the library committee a collection of books as bound for the state by various firms, and beside them samples taken entirely at random from the work done during the past year in our own bindery. The improvement in appearance, strength and in every element that makes up a satisfactory book was evident to a layman and experts recognize that our binding is equal to the best, no effort being made for decoration, but simply for a maximum of durability with plain finish and lettering. We have gained in safety from fire, as our books have not had to leave this thoroughly fire proof building; and in the very great convenience of having the books at hand so that, as often happens, a reader in haste to see a volume may have it brought from the bindery and make his reference within ten minutes, when under the old system he might have to wait for weeks. When to these advantages we add that the state would have paid for the inferior binding as much as this has cost, it is evident that this use of rooms and facilities can well be continued, while the record of the last few months shows that we shall be able to maintain this standard and make a saving sufficient to cover use of machinery and other incidental expenses. For details of the experiment I refer to the full records of the work done, with its value as estimated by the lowest contract prices which were offered us outside for satisfactory binding.

By the change made in terms the binders acquire a direct interest in doing full work and in saving all waste. Unless there is a clear profit in the bindery, they must work the longer hours and go without vacation, as do binders employed in private shops. Every employee is thus personally interested that the bindery shall be made a financial success.

D. V. R. Johnston, in charge of bindery, reports:

Though when work was begun on November 1, all machinery was in place and stock on hand, yet it was found that- almost all the time of the binders for the first month was consumed in adjusting machinery, preparing materials and completing the organization of the shop, and in this month there was a loss in round numbers of $W. At the end of January a rough estimate was made and an approximate Ions of $114 was found. A careful examination led to the conclusion that the only way to make the bindery a success was to introduce a closer subdivision of labor. Accordingly an apprentice was secured who was to give general assistance in all brandies of binding. .Since that time the bindery has shown a better statement.

On July 1, an inventory was taken and a balance sheet made as below:

Net cost of stock. $299 39
Wages 1,338 00
Repairs to plant 33 35
Total cost $1,670 74

New binding $1,268 70
Extra work, etc 302 43
Total return $1,571 13
This shows a net loss of $99.61 for eight months.

As this loss was larger than there was reason to expect, a new agreement with the binders was made whe eby instead of 48 hours per week they agreed from October 1, 1891 on to give 54 hours, and instead of 50 weeks the bindery was to run 52, closing only on the full legal holidays. On the other band it was agreed that out of any profits made over and above expenses one-half should be divided among the binders either in the form of shorter hours, vacations or money, as they might elect. Moreover, the binders, on their own suggestion, surrendered one week of the vacation to which they were entitled.

On November 1, at the end of a full year, a complete inventory was taken and the account balanced, showing as below:

Total cost of stock Si ,088 27
Less stock on hand 597 82
Net cost, of stock *490 45
Wages 2,094 00
Cost of repairs to plant 93 33
Total cost $2,677 78

New binding , $2,139 10
Extra work, etc 459 32
Total return $2,598 4-2

Thus, in the last four months, only one of which was under the new schedule of time, the bindery paid its way and reduced the loss on the preceding eight months $20.25, besides paying $59.98 for repairs and taking a week's vacation. Though in the preceding schedules "repairs" have been in all cases computed among running expenses, yet since $08.33 of the total of $93.33 has been spent in putting old machinery in condition to do good work, in justice to our workmen, this $68.33 should be charged to the equipment and not to running expenses. This would reduce the net loss 10 $11.03 for the full year. Having carefully studied the subject of library binderies during the year, it seems to me from all data collected that so long as we do work of the character now done to the amount of $3,000 per year, we are likely at least to cover expenses. During the year we have had $7083.85 in work done outside, which added to work done in our bindery makes a total of $3,362.27. We are now doing work at the rate of from $3,200 to $3,400 per year, and this amount each year for many years to come can advantageously be done without loss, though it can hardly be expected that we shall absorb the whole cost of our plant.

Further details of work are shown by the following table, which is consolidated from similar reports submitted to the Director each month:


Shelving. We have secured during the year a few cases of shelves for patents in room 343 and four cases in the center, room 35. Most important is the shelving sufficient to make room for the new state medical library gained by moving out the library partition to include 30 feet of the dark corridor extending from the senate cloak room to the toilet room. The new shelving which is simply an extension of that already filled with history, will accommodate the history now stored in the two rooms south of the great central reading room, thus making them available for the medical library, besides bringing all the history together. The medical library will therefore be as well placed as the law, which occupies the corresponding rooms north of the center, and will be available evenings and holidays when only the central part of the library is open. The physicians of the state will thus have what they have so strongly urged, a room for their medical library on the legislative Moor and near the main entrance. With the approval of the trustees of public buildings, Capitol Commissioner Perry cut a new door to the senate toilet room from the cloak room so that, while the senators have no further to go, their room will no longer be overrun by the general public, for whom ample provision is made elsewhere on the floor.

Taking in this space which was useless for any other purpose enables the senators to get any needed books from the state library directly through the the senate library by going only one fifth the distance heretofore necessary. While the new arrangement will be far more convenient for everyone than the old, fire-proof shelving for 25,000 volumes has been secured without building a new room or cutting off any part of the corridors useful as a passage. The objections to the use of corridor space in other places, that the partitions cut off light and give an appearance of temporary occupancy of the end of a corridor, do not apply as this corridor was already entirely cut off by the old arrangement. The evils were further modified by making the partition of glass and setting it so that it is not seen by those passing through the building.

There is pressing need of shelving on the fifth story for the 100,000 volumes of duplicates now boxed or piled in disgraceful heaps like so much fuel. The books are being seriously injured every added month that they are left in this condition, and as the only thing needed is plain shelving in the upper story, it is hoped that the next legislature will provide for arranging the duplicate department and putting in operation the system of exchanges, which will at once add largely to our own collection and reduce our state publications in many libraries where they will be permanently preserved and become useful to the public.

Building. It is quite impossible to give satisfactory supervision or to keep the various rooms in satisfactory condition till the workmen have entirely finished and removed their tools and materials. Constant confusion, dirt and litter are inevitable where mechanics are at work or almost daily passing through the rooms. As I reported last year, we are patiently enduring these annoyances trusting that the public will understand that it is not in any sense our fault, and that we are doing all in our power to lessen the discomfort to readers. New fireplaces have been put in during the year, adding greatly to the appearance of the room and improving ventilation. The new system of ventilation just starting, promises to give the library the best air in the capitol.

For a year we have suffered the severe annoyance of having no cleaners for our books, but within a week the superintendent of the capitol has again assigned to duty women who have begun removing the accumulated dust of the past year.

We hope in the next report to announce that the greatly needed elevator inside the library has been completed and is running.


The special bulletin of 70 pages already printed gives so full a report of the school that only a word of summary is needed here. There is entire agreement among the faculty and visitors to the school that the last year has been an advance on any preceding. Each year the standard required for admission to the school is raised, for the number of applicants increases so that we are able to maintain the full number that we can accommodate while exacting annually higher requirements. A candidate for a degree in the Library school is required to have three years more of general education than is required by the best law and medical schools for their degrees, and the standard of work exacted in the two years of residence is also much higher, for we require 90 per cent in three fourths of all work of the course for a degree, and a minimum of 75 per cent for certificates and diplomas without the degree.

The growing respect for the standards of the school is shown in the number of applications made two, three, and sometimes live years in advance of entrance. Within a few days a promising student, whose friends thought him well fitted for librarianship, filed his application, saying that if in due time he could be received into the Library school, he would on completing his academic course next June, enter Cornell university, take its four year's course, and then complete the preparation for his life work in the Library school. We find in such cases our strongest encouragement for the future, for our need is of bright men and women, with broad general education supplemented with technical training, to fill the many positions now opening where good salaries will be paid if competent librarians can be found. As in university extension, this provision of trained workers is at the corner stone of any abiding success. It is useless to spend the state's money in elaborating plans of organization, erecting buildings, collecting libraries and museums, laying out extension courses, examinations and credentials, unless we can find competent workers. It is like building elaborate engines when there are no trained engineers available, or spending large sums on great organs with many keyboards and pedals and a wilderness of stops when the only performers available can handle only a single bank of keys.

As having a greater value to the regents and to the legislature than my own report I refer to that of the committee of the American library association, which annually appoints a committee of three disinterested experts to visit the school, study its workings and give to the profession their frank and unbiased opinion.

This report will lie found in the Library journal for December 1891, p. 85-87.

[from Proceedings Of San Francisco Meeting Of American Library Association, 1891. Library Journal 16:Car)-87.

J Frank P. Hill, librarian of the Newark (N. J.) Public library reported as follows for the committee: "What the school does

1 It offers the aspirants for library honors the same opportunities granted the lawyer, the doctor, the minister, each in his chosen profession. The students have a well-defined purpose in view and intend to carry it out.

2 It brings together those who are completely interested in the subject. The very elect go there. No drones are admitted, or, if they do get in, soon find the pace too fast and quietly retire.

3 It starts and educates the pupils in the right way, and prepares them for the real work which begins in the library proper.t The course of training gives the pupils an insight into the most approved methods of management and systems of classification adopted by the larger libraries in the country; and by occasional visits to the library centers they are enabled to see how the work is carried on. So when the graduates go forth, they are not wedded to one particular theory, but are prepared to grasp any. I am aware that some librarians prefer to train their own assistants, feeling sure then that they will he brought up in the way they should go. In the long run this may pay, but I doubt it. Exceptions only prove the rule. If I had my way every recruit should come from another library or the Library school, in order that new ideas might be brought in, fresh inspiration infused into the old soldiers, and a higher standard set for their emulation; just as one returns from a conference of the A. L. A. quickened by the intercourse with brother librarians, and ready to keep in line with all that is best in library work.

5 It keeps librarians and assistants on their mettle all the time. They don't want the school to get ahead of them. One good library school girl will put more snap into a staff than any amount of scolding, Hattery, or A. L. A. conferences.

6 It places library work on a more elevated plane, by making it a recognized science.

7 It teaches trustees and the public to have greater respect for the calling of a librarian; for they find at the school not mere enthusiasts, but earnest, thoughtful, far-seeing students fully alive to the requirements of the times, and prepared to enter wholesouled into this great educational work.

8 It shows trustees where they can find competent employees I do not mean to say there isn't good material in the libraries of to day; but I do contend that there is a surplus of poor stock among us, and whatever can be done to improve the quality merits approval.

9 It has resulted in giving to new libraries trained and competent people, who could lay a good foundation and build upon it; and where a library school pupil has been put in charge of an old library better service has been the outcome.

1<> Wherever its existence is known would-be applicants [for library positions) are deterred from becoming candidates. Hoards of trustees now recognize the fact that local talent is not always the best. Iieally, the people do not care whether or no an employee is a resident — what they want is the service. Trustees no longer find it necessary to select a local candidate whenever a vacancy occurs. They can look only to the good of the library.The time will come, and that soon, when trustees will no more think of taking an inexperienced person for librarian or assistant, than they would of engaging the services of a mining engineer to erect their building. Before the school was established, trustees seldom thought of going outside the city for library help. They felt they must select some local man or woman. Times are better now.
Finally: Every graduate is a living example of the usefulness of the Library school.
Rapid strides have been taken since 1SS7. Every year adds to its reputation, and in this success librarians rejoice. The school has settled down to staid, definite work. The hurry and drive, accompanied by high nervous teusion, are gone. There is still plenty of interest and enthusiasm left, but one no longer notices that attempt to do .too much in a short time. This year the instructors, not the pupils, seem to be the ones who need restraint.
From inquiries made of other librarians, supported by my own experience, it is conclusively proven that the pupils, as a rule, underrate rather than overrate their own ability.

A few words in the way of criticism: If anything, the entrance examinations are too severe. Perhaps not too much so to secure the best material; but it seems to me that just as good results might be obtained with a little lower standard, tor instance, applicants who have had library experience, and appear to be imbued with the "proper library spirit," might be taken on trial even though they fail to pass the examinations, for it isn't always the best educated person who makes the best librarian. It is quite as necessary to know how to meet and treat people who visit the library as to know books; and the former is as hard fur some to learn as is the latter for others. A happy medium is desirable.The pupils should not be rushed. It were better to lengthen the course and not make them think they can learn everything in two years.

To librarians I would say: Steer clear of the Library school unless you are as enthusiastic as the instructors and pupils, and are fully prepared to answer all manner of questions.

It is a mistake that the name of the school should be con lined to a single state; and I hope the board of regents having control of trie school will consent to drop the words New York state from the title, and let it be known as "The Library School."

In my judgment the school is here to stay, and will continue to increase in usefulness until it shall be recognized and accepted by the great brotherhood of librarians and the community at large, as the most powerful agent in shaping successful library work."This report is one more in the long series of testimonials to the practical wisdom of the regents in giving systematic training to librarians as an essential part of their duty in promoting library interests. Few new movements in education have received such warm commendation as has this, from every qualified person or committee that has examined it. In spite of its value and remarkable success, neither the length of the course nor the number of students can be increased, for the state has never been asked for a dollar for the expenses of the school. The director has from the first given his services outright, beside paying privately each year considerable expenses for which there was no other provision. Nearly a score of the foremost librarians of the country have generously shown their interest in this careful preparation for the profession, by giving their services as lecturers, and several of the state library staff has given much valuable labor outside official hours. As authorized by law, the regents conduct library examinations, which are open not only to the school but to the state at large, and employ for this work a single library examiner. All other expenses of administration and instruction are met by voluntary service or private gifts, by the $40 paid each year by every student, by the tuition fees paid by all non-residents of the state and by the systematic services rendered by the students to the state library in return for assistance from members of the statf. This great work has therefore been carried on without any state appropriation and justly deserves the high praise it receives from all those who take pains to understand it.
The appended statistics of the state library show compactly its increase in additions, in use and in work accomplished in the cataloguing department. If we are able to make as good a record of growth and increased usefulness in each coming year, Ave shall be abundantly satisfied.
Respectfully submitted
Melvil Dewey

E Summary of hook*, serials and subject cards in each of the 10 main

This table shows additions made to books and catalogue in
classes. Detailed summary under ea<:h of the 100 divisions
each subject and will serve for comparison from year to year.

E Summary of books, serials and subject rank

This table shows additions made to books and catalogues in400 Spanisli
470 Latin
480 Greek
490 Minor languages

400 Total50O Natural science ....
51ii Mathematics
520 Astronomy
530 Physics
540 Cheniistuy
550 Geology
560 Paleontology
570 Biology
580 Botany
590 Zoology

500 TotalGOO Useful arts...
610 Medicine
021) Engineering
630 Agriculture
640 Domestic econ
650 Communication
66ii Chemical tech
670 Manufactures
6H0 Mech trades
690 Building

OOO Total7O0 Fine arts
710 Landscape gard
790 Architecture
730 Sculpture
740 Drawing
750 Painting
760 Engraving
770 Photography
780 Music
700 Amusements

70O Total800 Literature
810 American
820 English
830 German
840 French
850 Italian
860 Spanish
870 Latin
880 Greek
890 Minor languages

800 Total900 History
910 Geography
990 Biography
930 Ancient history
9401 f Europe
950 1 Asia
^jModernj^erica980 I So. America.
990 J I Oceanica ...
000 Total

in each of the 10 main classes, etc.— (Concluded)
each subject and will serve for comparison from year to year.

The following statistics are a revision of those printed in Regents' bulletin 3 V prefixed to any item indicates that it is not a verified statement but the best obtainable estimate.

Under Hours Open Weekly, 0 in column For reading means no reading-room or accommodation for readers.

Under Terms Of Use abbreviations are:
F Free.
Fr Free with specified restrictions.
F1 Free to limited class.
FR Free for reference.
FL Free for lending.
S Subscription.
SI Subscription limited.
Prl Private.
For full explanation of abbreviations see p. 60-61.

page 57 on 


To the Legislature of the State of New York

I have the honor to submit herewith, pursuant to law, as the 75th annual report of the regents of the University on the New York state library, the report of the director of the library with appendices.


List of regents cover 2
Library committee"
Letter of transmittal'
Director's report"
Staff and employees 9
Changes of the year 10
Salaries 12
Books 18
Incidentals 13
Buying supplies 14
Publications 15
New York libraries 16
Bulletin of additions 16
Law library bulletins 1"
Annotated reading lists 1?
Bulletin of comparative legislation 17
Library school bulletin 17
Printing 17
Law division 18
Court of appeals cases and briefs of counsel 18
Supreme court cases and briefs of counsel 19
Education division 19
Medical division 20
Manuscripts and archives 20
Report of archivist 21
Autographs of the signers 22
Clinton mss 22
Columbus portraits 22
Land papers 28
Future work 23
Proposed divisions 24
Military and agricultural libraries 24
Acquisition 24
Accessions 1818-92, by five-year periods 24
Order department 25
Character of additions 25
Gifts 27
Periodicals 28
Sequents 28
Special appropriations 28
Utilization 29
Catalog 39
Printed titles 29
Reference use 30
Reference lists 32
Evening use 32
Silence and decorum in reading rooms 34
Loans 35
Loans to institutions and special investigators 35
Preservation 38
Binding 36
Building 39
New shelving 39
Electric light 40
Improvements • • • • 40
Card catalog drawers 41
Electric clocks 41
Ladies room 41
Library school 42
Graduates and students 44
Public libraries department 46
New library laws 49
Public library money 57
Traveling libraries 58
Selection of books 59
Duplicate department 60
Exchanges '1
Library associations 68
New York library association 63
Appendix 1: Summaries of state library statistics 64
Appendix 2: New York Library association 72
Appendix 3: Gifts 97
Index 137

New York State Library


To the Regents of the University of the State of New York

I have the honor to report for the year ending September 30, 1892, as follows.
For convenience in comparing reports for various years, a regular outline is followed and the comments are grouped under the heads of staff, finances, publications, general library with its law, education, medical and mss divisions, acquisition, use, preservation, Library school, Public libraries department, Duplicate department and library associations. Subheads of each topic are shown in the table of contents.


This list includes all employed for either whole or partial time, and for evening, holiday and vacation opening, not only in the state library proper, but also in the public libraries and duplicate departments, bindery, and law, medical and education libraries. Date of first entering service, name, position, present salary and increase (if any) for the coming year are as follows:


Appropriations. There are granted annually $19,900 for salaries, $15,000 for books, serials and binding, and $3,000 for expenses. Beside the $15,000 the regents are also authorized by law to expend for books money received from the sale of duplicates or state publications. Several hundred dollars are now sent in each year for bulletins and other pamphlets thus showing conclusively the esteem in which they are held. In proposing this system of charging a small price for our publications, I predicted that it would result in showing what was really valuable, for people will not pay even a small price for anything they do not appreciate.

Payments 1891-92
1890-91 1891-92 

Books $10977 07 $8384 47
Serials 2778 43 1694 59
Binding 3889 84 3266 84
Fittings 297 43 32 L 76
Supplies 284 76 20a 13
Printing 201 52 1260 47
Travel 18 65 101 32
Repairs 198 25
Other incidentals 198 41 331 18
Salaries 18683 15 20860 04
$37329 26 $36627 05

Detailed reports of all these payments have been submitted each month to the finance committee and are on record in the regents' office and also at the state controller's.

Salaries. Full details are given both in the regents' report and in the preceding tables. These will, however, mislead unless it is borne in mind that for convenience and economy of administration the regents include in a single staff all those employed in the half dozen different departments closely allied to the state library proper. The list is also larger, because under the law by which the regents assist in starting and reorganizing libraries throughout the state it is often necessary to detail members of the state library staff for temporary service elsewhere. As these services are paid for by the local libraries the state's payments are by so much reduced. If all on this list gave their entire time to the state we should greatly exceed the annual appropriation for salaries, but in fact so many give only partial time that, as shown in the financial tables both in the library and regents' reports, we each year have a small balance left over.

The list of promotions seems formidable till the system is understood. Only four of the 18 promotions are such in the ordinary sense and these are due to assumption of extra duties. The rest are merely the routine increase for each added year of experience. Instead of filling a $600 position with an untried assistant at $50 a month, as formerly, it is now given if possible to some one already in our employ who began at $20 a month with the understanding that if services were satisfactory there would be an increase of $5 a month up to this point for each year as long as there were vacancies. Thus, before the permanent salary was reached this name would appear six times on our lists of promotions when by the old system it would not appear at all. Yet by the new plan we have reduced our average expenditure for services over 30 per cent and secured a better grade of assistants than ever before. The usual increase in salaries is $60 a year. Under this system while we have added several senior assistants the average annual salary for the 11 additions to the staff is only $305.45.

The total cost of changes and additions represents not an increased cost of running the state library proper but that of vacation, holiday and evening opening, duplicate and public libraries departments, bindery, and law and medical and education libraries. For this extra work an estimate was made and the record shows that we have succeeded in keeping expenses something below what was appropriated for the purpose. Owing to the low salaries paid for the high grade of services required we each year lose several members of our staff who accept positions offering a large advance. By employing junior clerks to assist librarians and senior aids a given expenditure is made to yield its maximum, for often a librarian with a bright junior clerk can accomplish as much as two librarians. Every appointment is made in strict conformity to civil service rules, and in no department is more continuous and faithful service rendered. Total payments for salaries for the year have been $20,860.04.

Books. Tables B, D, and E, appendix 1, show in great detail how the $15,000 for books, serials and binding has been used. These are by months, by the 100 subject divisions, by size and style of binding and by frequency of issue of serials.

Tinder "Finances" above we give the actual payments during the fiscal year, as recorded by the bookkeeper. Table D gives the cost of the books added to the accession book during that period. As the dates of cataloging and the payment of bills do not agree, the totals for each year must of necessity vary in the two tables; though in a series of years they balance each other.

The library records show the cost of books added to be $9273.27; serials $1801.48 and binding $3387.09.

I propose with the coming year to organize five of the most efficient advisers on the staff into a book board to pass on every book recommended in order that we may, to the extent of our means, select exactly the books most needed in our library. A year's trial of the book board will probably show a still farther gain in this important matter.

Incidentals. While work on the capitol is in progress many expenses which would be paid from this fund have been borne by the construction department. As a result we have been able to turn back into the treasury an unexpended balance and hope to do the same for the coming year. On completion of the building, these expenses will be sufficient to use the entire appropriation of $3,000 a year.

Buying supplies. While the amount is small we have strictly observed the same rule explained on page 11 of the last report. No patronage is dispensed, but everyone is told that we always buy from the lowest responsible bidder that will fill orders promptly and satisfactorily. Whenever we find it possible to get lower prices the bookkeeper, by a standing rule, orders the next supply from the new source. The effect of this policy, approved by the finance committee and the regents before its adoption, could have been predicted, prices in some cases having fallen over 50 per cent below those previously charged; but while it has saved us thousands of dollars in the past four years, it has cost us the enmity of certain interested parties who had formerly supplied the departments at much higher prices.

There has been but one exception to this rule of buying from the lowest responsible bidder. Some articles have been made in Albany that could have been bought cheaper through the cooperative supply department of the American Library Association. This agency was started in 1876 by its cooperation committee, which, after comparing different appliances used by perhaps a score of libraries selected the best patterns and from these had made a supply large enough for 100 or more libraries instead of one. Making in large quantities and by special machinery in man}' cases reduced cost more than half while the quality was materially improved. After several years this business grew so large that the association transferred it to a corporation formed by several librarians for this purpose under the name Library Bureau. Your director was the originator of this cooperative plan and as secretary of the national association of librarians had direction of it. From 1880 to 1883 he was manager of the bureau, but is now only nominally connected with it as consulting librarian. Though the library committee and officers of the regents recommended that the state library should get from the Bureau any supplies which could be had there cheaper, I have thought it wiser because of former active and present nominal connection not to make such purchases.

By courtesy of the Bureau and because of assistance and advice in library matters, they have given me permission to use for the state without charge, any of their patterns or models even though covered by patents or copyrights. I have therefore had various makers in Albany duplicate, from models borrowed from the Bureau, articles which we needed. The cost of making in small quantity has been larger than to have bought them direct, but it precludes criticism. When we found that some articles for sale only by the Library Bureau and necessary for the most economical management of the library could not be made without an investment so large as to be prohibitive, the matter was submitted to Controller Wemple, who solved our difficulty by undertaking to have made or to buy for us whatever was necessary. In buying large quantities of supplies for the state offices he was able to command wholesale prices and also unusual facilities. As a result nearly every thing used by the library has been ordered by the controller from those who supply the state offices, and the prices have been approved by him before bills came to us for payment. Though at first there were many little things which could not be made at home, different Albany firms have now arranged for their manufacture so that there is little left which we need to get through the controller.

The demands of the library requiring numerous classifications and indexes of which your director is the author, he gave abundant copies for its use amounting at wholesale price to $200. These details are reported to the regents because it seems proper to record the extreme care which from the first has been taken by the new administration in expending state appropriations. Though our total expenditures for the year for supplies have been only $208.13 the principle is the same that has governed the expenditure of the nearly $40,000 used for books, salaries and other expenses.


As our library is the property of the whole state its proper work can be done only by the large use of publications which can go cheaply to all parts of the state. In order to save means for printing the most valuable we have begun by omitting from the annual reports much matter for which few people cared. We shall hereafter print in compact form much detailed information as to the workings of the library and add other matter thought most valuable to library interests.

New York libraries. Last year we gave the fullest and most reliable statistics yet published of the 568 libraries which reported to the regents. These included location, name of library, year founded, volumes added during the past year, total volumes in library, hours open weekly for lending and for reading; expenditures for books, serials and binding, for salaries and for all other expenses, with totals; class of books if the library is not general, its ownership or control, terms of use and names of librarian or person in charge. Next year this list will be again revised to date and printed, still further improved in form. These statistics will appear in condensed form each year, and each five years a fuller report will be made so that the history of the libraries of the state can be fully traced through this annual bulletin.

Bulletin of additions. The list of state library accessions which was prepared promptly for publication is still unprinted, the pressure of work at the state printing office having crowded it over from month to month till finally its destruction by fire has still further postponed its appearance. The new University law now authorizes the printing of this and similar bulletins in advance of the annual report, and we can put before the libraries, institutions of the University and others specially interested, the lists of additions to the library without annoying delays. We propose to publish about January 1, and April 1 of each year a bulletin of important additions, including new books and important old ones, but not including unimportant old books received by gift and exchange or bought from auction or second-hand lists. These bulletins will be of the greatest practical value to the libraries of the state in advising them not only of what has been added to the state library but in giving them a carefully selected list of the best new books with catalog titles prepared by expert catalogers and with class numbers attached showing the scope of each book and guiding to its proper location on the shelves in any of the nearly 300 libraries using the state library system.

Law library bulletins. The subject catalog of additions to the law library for the past 10 years is in preparation and will be issued late in 1893. The law bibliography of each year will be begun as soon as the printers have caught up with the arrears caused by the fire.

Annotated reading lists. Next year we shall publish in compact form for wide distribution a dozen short annotated lists of the best reading, thus beginning one of the most important practical series possible to a state library department.

Bulletin of comparative legislation. The annual summary of comparative legislation continues to increase in public appreciation and is sought for all through the country and also by prominent scholars and libraries abroad wherever there is study of comparative legislation. We maintain this in the form of a card catalog for immediate reference during the year and thus are able to print promptly at the opening of each legislature. As all the states except Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, South Carolina and Georgia now hold only biennial sessions, most of them coming on the odd year, we give the full charts of funds and expenditures only for the alternate years.
Library school bulletin. The Library school handbook has been called for so much more rapidly than was anticipated, many requests having come from abroad as well as from every state in the union, that the entire edition of 2000 copies has been already distributed and another edition must be prepared.

Printing. The typographic improvement in our recent publications has been generally and generously recognized. We hope by constant attention to make the publications of the state library models of their kind as is fitting to the place of peculiar eminence which our library occupies.

Since the invention of the linotype I have hoped that we might adopt it for catalogs and indexes to be used by various libraries in the state, thus effecting a great economy. Plans are nearly perfected and within a year or two we hope to use extensively this new method of printing which promises to solve the problem over which librarians have struggled so many years, how to secure printed catalogs well up to date without prohibitive cost.


The law library now numbers 47,341. During the year, 1894 volumes were added, of which 901 were bought and 993 were gifts or exchanges, 1013 volumes were continuations of sets already on the shelves.

The character of the additions has not varied materially from that of former years, a large part being continuations of American, British and colonial reports, statutes, state papers, law periodicals and standard elementary works.

The following rare volumes have been added to our American statute law, and British and colonial reports:

Vol*.Kansas private laws, 1860 1
Massachusett s acts (folib), 1793-97 •. 5
Michigan private laws, 1833 1
Missouri acts, 1816-17 1
Montana acts, 1866 1
Ohio acts (local), 1823-24 1
Maxwell's code 1796, reprint 1S91 1
County courts (Gt. Brit.) chronicle 24.
County courts (Gt. Brit.) cases 19
New South Wales, Supreme court reports 16
In foreign law have been added:
France. Bulletin des lois, 1885-90 24
Recueil general des lois et des arrets, 1885-90.... 6
Journal du droit international prive ed. par E. Clunet ... 16
Laurent. Principes de droit civil. Ed. 4 33
Lehr. Elements de droit civil Ttusse 2
Ottoman empire. Legislation ottomane, ed. par A. Bey 1873-88 7
Portugal. Code de commerce, 1888 1
Revue de droit international 22

181Court of appeals cases and briefs of counsel. 156 volumes have been added to this set which is in constant use and highly prized, as there are but five full sets in the state and copies are not for sale. The style of binding has been changed from full law sheep to half goat, and in spite of the prejudice of the bar for the conventional law sheep there seems to be almost unanimous preference for the new binding, which is not only much handsomer but at least twice as durable for the same cost.

Prior to 1891 these much used cases were indexed by court terms and at the end of the year the six or eight small indexes were copied into a book. The card system, adopted for the next year, making it possible to find any case by a single reference was so much liked that the sub-librarian (H. E. Griswold) is now consolidating the old index with the new on standard cards uniform with the main library catalog. As few lawyers remembered the year of cases, without which the old index could be used only with very great labor, the advantages of the new system are highly appreciated by the courts and members of the bar.

Supreme court cases and briefs of counsels. As many cases decided by the supreme court never reach the court of appeals there has been a strong demand for a similar supreme court index. Hon. Marcus T. Hun, official reporter of the supreme court, has given the library his complete set of cases and briefs from 1874 to date in 30,000 pamphlets. Of the 1450 volumes which these will make 450 have been already bound uniform with the court of appeals set and the rest will be bound as fast as regular work allows. The cards for the court of appeals contain also an index form for the supreme court cases, and the single index will thus make almost instantaneous reference possible to any cases in any year in either court. For this important card catalog a case is to be built Under the staircase in room 39.

The rapid increase of law publications renders it certain that a much larger allowance of money for buying law books than has hitherto been made, will be required to maintain the law library at the standard which it has held for many years past. The demand on our funds for new books and continuations leaves little money for supplying deficiencies.


Since the reorganization in 1889 we have kept steadily in mind the duty of the state library as a department of the University to develop one of the best educational libraries in the country. In 1890 we added 454 volumes, making a total of 1961, with 304 serials and 1153 subject cards. Last year we added 177 volumes, increased the serials to 384 and the subject cards to 1370. This year our total volumes have been carried to 2350, serials to 609, subject cards to 1618. In addition to this we have collected about 2387 valuable educational pamphlets. Now that Miss May Seymour has been transferred from the classification department and made sub-librarian for education, we shall make more rapid progress in this important department, though as she gives much of her time as secretary's assistant we are by no means doing all we ought for education. The west side of the south stack (room 44) is to be fitted up for an educational reading room, which the increasing use of the division demands.


In March, 1891, an appropriation of $5000 was made for providing necessary shelving and for other expenses attendant on the gift of its medical library by the Albany medical college. The rooms were duly fitted up, but it was found that there was need of further legislation to enable the trustees legally to make the transfer. That legislation was secured as part of the University bill, which was not signed till a few hours after the trustees' annual meeting. The books are therefore not yet moved, but the final vote is promised soon. When this is passed the books will be promptly put in place, and we shall begin what we are confident will prove a most useful and satisfactory experiment. The plan has been widely and warmly approved by all who understand it, but the appropriation was only for initial expenses so that farther provision must be made before active work can begin.


The manuscripts, estimated at 250,000, can never be properly arranged till the manuscript-room (31a8) is completed. We have this year transferred to that room the large oak case formerly in the regents' office, and originally built for some of the valuable bound manuscripts, but during the coming year the four walls of the room ought to be shelved to the ceiling, with a gallery to reach the upper half. Not till then shall we be able to make the great manuscript riches of the library properly available to students.

Pressure of other duties connected with the reorganization has made it impossible to give any personal attention to this department beyond planning the thorough equipment of the room which is promised for the coming year. When that work is completed we can greatly increase the efficiency of this very important part of the state library work.

George R. Howell, archivist, reports:

The many calls for assistance in the library from people from all parts of the state as well as from Albany, and the search for information to give in answer to letters of inquiry referred to me or sent to me directly, have taken much of my time. The reading of catalogs of genealogy, local history and early American history and discovery has also occupied me to such an extent that less than half of my time has been devoted to index work on the Clinton manuscripts. Still I have completed the calendars for 12 of these volumes added a few years ago, and the whole series has now, written in each volume, a calendar or brief statement of the subject of each separate manuscript therein contained. I have also indexed six volumes of the Clinton papers. This index gives the important subjects of each paper and names of persons mentioned by volume and page. Some discrimination is needed in this work, as for instance, no separate record is given to each farm deed in the Oriskany patent, except that the name of each owner is indexed, but a paper describing the location and boundaries of this patent would of course be indexed under the name of the patent. It is intended to give the name of the principal in each transaction and of every one who is there represented by an autograph. Indeed in the management of the whole collection of the archives something more than mere clerical work is demanded. Judgment and discrimination and experience in index work and search for information are needed at every move. There are 24 bound volumes of translations of the Dutch records involving transactions of the governor and his council from 1638 to 1664 and a portion of the year 1673, and criminal and civil actions, and titles to lands. These translations do not follow the order in the volumes of original manuscripts. There is a printed index and calendar to the 21 volumes of original papers in the Dutch language, known as "N. Y. Colonial mss," but when a translation of a Dutch paper is required much time is liable to be lost in finding the translation. What is needed is to go over these volumes with the printed calendar and write in the margin of the latter the correct reference to the volume and page of the translations. The translations are not exactly helter-skelter, for 50 or more pages may be found in the proper sequence, and then there is a jump to some other volume. The order is not chronological nor entirely by subject matter, so that in the long run time would be saved by the proposed indexing of these volumes/ Believing that it was for the best interests of the state I have actually at odd times thus indexed six of these volumes of translations. They assist in reading the Dutch manuscript, much of which is written' very badly and in an alphabet of its own or rather in several alphabets. But even these translations have to be verified in many places where some later hand has written "incorrect" or "wrong" on the margin. As papers are liable at any time to be needed in court the necessity of finding them quickly and of absolute accuracy both of the copy of the Dutch and the translation, is very clear. One hour a day might be profitably given to completing this index.

In order to know substantially what had been committed to my care I have been obliged to examine carefully each book or set of books, and have arranged them so that any one can easily be found when wanted, and placed titles on many that had lost or never had them.

Autographs of the signers. Some 30 years ago by the advice of the regents the legislature appropriated $800 for a collection of letters and autographs of the signers of the declaration of independence. This collection is known to be one of the best and most valuable one of the signers in existence and it has been strengthened by several additions since the purchase. It contains also engraved steel portraits of most of the signers and an autograph letter of Washington. The collection, in the opinion of a gentleman well informed in such matters, has now a commercial value of $20,000. As a safeguard in case of loss by theft or otherwise I have thought it prudent to copy in a book provided for this purpose every letter in this collection and to make a record of each portrait, and of each document signed, therein.

Clinton mss. While the Clinton mss were out of the custody of the library for purpose of indexing, two of the 38 autograph letters, therein contained, of Washington were stolen. I have tried three several times to secure copies of these from Mr George Bancroft who in 1877 had copies of them made for his use, but so far have been unsuccessful. Besides the number above given there are four other Washington letters in the Clinton papers which are copies.

Columbus portraits. As everything pertaining to Columbus is of interest to the public this year, I deemed it important to be prepared to answer questions as to the portraits of the discoverer, therefore made a list of all the portraits of Columbus contained in books or elsewhere in the state library. Then by correspondence and otherwise ascertained information and from various quarters secured copies of nearly all other portraits of Columbus of any value in existence in form of photographs or engravings. They number over 40 and I have made a card catalog of these showing where the originals may be found, their value and characteristics,

Land papers. There are 12 volumes of land papers, being the original drafts of patents for land in the state. These form two series but are similar in contents and acquired at different times. Three of the first series were indexed many years ago. The later series of six volumes I indexed in 1891, making two separate indexes in each volume, one of the patentees and the other of all other names of persons mentioned in the grants with the local geographic names all in alphabetic order. These volumes are valuable in tracing titles to large areas of lands in the state and some time the remaining three should be indexed.

Future work. As to future work several suggestions are offered:

1 Finish the index of the Clinton papers and then prepare the calendar and index for publication in one or two volumes. This will take considerable time as 41 volumes remain to be indexed and the calendars of the whole 47 volumes would need to be copied for the printer.

2 Publish the calendar and index of the 26 volumes of the Sir William Johnson papers, which cover the same period as the Clinton mss, the period just preceding and during the revolution. This volume would not take as much time to prepare for publication as that of the Clinton papers.

3 Publish as v. 16 of the Colonial history the calendar prepared by Mr Fernow, which is ready for publication whenever an appropriation is made by the state for that purpose, printing consecutively in this calendar the most important papers referred to. By this means, useless expense in publishing papers of little importance will be avoided, and the state will present to its citizens in accessible form, the substance of these valuable records. These papers cover the colonial history of the state from 1664 to 1776, and would prove of interest to historical students and a valuable addition to the series of colonial history.

4 Publish translations of the French archives copied for the state library a few years ago.

5 Publish the most important of the Clinton and of the Johnson papers as another volume of the colonial history.
Unless otherwise directed I propose to go on with the work of indexing the Clinton papers, as I understand that to be the wish of the regents, and that I devote most of my time to work on the manuscripts in the library.

There is urgent need for the completion of the shelving in the room occupied by the manuscripts. The upper portion of the west wall resting on a proposed gallery if provided with pigeon holes and boxes would accommodate all the bundles or loose papers on file that have been deposited here by the legislature since the formation of the state, and with something to spare. Only when all the shelving in the room shall have been completed can the books all receive their permanent location and then might be made a card catalog which should also designate their position on the shelves.


Military and agricultural libraries. The state library should give special attention to collecting military and agricultural books. The ordinary public library has little in this direction, but the state because of its own military department and the great agricultural interests, should naturally make these subjects prominent as it does legislation, law, and education, and its own local history. I therefore recommend, if we can secure from the state agricultural society and from the adjutant general and the G. A. R. the cordial cooperation necessary to complete success, that we establish military and agricultural divisions as we already have for law, medicine and education.


Accessions 1818-92, by five-year periods. Before the regents became trustees of the state library no record appears of the annual additions, but there was a total of 11,058 volumes in 1844. The figures below are given for the beginning of each half decade. Even the remarkable gain shown in the last line does not do justice to the saving in buying under the new system, for during these years we have been completing many expensive sets which, while adding greatly to the value of the library, make much less showing in the total of additions. In succeeding years there will be much greater gain, though this short period now shows more additions than any of the preceding five year periods.

This record of 7242 bound volumes represents really only about half our additions for in all 13,029 volumes and pamphlets have been added to our shelves and catalogs and 2,534 to our duplicate collection, beside about 50,000 publications in parts.

Order department. 967 orders were sent to agents; 849 orders were filled and 24 canceled, leaving 221 orders outstanding October 1, 1892. Many orders have been sent to auction agents, not counted in the above statement.

Character of additions. The full tables appended show compactly and clearly how the expenditure has been distributed over the 100 divisions of the library. As is fitting for a state library, political science, economics, law and American history are the leading subjects, while others for which there is less demand have been represented only by a few books which every reference library must have for its general work.

Some of the most important additions of the year are:


International cyclopaedia
Blackie's modern cyclopedia
Eclectic review
Gentleman's magazine
Literary world, London
Universal review
Preussische jahrbiicher
American catholic quarterly review
British and foreign evangelical review
Catholic world
Exeter hall lectures
Mercersburg review
Methodist magazine
Methodist quarterly review
Wesleyan methodist magazine
SociologyAnnalen des deutschen reichs
L'annee politique
Jahrbuch fur gesetzgebung
Jahrbucher fur nationalokonomie
Zeitschrift fur die gesammte staatswissenschaft
Journal des economistes
La ref orme sociale
Vierteljahrschrift fiir volkswirthschaft
Annuaire de l'economie politique
Lend a handAmerican journal of education
Featherman. Social history of the races of mankind
PhilologyHunter. Encyclopaedic dictionary
Sidereal messenger
Watts. Dictionary of chemistry
American chemical society. Journal
Geological magazine
Palaeontographical society. Publications
Monthly microscopical journal
Sargent. Silva of North America
Annals and magazine of natural history
Zoologischer anzeiger
Kay society. Publications
The aukNuttal ornithological club. Bulletin
Useful arts
Sanitary engineer
Illinois state horticultural society. Transactions
Young. Annals of agriculture
Journal of forestryFine arts
Viollet-le-Duc. Dictionnaire raisonne de l'architecture francaise
Hauptmann. Moderne ornamentale werke
Societe d'aquarellistes francaisLiterature
Classical journal
Annuaire historique universel
Petermann's Mittheilungen
Scottish geographical magazine
Irish archaeological society
Norfolk archaeology
Duruy. History of Rome
Revue historique
Great Britain. Chronicles and memorials
Great Britain. Calendars of state papers
Manchester. Court leet records

Stevens. Facsimiles of mss relating to America.

The remarkable increase in gifts is most gratifying. The list appended to the last report included the gifts of two years, as the list did not appear in the report for 1890 with which it was submitted, the copy having been accidentally detached and the report bound before the omission was discovered. Evidently we can rely on gifts for very large annual additions if we continue our present policy of systematic canvassing. The various great subjects are assigned to members of the staff according to personal interest, and each is held responsible for publications in his own subject and for sending the proper request form wherever a gift can probably be secured. The system used was fully illustrated in the report for 1891, pages 12 to 16.

Periodicals. Last year we were taking 863. This year 203 more have been added, making a total of 1066. Many of these are given outright by publishers who appreciate the desirability of having complete files in this great reference library free to all parts of the state. It has involved much correspondence and personal effort on the part of the librarians to secure all these but it makes our list one of the largest in the country.

The receipt of each number is checked the same day on the record blank. Every two months the entire list is examined and anything in arrears is secured, or if publication has been stopped the fact is noted.

Sequents. Besides these 1066 periodicals we have also a card catalog of other sequents or publications appearing at intervals, like reports of institutions, proceedings of societies, etc. There are now received 3121 sequents, and for the convenience of our own and many other libraries the full list will be printed as an appendix to the next report. Once each year this list is checked through and delinquents are followed up till our sets are completed. At the time this involves some labor but little or no expense. A few years later money often can not buy the missing numbers which have gone out of print.
Special appropriations. The appropriation of $15,000 a year for books seems a considerable sum. As explained in my report for 1891 page 11, we have secured lower prices than ever before and by careful watching of auction sales and old book lists are still further increasing average returns for each dollar of state money. We have also made a phenomenal increase in gifts secured. But when we have paid for the regular continuations of sets already started, have bound the 3121 different sequents that we are regularly receiving, spent some hundreds of dollars more in binding that represents annual wear or deterioration of our 162,109 volumes and in binding selected volumes from our 250,000 mss, and have bought the most important of the new publications, we find our money entirely exhausted. It is therefore necessary, if we are to fill in the large gaps, that special appropriation should be secured for the purpose. We have done much in the last three years, but only by buying less than we ought of new books. Hereafter we must secure either a larger annual appropriation or must get special grants for filling gaps.

Our law library to maintain its present leading position must add largely in foreign law and spend more than heretofore on American departments. In legislation and education we also need several thousand dollars to fill important gaps.


Catalog. Besides caring for the regular additions to the library, we have cataloged and rearranged the remainder of European history (944-949) and the history of other foreign countries (950-972, 980-999). A large part of sociology (300) has also been finished. All books added since 1888 and nearly half the older books are now in the new catalog.

The admirable card index to cases and briefs of the New York supreme court and the court of appeals is described under the head "law division," and other work under the head "publications."

Printed titles. This department has before it some serious problems. No item of expense so often troubles trustees as cost of cataloging. We have studied the subject with unusual care for many years and believe our catalog is being made as economically as possible consistently with the quality which the position of the library demands. Without doubt the catalog card of the near future will be written on machines or printed. We are conducting experiments and awaiting experience elsewhere, but are not quite ready to start the new system. The upright, uniform, disjoined library hand adopted by us gives the legibility without some of the difficulties of typewriting. When we abandon writing cards by hand it will probably be to print them from linotype blocks.

The state library is the natural center for issuing to the other libraries of the state printed titles of the best new books ready to drop immediately into the local card catalog. Of these the most important feature will be carefully prepared but very compact annotations. The American library association is at work on this problem through its publishing section and subcommittees, and we think it so important to start the new system so that it shall not be necessary to change it later that we have delayed action.

Our new form of catalog drawers or trays adopted last year have been much admired and copied, and for large libraries promise to replace the common drawer of much less capacity. Our peculiar form of shelf list has also been widely copied and is known as the New York shelf list. Our geographic index to all places on which books will be found in the catalog has proved a valuable supplement to our general printed classification indexes.
Reference use. The growth in reference use, which has been from the first the great function of our library, is so remarkable that it is unfortunate that the exact figures can not be given. A turnstile or count recorded at the entrance would show on some days 1000 mere visitors, perhaps not one of whom used a book. We can only judge from the number of books replaced each day on the shelves, from increasing calls on librarians and assistants and from the number who are working at the shelves and using many books which they themselves replace, thus leaving no record. It has not seemed worth while to annoy readers by making them report the amount of their use for the sake of giving exact statistics. To those visiting the library daily the justice of the estimates of the reference staff is evident.

In 1890, statistics taken from time to time indicated a daily reference use of 150 volumes supplied to readers and as many more used at the shelves, or about 80,000 volumes a year. This use has steadily increased and is now estimated by the reference librarian to be at least three times as large, reaching probably 250,000 volumes yearly. The largest of the state libraries is therefore now fully justifying the money spent on it since its establishment in 1818.

We are still embarrassed from unfinished quarters. Our library elevator is not running and workmen make the rooms less attractive. By carpeting the stairs and the 300 feet of vista through which the crowds of visitors march in almost endless procession, noise is reduced to a minimum so that readers are little disturbed. As the library is known to be the most beautiful part of the famous capitol, even the rights of readers to absolute quiet have not seemed sufficient to justify shutting the main rooms. While we lose some readers on this account, the great increase is evidence that the usefulness of the library is not seriously impaired, and it is fairly the part of a great library so magnificently housed to impress chance visitors with the dignity and importance of such collections. There must be a distinct though small educational value to many thousand visitors each year in seeing what intellectual riches New York state provides for its citizens and how nobly it has installed them, as if in recognition of their importance to the welfare of the commonwealth.

The library has been open for public use every day, Sundays excepted, from 8 a. m. till 6 p. m. whenever there has been light sufficient for reading and for guaranteeing proper protection to state property. From November 15 to January 15, there being no artificial light, it closed at 5 p. m. On March 7 electric light was furnished and till May 18, when the electric current was cut off for repairs to the plant, the library was open till 10 p. m., except Saturdays, when the engineers are off duty and there is no artificial light in the capitol after 5 p. m. So long as there was natural light, though nominally the library closed at 6 p. m., readers were allowed to remain and continue work till it became dark, and considerable numbers used this privilege.

During the year effort has been made to increase the usefulness of the library to educational institutions in the vicinity and to persons pursuing courses of study. Lists of books have been prepared, some with the aid of those interested, and books have been conveniently placed in the main reading-room, properly labeled, for the use of students, just as is done for university extension courses. This experiment has been so successful that at times there have been as many as seven collections in use at once, all on courses of serious study. This plan, while adding nothing to the labor of our attendants and perhaps even lessening it a trifle, seems to have decided educational advantages to students, since it gives them facility in consulting and comparing authorities which they could not get if forced to consult books through the intervention of a catalog.

The number of registered borrowers and books lent has also greatly increased, as the accompanying tables show, though by no means in proportion to growth in reference use.

Reference lists. The following blank is used to prepare for the bulletin board or press brief reading lists on timely topics. The best books, pamphlets and articles on subjects under discussion in the legislature, are duplicated on blanks and sent to those most interested, as well as posted in the library. Pressure of other work has forced us to use this admirable method much less than we hope to after completion of the building. Obviously lists thus made, often with help of experts outside the library, become of great practical value for future reference whenever any one may again wish to look up that subject. Reference is made to them in the subject catalog so that they shall not be forgotten.
For convenience of legislators and state officers the library issues a series of reference lists on topics of current interest.
Books in constant demand are kept in the library for reference during all hours of opening. Others are lent under Rule 4, viz:

Members of the legislature, judges of the court of appeals, justices of the supreme court, heads of the several state departments, their deputies and clerks officially resident in Albany, donors to the library to the amount of one hundred dollars, all institutions of the University, such other libraries as may 1/e approved by the library committee, and by the written permission of a regent, others having special claim on its facilities, may borrow books, subject to recall if specially needed. Books shall be lent only to registered borrowers, and delivered only on personal application or on a written order, by which full responsibility for books so delivered is assumed. No book shall be lent by a borrower.

Evening use. For the short time that the library was open evenings, the public used the opportunities offered more than we had reason to expect, considering that the plan had hardly time to advertise itself and work its way into favor. Evening readers were rather different in character from ordinary day users, being composed largely of those occupied during the day and so cut off from library privileges. I append the number of readers for each evening that the library was open, in order to give every facility for studying this experiment, on which we entered with some hesitation. It is so contrary to tradition to have rooms in the capitol open evenings that many doubted whether any would come. So far the experiment has been more successful than we hoped, and when the opening becomes regular, the library elevator and entrances available, and the fact known, the use will doubtless abundantly justify the extra cost, though this is not as large as would be supposed. No extra heat is required, and we light not the entire 20 rooms but only enough tables in the center to accommodate the readers present. The other rooms are closed to the public and only one sixth of the day force is needed. Some of these evening users are citizens from a distance whose time is valuable and who by having five extra hours after public offices close can often get home a whole day earlier. Lawyers with important cases in the courts and legislators with important bills in hand find a great advantage in having the reference rooms so constantly available. We shall carefully observe and record the evening use after the completion of the building gives it fair trial.


Silence and decorum in reading rooms. In every large library this is a serious problem. In ours it is doubly so. "While some readers can work amid confusion others are totally unable to do so and justly complain bitterly of the management if their day's work is largely spoiled by the carelessness of others. So far as possible tables in the stacks or private reading rooms are given to readers needing a quiet place for study, our rooms having been planned specially for such cases. Our greatest embarrassment comes from careless visitors and officials, who being at leisure themselves forget that others are studying, and talk as freely in the library as in the corridors. Some readers insist that visitors should be shut out, but as the library is conceded to be the most beautiful part of the capitol, and as it is the property of the entire state, it seems necessary to continue the welcome we have always given even to visitors who wish merely to walk through its splendid vista from street to street. By heavy carpeting on this pathway of the sightseers and by courtesy of the orderlies, who speak only in the lowest tones and thus set an example to the visitors, the noise has been reduced perhaps three fourths. In the law division, rule 18 has been enforced to the great comfort of lawyers who have in past years been seriously disturbed by law students who carelessly discussed their cases audibly.

The difficulty is illustrated by cases where the librarian in charge has been bitterly censured by studious readers because he did not insist on greater quiet from careless visitors and state officials who ruined the room for study, and at the same time he was complained of by the careless because of the partial restraint which he had exercised. In this as in many other parts of our work I conclude that we are taking a safe middle course when we are criticized by extremists on both sides. Certainly every reasonable man will recognize that it is a duty, however unpleasant, of the librarian in charge politely to restrain any visitor from annoying the entire body of readers.

We shall make no serious effort to attain an ideal standard of quiet in the reading rooms till the workmen have left the building and we are free from the dirt and noise which are inevitable even with the most careful employees. The improvement in this respect however is gratifying. The greater quiet is doubtless partly due to the presence of many ladies, who more and more use the library for study. In the past year we have had but one noticeable case of discipline. A law student annoyed by the entirely unjustifiable liberties of a fellow who seized him from behind threw an inkstand over his shoulder at the offender and spattered two or three shelves of books. He however promptly paid the expense of restoring their bindings, about $30.
Loans. On page 24 of the last report I pointed out the significance of the comparatively few loans and the folly of comparing them with the totals of a circulating library. The exact statistics kept at the loan desk show a five fold gain from 1889 to 1890, another threefold gain in H91, with a still further increase of 40 per cent in 1892, or a total gain in the four years of .833 per cent.

Loans to institutions and special investigators. Continued experience shows that we can safely lend books to libraries and institutions of the University throughout the state and to special scholars without materially injuring the state library for use in Albany. There is growing appreciation of the value of this service throughout the state, and our successful experience seems to justify its still wider extension.
In 1891 only 31 institutions availed themselves of the privilege. This year eight colleges, 14 libraries and 40 academies, or just double the number, were thus materially accommodated, receiving in all 256 volumes. In 1891, 50 special orders were granted to students having special claims on our facilities. In 1892 there was a gain of 122 per cent, 122 orders being issued.


This work is in its infancy. Most of those who ought to benefit from these privileges have not yet learned that they are available. Students frequently express surprise and delight at the new system and regret that they had not learned of it earlier when they needed it so keenly. Just as the railway altered the character of higher education by making it easy to travel long distances to reach the best schools, so the cheap and prompt transportation afforded by modern mails and express and the ingenious devices of metal corners, corrugated paper and special boxes for protecting books from injury in transit will mark a new era in usefulness of libraries like our own.


Binding. The report this year from our continued experiment in binding our own books is most satisfactory. The principle of employing a cheap helper to work with a trained expert is applied there as in the regents' office and literary work of the library. In many cases a master mechanic with a good helper can do as good work and about as much of it as two master workmen. On this principle two apprentices have been added to the binding force, one to assist the sewer, the other to assist the forwarder and finisher. The result as shown by statistics is most gratifying. In estimating value of work we take the lowest and not the average prices that we are charged for similar work outside. Our figures are' therefore very conservative.
On page 26-29 of the report for 1891 a full statement of the advantages of the new bindery were given, with note of the change in hours required. During the year the bindery has worked under this new schedule and has converted the loss of $79.36 existing on November 1, 1892, to a profit of $800.45. As the bindery started November 1, 1890, and the last report was for a full year to November 1, 1891, the accounts are given for the whole time as well as for the past 11 months, thus making the bindery year agree_,with the fiscal.



Value of new binding $2434 05
Extra lines of lettering on newly bound books, 5390 a 3c 161 70
New titles "» " 10c... 11 50
New backs 80 " 40c... 32 00
Lines of gilding 10518 " 3c.... 315 54
Guards 601 "He... 9 03
Plates on muslin 2 "6c... 12
Hours extra work 265 " 50c... 132 50
Total oost of stock $838 01
Less stock on hand 312 26
et cost of stock $525 75
Wages 2075 00
Repairs to plant 17 87
20 per cent of cost for wear and interest 98 01
Total $2716 63
New binding $2434 05
Extra work, etc 662 39
Total $3096 44
           2716 63
Net gain for 11 mos $379 .*1


Total cost of stock $1328 46
Less stock on hand 312 26
Net cost of stock $1016 20
Wages 4169 00
Repairs to plant Ill 20
20 per cent of cost for wear and interest 98 01
Total expenses $5394 31
New binding $4573 15
Extra work, etc 1121 71
Total returns $5694 86
expenses 5394 41              Net gain $300 45

students in appreciation of the importance of their work and the fact that the school had neither endowment nor state appropriation. Some publishers have given copies of needed books outright, some have furnished them at special rates, often below the lowest wholesale terms. The labor and cost of caring for the supplies and keeping the accounts is borne by the students themselves, who thus get the full benefits of cooperation. This enables them to buy at wholesale and to have various technical articles made which could otherwise be obtained only at the cost of much time and labor. The school is specially indebted to the Library Bureau of Boston, which for ltf years has been the cooperative supply department for the American Library Association. It has given much to the students outright, much else at less than prices to dealers, and the rest, at lowest wholesale price, thus enabling them to save a considerable sum each year. This is the more worthy of acknowledgement since the state library and regents' office buy none of their supplies from the Bureau because of the director's former active and present nominal official connection with it.

As having greater value to the regents and to the legislature than my own report I refer to that of the committee of the American Library Association, which annually appoints three disinterested experts to visit the school, study its workings and give to the profession their frank and unbiased opinion.

Their reports will be found in the Library journal for August 1892, p. 31-34. The following extracts are made, one from each of the three reports:

"The missionary spirit of the school has evidently not died out, for the students have undertaken the support of a very praiseworthy enterprise in a "home library," perhaps the first of a number.

"As a finish to my visit I was taken through the rooms at the top of the capitol building which are to be devoted to the use of the Library school, and having seen these, with their magnificent outlook on all sides, I felt more than ever that the first class ought to go back and take their course over again. Each year shows an advance on the year before as the best of the old features become established and new and desirable ones are added."

"1 The managers of the school are improving it, as experience teaches them where improvements are feasible.
"2 The standard to which applicants must attain is made higher from year to year.
"3 There seems to be a successful attempt to give a broader range to the interests of the pupils.
"4 The broadening of the course of study so that it is not confined so closely to mechanical methods as it was at the beginning is also commendable."

"The standard of library spirit and enthusiasm is, I feel sure, as high as ever, and the intellectual grade that of a picked body capable of post-graduate work. Their degrees show this, as they are only conferred for higher work than is done in a large per cent of the incorporated schools of the state."

Graduates and students. The closing exercises of the Library school for the year 1891-92 were held in the state library July 5, preceding the session of the New York library association. An address by Regent William Croswell Doane followed an address by the director of the school. Bishop Doane, in behalf of Chancellor George William Curtis whose serious illness caused his absence for the first time, conferred the following degrees and diplomas: —

Degree of B. L. S.: William Reed Eastman, M. A. (Yale). Elizabeth Louisa Foote, B. A. (Syracuse). Mary Letitia Jones, B. L. (University of Nebraska). Bessie Rutherford Macky, B. A. (Wellesley). Katharine Lucinda Sharp, Ph. M. (Northwestern).Diploma with honor: Mary Louise Davis. Diplomas: Mary Ellis, Mary Esther Robbins. Every member of the class is now engaged in library work as follows:

Mary Louise Davis, librarian Lawson McGhee library, Knoxville, Tenn. William Reed Eastman, public libraries inspector, N. Y. state library. Mary Ellis, cataloger, Crandall free library, Glens Falls, N. Y. Elizabeth Louisa Footet cataloger, Central library, Rochester. N. Y. Mary Letitia Jones, ass't librarian, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. Bessie Rutherford Maeky, ass't librarian, Drexel institute, Philadelphia, Pa. Mary Esther Robbins, ass't librarian, New Britain (Ct.) institute. Katharine Lucinda Sharp, classifier and cataloger, Xenia (Ohio) library association, Aug.-Oct. 1S92; assistant in charge of Comparative exhibit to be made by the Library school for the American Library association at World's Columbian Exposition, Dec. 1.

Not only is every graduate already in a good position bu of the 23 students entering Oct. 1891, nine are already engaged in library work at the end of the first half of the course. Miss Mary B. Lindsay and Miss Rose E. Reynolds have returned to the Peoria (Ill.) public library. Miss Mary Payne has returned to the Nashville (Tenn.) university library and Miss May F. Smith to the Colgate university library, Hamilton, N. Y. Miss Bessie Baker and Miss Nellie M. Hulbert are employed by the U. S. Bureau of Education in cataloging the A. L. A. library for the world's fair. Miss Alice M. Marshall is librarian of Perkins institute for the blind, South Boston, Mass. Miss Alma R. Van Hoevenberg is librarian of the South Orange (N. J.) free library. Dr James M. Wilson is on the staff of the Newberry library, Chicago.Helen Ware Rice, Worcester, Mass. Helen Griswoki Sheldon, B. A., Vassar, 1891, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Mary Louisa Sutliff, Bath-on-the-Hudson, N. Y.

The fall term opened Wednesday, Oct. 5, with the following students:
Jenny Lind Christman, B. S., Iowa state college, 1883, Albany, N. Y. Henrietta Church,* Albany, N. Y. Don Linnaeus Clark, University of Nebraska, 1880-83, Woodville, Neb. Walter Greenwood Forsyth, B. A., Harvard university, 1888, Providence, Rt I. Joseph LaKoy Harrison, Cornell, 1882-85; University of Heidelberg, 1890; North Adams, Mass. Mary Elizabeth Uawley, Syracuse, N. Y. Josephine Adams Rathbone, Wellesley, 1882-83 ; University of Michigan, 1890, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Elizabeth H. Beebe,* Cornell university, I year, Westfield, N. J. May Louise Bennett, B. A., Northwestern university, 1891, Evanston, 111.
Edna Dean Bullock, B. L., University of Nebraska, 1889, Lincoln, Neb.
Leonard J. Dean, B. A., Colgate university, 1871; M. A., 1874; Newton theological institution, 1871-74, Little Falls, N. Y. Annie De Long, Glens Falls, N. Y.
Herbert Williams Denio, B. A., Middlebury college, 1888; M. A., 1891, Port Henry, N. Y.
Elizabeth Tisdale Ellis, Peoria public library, 1891-92, Peoria, 111.
Irene Gibson, Detroit public library, 1887-9-', Detroit, Mich. Hiram North Ernest Gleason, University of Michigan, 1887-91, Sherman, N. Y.
Clara Sikes Ilawes, Freeport, 111.
Harriet E. Ludington, Albany, N. Y.
Nellie McCreary, Swarthmore college, 1891-92, Utica, N. Y. John Grant Moulton, B. A., Harvard university, 1892, Jamaica Plain, Mass.
Willis Fuller Sewall, B. A., Tufts college, 1890, Livermore Falls, Me.
Helen Sperrv, Silas Bronson library, 1883-92, Waterbury, Conn.
Daniel Oswald Vandersluis, B. A., University of Michigan, 1890, Grand Rapids, Mich.


From my acceptance of office I have given special attention to the claims of public library interests in this state. Increasing calls led two years ago to printing the following which has been sent to all inquirers with such written supplement as each case , required.
* Left the school during the first month on account of ill health.


In response to frequent letters from librarians and others interested in improving their library facilities, the following notes are printed:

1 It is of the first importance that the person making these inquiries should be familiar with recent library work and ideas, or the advice given will be only partially understood or appreciated. We are glad to send circulars and pamphlets giving these general ideas briefly, but these should be carefully read before undertaking any definite plans or asking many questions.

2 When it is really determined to found a new library or to make an old one more efficient, the first step is to educate the community as to the great practical value of the modern library and to make them understand how much more it means than the library of a generation ago. To this end the local papers should be supplied with short articles and notes which will stimulate public interest, so that when the second step is taken and the right speaker can be secured for a public address which shall kindle interest and enthusiasm, you can be sure of a good audience. After this the press must be constantly utilized to keep before the public the result-* of similir efforts in other places till the community is convinced beyond doubt that the new library will be not only a good and pleasant, but as profit able a thing as good school houses, which even land speculators with no interest in education for its own sake find it wise financial policy to build and support liberally, because it increases the value of their real estate by far more than the cost.

The teachers and clergy must also be specially interested so that in week day lectures, in literary clubs and in all proper places the idea will be presented in its manifold lights.

3 With such a beginning it will not be difficult in any intelligent community to get the necessary votes and an appropriation for a creditable beginning. Then it must be remembered that without thorough knowledge of the subject, no community or board of trustees ever appreciates the labor and necessary cost of proper preparation for the work. They must be taught first by submitting the theory and then proving it by practical results in other towns, that everything depends on the adoption of right methods, and that $5000 handled in the wisest way will do a great deal more good than $ 10,000 as it is often expanded.

The spirit of the present administration of the state library is seen in the following resolutions unanimously adopted by the regents:

"That the secretary be authorized, on application from any school, library or museum which either is or applies to become a member of * the University, to detail one of the staff to visit and give needed advice and assistance in starting or reorganizing the same, provided that the necessary traveling and hotel expenses shall be borne by the institution asking the service."

"That a series of Library bulletins similar to the Regents' and Museum bulletins be printed to contain the records of additions to the state library, bibliographical and other matter which it is most important to circulate in advancing the library interests of the state of New York."
Proper advice at the beginning saves serious mistakes and often, also) very unwise expenditures.

4 As soon as our work can be reorganized and the state library itself freed from the mechanics who are completing the rooms, we plan not only to issue at frequent intervals bulletins with lists of books and any other matter found to be needed by any considerable number of libraries, but also to give advice and answer questions so far as is in the power of the library staff.

Our friends must remember, however, that the whole force in the regents' office and library is at present overworked in completing our organization and getting settled in our new quarters, and that many of these things for which we have definite plans will take considerable time to set in full operation. Meanwhile we shall be only too glad to do all we can for any community interested in improving its library. But in order that we may have time for the most essential matters, we can not undertake to write individuals letters answering exactly the questions that are more fully and carefully answered in print, if inquirers would take the time to read it. We will, however, make time on our busiest days to help any New Yorker who has shown his real interest in the subject by reading what is already available in print, and by placing himself in touch with other library workers in the state.

Melvil Dewey, Director

The Library school has from the first done much admirable work in encouraging and helping public libraries in New York but the time has come when a distinct organization of this work is imperative if we are to do our full duty to the state. The new library legislation has made this doubly necessary and has also made it possible. A library inspector has already been appointed to give his whole time to the interests of public libraries throughout the state. In the last report we began a series of condensed reports from New York libraries which will be continued each year hereafter. We must now approve books for buying, circulation and for subsidies, prepare annotated lists of the best reading, lend traveling libraries to communities either not yet strong or interested enough to tax themselves for a local library, and in various ways stimulate public interest in this essential part of general education.

This new and important department really begins its work with the coming year so that I have to report simply the legislation and preliminary plans. We expect to make only a beginning in the first year for the new plan differs so radically from the old that it will be two or three years before most of the communities will understand or appreciate it enough to secure the formal vote for establishing the needed library. We esteem it better to give ample time for a slow healthy growth of public interest rather than to attempt to show earlier results by a forcing process from which there might be a reaction.

In response to urgent demand the three following circulars, setting forth the present state of the work, have just been printed for distribution.

[circular I]

New library laws

The legislature of 1892 passed three laws pertaining to libraries, all of great public interest and importance.

1 A general library law. Sections 35-51 of the University law, ch. 378, signed April 27, give New York the distinction of having the best laws of any state in the Union for establishing and maintaining free public libraries. This law was drafted with great care after comparing the laws of all the other states and taking the suggestions of numerous library associations and clubs who discussed its provisions point by point.

2 Authorizing library trusts. Ch. 516, signed May 12, provides with great care against such calamities as the loss of the Tilden library bequest. It authorizes the creation of trusts and provides in a score of ways that when a public spirited citizen shall undertake to give his wealth for the benefit of his fellows it shall not be lost on some legal technicality.

3 School library law. Ch. 573, signed May 14. In 1838 New York started a system of district public libraries which gave great promise of usefulness. 17 other states copied the plan, but for lack of proper supervision and central administration it has proved largely a failure. The state has spent about $3,000,000 on this plan, and instead of the best makes one of the poorest showings among the prominent states. The new law entirely does away with the abuses and faults of the old system. The district libraries were never intended to be school libraries, but were for the public and were administered by the school authorities merely as a matter of convenience. This has resulted in much confusion in the public mind, many people thinking of them as school libraries. The new law transfers the supervision of all public libraries to the regents of the University, to be carried on in connection with the state library. It leaves the old appropriation of $55,000 a year with the department of public instruction to be used for libraries of a new type which shall be part of the school equipment kept in the building and shall be strictly school libraries.

The following summary will be useful in preventing confusion of the various departments, funds, and kinds of libraries:
Departments. The state has two departments with which libraries are connected, the University of the state and the department of public instruction.

Funds. There are three state funds from which aid is granted to libraries:

1 The annual appropriation of $55,000 for school libraries administered by the superintendent of public instruction.
2 A part of the academic fund of $106,000 which the regents annually apportion for the benefit of academies.
3 The public library money (this year $25,000) to be apportioned by the regents for the benefit of free libraries.

Kinds of libraries. There are six distinct types of libraries which receive money from one or more of these funds:

1 School libraries. Consisting of pedagogic and reference books for use of teachers and pupils of the public schools; not to be used by the public, as the law makes them a part of the school equipment.
2 Academy libraries. Owned and administered by any academy in the university. There are at present no ordinances limiting their use or the character of books, except that the books bought must be • approved by the regents' office.
3 District libraries. The old school district libraries turned over to trustees and thereafter entirely independent of the school authorities and designed to circulate books among the general public
4 Public libraries proper. Established by vote or by the proper local authorities, and owned, controlled and supported by the public.
5 Joint libraries. Maintained jointly by two or more districts, villages, towns or other bodies, each of whiGh might legally maintain a library independently. ^
6 Subsidized libraries. Not owned or controlled by the public, but maintained for its welfare and free use. Under the new law these may receive assistance if the tax payers so vote.

With two supervisory departments, three state funds and six kinds of libraries, there will be more or less confusion in the minds of people interested as to their duties and privileges. The notes below are mule after a careful study of the laws, and it is hoped will be helpful.
1 The school libraries and the school library fund of $55,000 a year are wholly under the direction of the state superintendent of public instruction. The state library and regents' office have nothing whatever to do with the school libraries or the school library fund. The academic fund and the public library money, with the other four kinds of libraries, district, public, joint and subsidized, are all under the supervision of the regents and are related to the state library as a department of the University of the State of New York, and the department of public instruction has nothing whatever to do with them. All library correspondence and inquiries except that pertaining to the school library and school library money, should therefore be addressed to the state library.

The school library money is apportioned to cities, union school districts and school districts. Academic departments of union schools and high schools supported by public taxation as a part of the public school system, may properly claim a part of this money, but private and endowed academies and other schools have no claim whatever on it.

2 The money apportioned for books from the academic fund of $106,000 can be drawn by any academy, high school or academic department of a union school which is admitted to the University, and can be spent only for books approved by the regents' office. Neither district, public, joint nor subsidized libraries have any share in this apportionment unless the academy shall have transferred its library and its right to the apportionment to a public library by permission of the regents, as provided in § 45 of the University law.

3 The public library money can not be used for the school libraries nor for the academy libraries, unless the latter should be open to the free use of the general public. The public library money will be apportioned by the regents as they shall think most useful in supplying free public libraries to the people of the state. Only books approved by the regents can be bought with it. The locality must raise an equal amount from taxation or other local sources, and the books paid for by the state are subject to return to the regents to be used for the benefit of the public whenever the library neglects or refuses to conform to ordinances under which it secured them. This money becomes available October 1, 1892, and to any community starting a public library the regents will probably apportion not to exceed $100 for the first year; i. e., the local authorities may receive $100 from the state if they raise that or a greater amount for themselves.

The main benefit to be derived from the state aid will be through the traveling libraries or loans. To any public library duly chartered by the regents and conforming to certain simple ordinances, will be loaned select collections of recent desirable books, about 100 volumes in each, to be retained not exceeding six months, without charge beyond a nominal fee of $5 to cover cost of transportation both ways, suitable cases, printed catalogs and necessary blanks and records. These traveling libraries may also be secured by communities that are trying to establish a public library but have not yet got it in operation.

Public library law

The full text of the law can be had on application to the regents' office. Some of its important features are as follows. All provisions apply equally to reference and circulating libraries, reading rooms, museums, or any combination of these institutions. The establishment of a library is made comparatively easy. 40 years' experience in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, the first states to adopt library laws, has shown that there is no danger whatever in giving full local option and allowing each community to vote whatever tax it is willing to pay for this purpose. Most limitations have been found needless, as no community has been found willing to tax itself unreasonably. If the city common council or village trustees decline to establish or maintain a library, any 25 taxpayers may on petition require a vote at the next election. The library may be with or without branches, and may be maintained independently by any city, village, town, district, or other body authorized to levy taxes, or may be established and maintained jointly with any other body authorized to maintain a library. This enables adjoining districts, villages or towns to combine in the support of a single library when neither could afford the entire expense, or enables the public to join with any associations or other body having a library, thus uniting the interests and getting better results than would be possible without the joint action here authorized.

Public money may be voted to libraries not owned by the public but maintained for its welfare and free use. This law has been working successfully for several years in New York; e. g. in New York city the four free circulating libraries have all been built and equipped by gifts from generous citizens. They are doing exactly the work of a public library, being as free to all the inhabitants as if they had been founded and supported wholly by the taxpayers. Thus if an endowed library is willing to open its doors and perform the functions of a public library, the authorities may if they see fit contribute towards its support just as a city may pay a definite sum each year to a private water corporation for the privilege of attaching fire hydrants to all the water mains; such a course being obviously much cheaper for the public than to lay new mains for public use. If the subsidy is granted on the basis of circulation, it must not exceed 10 cents for each volume of circulation certified by the regents' library inspector as deserving a grant of public money. If the subsidy is granted for a reading room or reference library, it is left to the locality to determine how much it is willing to give.

Taxes in addition to those otherwise authorized may be voted and are annual till changed by later vote. While the city council or village trustees may vote to establish a library, the appointment of the library trustees who will manage its affairs must be made by the local voters, except in cities, where the mayor appoints with the consent of the common council, but the law requires that the appointees shall be citizens of recognized fitness for such position. The trustee must promptly apply to the regents for incorporation with a charter in accordance with the vote establishing the library. When this is granted they have all the powers of trustees of colleges and academies as set forth in the 10 sub sections of § 34 of the University law. Some new features in these powers and duties are that a trustee failing to attend three consecutive meetings without written excuse accepted not later than a third meeting, is deemed to have resigned, and the law requires the vacancy to be filled. The regents can authorize such trustees to hold property beyond the charter limit, so that if a library as a residuary legatee should discover that its property exceeded the amount authorized in the charter, it may within one year get from the regents fall authority for receiving the additional funds. No trustee can receive compensation as such, and any ordinance or rule by which more than a majority vote is required for any specified action can be amended, suspended or repealed only by a similar vote.

All libraries receiving state aid or exemption from taxation must make a brief report each year to the state library, which includes a summary of all such reports with its own annual report to the legislature. The trustees, if they think expedient, may extend the privileges of the library to persons living outside the locality. Intentional injury or willful detention of library property is made punishable by imprisonment or heavy fine.

On approval of the regents, any corporation, association, school district or combination of districts, may transfer its library to any public library in the University, and with it the right to receive any money, books or other property from the state or other sources. If it is believed that the purposes of the library can be better accomplished by combining it with another library, it is manifestly unfair that money or books which were designed for the benefit of that community should be lost to it because it has taken the most efficient and economical method of supplying its inhabitants with the best reading. Under this section (§ 45) many boards of trustee!) will find it advisable to merge their libraries with others, thus getting better results for the public from the same expenditure.

In cases of local neglect to provide for the safety and public usefulness of the books, the right to state grants is forfeited and, after 60 days' notice from the regents without the needed action being taken, the library property may be put in the hands of new trustees or otherwise used as the regents shall think best for public interests. Definite authority is given to the regents to lend (from the state library, the duplicate department, or from books specially bought) traveling libraries, which will carry at frequent intervals 100 choicely selected volumes to the public libraries of the state and to communities about to establish them. The regents are authorized to give, on request, instruction on organizing or administering a library either through the state library staff or otherwise, and to aid localities by selecting or buying books and arranging exchanges and loans.

Finally, while the establishment of a library is made easy, its abolition is made difficult, as it requires a majority vote ratified by a second majority vote at the next annual election, thus making hasty or ill-considered action impossible. (If a library is abolished, its property must be used first to turn over for the benefit of other public libraries in that locality as much as it has received in gifts for public use.) It is made impossible for a community which has received gifts for a library to reduce its own taxes by voting to sell the library. No library can be lawfully abolished till the n gents grant a certificate that its assets have been properly distributed in the interests of the public.

School library law

The $55,000 a year first voted in 1838 as public library money to be distributed by districts through the state, is made by the new law school library money, to be apportioned by the state superintendent of public instruction, who makes all needed rules. It can be spent only for approved books, which must be reference or pedagogic books, or suitable supplementary reading for children, or books relating to branches of study pursued in the school. The locality must raise an equal amount. The library must be kept in the school building at all times, but teachers and school officers or pupils may, if the state superintendent allows, borrow one volume at a time for not more than two weeks. A teacher must be made librarian. While the old laws were repealed, the former rules hold good so far as they apply till they are changed by the state superintendent. Each city and school district in the state is authorized to raise money by tax for a school library as it may do for a school.

Any of the old district libraries may be given to any free public library under state supervision, or to aid in starting such a library if it is free to all the people of the district. This will encourage and make practicable the establishment of public libraries throughout the state by the union of two or more district libraries. The old unit was so small that successful administration was impossible. It is expected that inost districts will welcome an opportunity to contribute their library toward a central library for a town or a considerable section of a town, as by such a union of forces all will get much more for the money expended.

District libraries which have been practically abandoned by the authorities may, by permission of the regents, be taken by a public library for the use of that locality. In thousands of districts the libraries on which the state spend a part of the $3,( 00,000 used since 1838 have fallen into disuse and finally have ceased to be remembered as public property. The books are scattered in private bookcases and attics and exert a demoralizing influence because their marks show that property belonging to the public is in private hands. It is made a misdemeanor for any person wilfully to neglect or refuse to deliver any books of this kind to the legally appointed librarian who is authorized to collect them.

At the request of the state superintendent, the law includes a provision that the public shall not be entitled to use any library now or hereafter in custody of the school authorities. It was felt that only confusion and a repetition of the old mistakes would result from any attempt to have a public circulating library conducted by public school officials. The school officers are under the direction of the state superintendent and make all their reports to him. The circulating libraries by the new law are related to the state library and are under the direction of the regents. A sharp line is therefore drawn between the two kinds of libraries. The school libraries are a part of the equipment and under the entire control of the local school authorities, but they are not allowed to circulate the school library books or make the school library in any sense a public library. This however does not mean that the many district libraries which were from the first intended to be public libraries, and have been so maintained, must hereafter change their character. The same section authorizes the school authorities to appoint three library trustees (who have all powers, duties and responsibilities of trustees of public libraries incorporated by the regents) and to transfer to them, for the purposes of a circulating library, any of their library property, as provided in § 5. The present circulating district libraries will thus continue their good work, but the school authorities must appoint a separate board of library trustees. The new board will receive a charter from the regents and become thereafter a public library entirely independent of the school authorities and entitled to various rights and privileges and to a share in the public library money. The school authorities may retain any pedagogic or reference books specially adapted for the technical school library, turning over to the new trustees such books as are adapted to a public circulating library.

This transfer of the old district libraries, so far as they have life enough to be of any service to the public, one by one to public libraries by action of the local school authorities, is the most important work to be done under the new law.
To insure observance of the new law, the state superintendent is to withhold the public school money from any city or district which uses school library money for anything except books approved by the state superintendent, or that violates any rules regarding the school libraries.

The result of the new law is to establish the new school libraries as a part of the schoolroom apparatus, and to consolidate the little district libraries into practical working public libraries. Instead of the state's paying the whole expense, the locality benefited must raise as much money as it asks from the state, and the provisions for supervision and reports are such that infinitely better results are assured than were secured under the old system. Suitable blanks are in preparation for taking action under the new laws, and when the new appropriation goes into effect on October 1, the regents' office will be ready to give its active assistance to any community desiring to improve its library facilities. In the meantime one of the state library staff, Mr W. R. Eastman, has been assigned to this special work, and will be glad to give information either personally or by correspondence to any one interested in the public library movement of the state of New York, which promises to do more in the coming academic year than in a whole generation before.

[circular 2]
How to obtain a share of the public library money

1 The trustees of any free public library under visitation of the regents and having subject to their order any money raised from taxation or other local sources for buying books may receive from the public library money an equal amount not to exceed $200 for the first year of the library's establishment, or $100 for a succeeding year; the entire amount to be spent for books approved by the regents.

2 Any such library may also have the use of a traveling library not more than six months for general circulation. Several lists of about 100 volumes each will be furnished, from which one list may be selected and the books obtained in accordance with the regents' rules. These require a satisfactory guarantee and a fee of $5 in each case to cover a part of the cost of suitable cases, printed catalogs, necessary blanks and records and transportation both ways. This traveling library may be exchanged for another on the same terms and these exchanges may continue as long as the regents' rules are observed.

3 Free public libraries under visitation of the regents include all libraries incorporated by the regents, all libraries which have been admitted to the University, and all libraries connected with colleges, academies or other institutions in the University, provided that they are open to the public, without charge, for either reference or circulation.

Any other free public library in the state wishing to have these privileges may apply for a regents' charter or admission to the University.

In order to secure such admission the trustees must formally apply for it to the regents. The regents' library inspector will then personally examine the library and its WQrk and, if he reports that the library in its administration and character of books is worthy of state aid, loans of traveling libraries and other privileges granted to accredited institutions, the regents usually grant the request. This involves no expense, but every library admitted must make annually a brief sworn report of its conditions and operations and must be open to official inspection by the regents or their officers whenever they may think it desirable to satisfy themselves that the library is maintaining tie required standard.

4 If in any community the people are not yet ready to establish such a library, 25 resident taxpayers may obtain the use of a traveling library as provided in rule 2 for such libraries.

Since the appropriation for the fiscal year beginning October 1, 1892, is only $25,000 for the entire state, it is obvious that applications must 1 be considered in the order of their reception, and prompt action may be necessary to avoid disappointment. Those interested, if they wish to make an effort this year, should send as early as practicable for the official application blanks.

Inquiries for information or advice will be promptly answered if directed to Public libraries department, State Library, Albany, N. Y.
Melvil Dewey, Director

3] Traveling libraries
Loans of books from the state. Under such rules as the regents may prescribe, they may lend from the state library, duplicate department, or from books specially given or bought for this purpose, selections of books for a limited time to any public library in this state under visitation of the regents, or to any community not yet having established such library, but which has conformed to the conditions required for such loans. {Laws of1892, ch. 378, § 47.)

Under this authority traveling libraries of about 100 volumes each will be lent in accordance with the following rules.

1 On satisfactory guarantee that all regents' rules will be complied with, a traveling library may be lent for a period not exceeding six months to any public library under visitation of the regents.

This includes all libraries incorporated by the regents, all libraries which have been admitted to the University, and all libraries connected with colleges, academies or other institutions in the University, provided that they are open to the public, without charge, for either reference or circulation.

2 Under like conditions a traveling library may be lent to a community not yet having such a public library, on application of 25 resident taxpayers; provided that the applicants also agree that a petition shall be made for a popular vote to be taken within two years in their city, town, village or district on the question of establishing a free public library as provided in laws of 1892, oh. 378, § 36. The applicants shall specify one of their number, who must be a responsible owner of real estate, to act as trustee of said library and be personally responsible for any loss or injury beyond reasonable wear. This trustee shall designate a suitable person to be librarian.

3 A fee of $5 shall be paid in advance to cover cost of suitable cases, printed catalogs, necessary blanks and records and transportation both ways.

4 Such precaution shall be taken in packing as to guard effectively against injury in transportation.

5 Notes, corrections of the press, or marks of any kind on books belonging to the library are unconditionally forbidden. Borrowing trustees will be held responsible for all losses or injuries beyond reasonable wear, however caused.

6 The traveling library shall not be kept longer than six months after its reception.

V The librarian shall care for the books while under his control and circulate them in accordance with the regents' rules, and shall make such reports respecting their use as the regents may require.

8 For wilful violation of any library rule the director of the state library may suspend the privilege of state loans till the case is considered by the regents' committee.

Selection of books. In our new system of traveling libraries and of supplying selected books to encourage the formation and support of public libraries as authorized by laws of 1892, one of the most serious problems which we have to face is that of the selection of books. The old system started by New York in 1838,

and copied by 17 other states, broke down chiefly from lack of supervision in selection. Careful study led us to adopt the following principle:

Furnish either in the traveling libraries or in the selections sent to public libraries for permanent use, the best reading matter available for the amount of money spent. In carrying out this principle, all influence from authors, publishers or dealers must of course be ignored and only the book and its cost considered. At first it sounds plausible to say, select the very best book regardless of cost, but in most cases there is no absolutely best book. If we are to send 100 volumes to a village, probably the best selection that any expert could make could be equaled by another 100 volumes selected by other experts. While we aim to select the 100 best books for that time and place, we shall succeed only in sending 100 of the best, not only shutting out all bad or weak books but maintaining the highest standard in those chosen. If two books are pronounced by experts of equal value for our use, and one is supplied at half the cost of the other, it is clearly our duty to use the state's money where it will produce the best result. We would not send a second rate book in place of a better one because it was cheaper, but in choosing ordinary books of real literary merit we should consider the price.
Cheapness is not determined simply by discounts. Certain books are given a fictitious retail price in order to allow large discounts. Others are published at small discounts, or even at net prices. We therefor consider

1 The literary character of the book, and, if there be more than one edition, which is most desirable for our work;
2 Paper, type and binding. We have no right to send out books that will endanger eyes by too fine type or bad printing, or that because of poor paper or flimsy binding are really costly from lack of durability.

Having considered literary and physical qualities, final choice is then largely dependent on the price at which it can be secured.

After much persistence we succeeded in getting the 100,000 duplicates which were being ruined in the hot air chamber of the basement of the capitol moved to the fifth story, but not till this fall have we succeeded in starting shelving on which to arrange them. I am glad to report that the southwest pavilion, room no. 51, is being fitted up with iron shelving, so that within the next year we shall be at last able to unbox these books and begin the duplicate department, the great usefulness of which is already assured. The shelving now ordered will hold some 70,000 volumes. The entire room if filled would hold about 200,000. The plan of exchange adopted has been published and has met the warmest commendation on all sides as being the only satisfactory solution of one of the most difficult problems connected with library administration.

Exchanges. The following volumes and pamphlets were sent from the library under the system of exchange to the states and territories and to various institutions in this and other countries:
1601 1893
Court of appeals reports 264 308
Supreme court reports 126 210
Session laws 163 140
Legislative journals and doc's 1704 2312
Legislative manual 44
State library reports 301
State library bulletins 335 1636
State museum reports 207 212
State museum bulletins 584 1675
U. S. N. Y. regents' reports 160 1404
U. S. N. Y. regents' bulletins 1886
(J. S. N. Y. regents' examination papers 430
U. S. N. Y. convocation proceedings 455
Other volumes and pamphlets 114 160
3657 11173

This remarkable growth from 3657 in 1891 (which was itself a large growth from previous years) to 11,173 in 1892 illustrates the new activity in securing gifts by exchange of our own state publications with various countries, states and institutions. Thousands of volumes which the state had printed at great cost were packed away in useless heaps or often sold for waste paper, when there were hundreds of libraries at home and abroad wishing copies to complete their sets. By our present system we are placing these publications where they will be permanently preserved and made most useful. It is clearly for the interest of the state to see that after it has printed valuable matter it shall do its proper work. "With this threefold increase in the number of copies sent out there has been quite threefold care used. It would be easy to send out any number, but we have refused more applications than in any previous year and have taken more pains to distribute the available copies where they will do most good. The system was illustrated fully on page 15 of the last report.


In 1876 was organized the American library association which from that time has been the recognized representative of the library interests of the country. Its monthly organ, the Library journal, and the large annual volume of proceedings fully record its work.
In 1885 the first local association was organized in the Columbia college library as the New York library club to promote the library interests of New York city and vicinity. Of this your director had the honor to be president when he was called from New York to Albany. This has grown in interest and usefulness and similar large and successful clubs have been formed in Boston, Chicago and other cities.
In 1889 was organized the Association of state librarians, of which your director has been from the first president.
In 1890 in our own library was organized the first state association. The New York library association is devoted to promoting the library interests of New York state and is therefore an organized supplement to our new public libraries department. Of this body also your director has been from the first president.

These four organizations are so closely connected with our work that, beginning with the next report, I purpose to give not only the minutes of the New York association but also a brief summary of the year for each of the other three. With the coming year I shall insist on retiring from the presidency of the Association of state librarians and of the New York library association, believing it better after the labor of organization to have others at the head; but I shall feel it my official duty to take an active part in their work. Similarly in 1890 I insisted on retiring from the secretaryship of the American library association after 15 years of active service in charge of its offices and business, but was then elected president. This office I resigned in 1891. At the recent meeting at Lakewood, N. J., the largest in its history, it was decided to have a great 10 days' meeting at Chicago in connection with the world's congress on education. The peculiar importance of this international meeting has seemed to justify my acceptance, with the arduous duties involved, of a second election to the presidency. The members of the library committee consulted, agreed that the interest of our own state in the work of the American association made it desirable to give the necessary time to these unusual duties.

New York Library association. In accordance with the original plan a meeting was held in connection with the national body at Lakewood and another at the time of the University convocation. The Lakewood meeting was well attended not only by New Yorkers but also by many from other states deeply interested in the problems which we are working out. Jso stenographic report was taken but the ground covered was substantially the same as in the convocation meeting, of which a full report follows as appendix 2. It is encouraging to report that there was warm approval by the most expert students of these subjects in the country of the novel plans adopted in New York. It is of great value to us to have the benefit of consultation with these librarians who enter heartily into the spirit of our work and gladly give us the benefit of their own experience and advice.

In reviewing the year as a whole we have much reason for gratification. It would be greatly to the advantage of the library if the building could be entirely completed and we could settle down to our permanent work. Also if we had larger appropriations with which to buy books and to undertake many important pieces of work deferred from year to year. But under the circumstances, and with the resources at our disposal, every regent will feel a pride that so much of credit and value to the state has already been accomplished and that there is so excellent promise for the future.

Respectfully submitted
Melvil Dewey, Director

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