Wednesday, February 15, 2012

The Red Book 1897

1897, pages 526-546 (page images below)


History of the Great Building—Its Architects — Capitol Commissions - Coat of the Structure Year by Year — The Beautiful Hooms in the Building —The Cost of Finishing It.

The Capitol of the State is the most imposing building in Albany and commands the finest site. The city of Albany is built upon several hills, which rise above the western bank of the Hudson river, almost at the head of navigation upon that river. Perched upon the highest of these hills stands the Capitol, a gigantic structure of white granite, with red-capped towers. Travelers upon the Hudson River railroad, or upon the Boston and Albany railroad, upon approaching Albany, see before them a mass of buildings covering a hillside. There are church spires, and tall office buildings, dwellings and the superb City Hall of Albany. Crowning the pyramid of other buildings, there stands out the big State Capitol, massive and gigantic, a huge mass against the sky line. Large as it is, its size is exaggerated into immense proportions by its elevated position above all the other city buildings.

The old Capitol of the State, which stood in the little Capitol Park, just east of the present new Capitol, was constructed in 1806, at a cost of only 1110,000. It was occupied until 1879, when the Legislature moved into the present magnificent structure. The new Capitol, up to the close of the fiscal year ending September 80, 1895, had cost the sum of $21,468,386.80. It will have cost, it is estimated, when finished, nearly $24,000,600. It will be instructive to compare this building with others. The Capitol at Albany is 800 feet north and south by 400 feet east and west, and with its porticoes will cover three acres. The walls are 100 feet high from the water table. The cost so far is over $21,000,000, and several millions more are required, according to estimate, to finish it.

The Capitol at Washington covers a little over five and one-half acres, is built of marble and sandstone, painted white, and the art work on it can not be surpassed. It cost altogether $11,725,478.

The public buildings at Ottawa, three in number, are massively built at a cost of about $5,000,000.

The Michigan State Capitol is 346 feet in length by 191 feet in depth, and extreme height to the top of the dome 267 feet. It covers one and onesixth acres, and cost $1,430,000.

The new Capitol at Hartford, Conn., is a fire-proof building of white marble. Its size is 295 feet front by 187 feet deep; total height to the top of the crowning figure, 266 feet; cost, $2,256,140.50.

The new City Hall in Philadelphia covers nearly four and one-half acres and is of marble.

History Of The Capitol.

The Legislature of the State has met in Albany since 1797. At first it assembled yearly in the Stadt Iluis at the corner of Broadway and Hudson avenue, then in the old Capitol upon State strret. hill, and lastly in the new Capitol, also upon State street hill. Agitation for a new Capitol began about 1860; it then being obvious that the old Capitol was of inadequate size. Upon April 24, 1868, James A. Bell, who was a Senator from the Eighteenth Senate district, then composed of the counties of Jefferson and Lewis, as chairman of the Committee on Public Buildings of the State Senate, offered a resolution, which was adopted, that the Trustees of the Capitol and the chairman of the Committee on Public Buildings be authorized to procure suitable plans for a new Capitol and report to the next Legislature. The committee obeyed orders and submitted plans for a new Capitol, drawn up by Thomas Fuller, of the firm of Fuller & Jones. Mr. Fuller had designed the new Parliament buildings at Ottawa, Canada, and had been very successful in that project. Two years passed, however, before any action was taken upon these plans. A committee of the Legislature in the meantime solicited invitations from various cities for the Capitol. New York proffered a site upon the Battery, in City Hall Park, in Tompkins Square, or any other public square, and besides offered to build the new Capitol free of expense to the State, and in addition, to build an executive mansion upon Fifth avenue, opposite Central Park. The cities of Buffalo, Oawego and Ithaca declined to make any offer, but good offers came from Yonkers, Saratoga, Athens and Argyle.

The first committee (appointed April 24, 1868) had suggested in their propositions for plans that they should be made with reference to the square about the old State Capitol, as the site for the new one. The city of Albany now offered to convey to the State the lot adjoining, occupied by the Congress Hall block, or any other lands in the city required for the purpose.

On the 1st of May, 1865, an act was passed (Chapter 648) authorizing the erection of a new Capitol, whenever the city of Albany should deed over the land proposed, providing for the appointment of three commissioners, and appropriating $10,000 for the commencement and prosecution of the work. On the 14th of April, 1866, the city having made good its offer at an expense of $190,000, an act was passed ratifying and confirming the location of the Capitol, and May 8d of the same year, Hamilton Harris, John V. L. Pruyn, of Albany, and O. B. Latham, of Seneca Falls, were appointed New Capitol Commissioners. On the 22d of April, 1867, an act was passed appropriating $250,000 for the new Capitol, but providing that no part should be expended until a plan for a new Capitol had been agreed upon not to cost when completed more than $4,000,000. The plan submitted by Thomas Fuller was adopted, and he was appointed architect, and William J. McAlpine consulting engineer.

It was upon the 9th day of December, 1867, that the work of building a new Capitol was actually begun by the striking of the pick into the ground for an excavation at the corner of Hawk and State streets. The contractor for this excavation was John Bridgeford and he had in his employ 100 men. Additional appropriations were soon made. On May 19, 1868, the sum of $250,f 00 was appropriated. This act added to the names of the Capitol Commission the names of James S. Thayer, Alonzo B. Cornell, William A. Rice, James Terwilliger and John T. Hudson. The commission were also authorized to take as additional land one-half the block adjoining Congress Hall block on the west, and to change the plans at their discretion, with this proviso: That if they were so changed that the building would cost more than $1,000,000, the commissioners were not to proceed to the work of construction till such plans were approved by the Legislature.

Meantime work bad been delayed for a rear in order that the additional lands might be secured. On the 2d of October, 1868, the commissioners having come to the conclusion that preparing the land was not included in the term " construction," the demolition of houses on State, Washington, Spring and Hawk streets was begun, and in December following, 400 men and 200 teams were employed carrying the earth that had been excavated and depositing it down the bank at the corner of Swan and Canal streets. The enlarged plans for the new Capitol prepared by Fuller & Laver, were duly reported to the Legislature and approved by act of May 10, 1869.

The first stone in the foundation of the Capitol was laid July , 1869, by John V. L. Pruyn. This foundation, although, of course, out of sight, and scarcely thought of by the ordinary visitor, is a wonder in itself. In the first place excavations were made to an average depth of 15 48-110 feet below the surface. Then a bed of concrete, 4 feet thick, was laid, constituting a stone floor, which will grow harder and harder as time rolls on. The sub-basement extends down 19 feet 4 inches, and contains 735,000 cubic feet of stone, while the brick walls, from 32 inches to 5 feet thick, contain 10,000,000 and 11,000,000 bricks. The foundation of the big eastern tower is 110 feet square at the base, tapering to 70 feet square at the basement floor. In this sub-basement are no less than 144 different apartments used for heating, storing and ventilating purposes. The corner stone was laid with great ceremony by the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons on the 24th of June, 1871. The exercises took place in the midst of a drenching rain, but were said to have been witnessed by at least 20,000 persons. Addresses were made by Hon. Hamilton Harris and Gov. John T. Hoffman. Since that time work has progressed, sometimes faster and sometimes slower, with occasionally an entire cessati n for lack of funds, as in 1874, when it stood still six months.

There have been many changed in the Capitol Commission. In April, 1871, the commission was so changed as to be constituted as follows: Hamilton Harris, William C. Kingsley, William A. Rice, Chauncey M. Depew, Delos De Wolf and Edwin A. Merritt. In February, 1875, Mr. Hamilton Harris, who had been chairman of the board for nearly 10 years, resigned. On the 21st of June, 1875, the entire old board was abolished, and the LieutenantGovernor (William Dorsheimer), the Canal Auditor (Francis 8. Thayer), and the Attorney-General (Daniel Pratt), were constituted a new board. Of this board, Lieutenant Governor Dorsheimer took an active interest in completing and furnishing the interior, and much of its present sumptuousness, especially the Assembly Chamber, is due to his taste. This board was superseded by the successors to these several offices as follows: Lieu tenant-Governor George G. Hoskins, from January 1, 1880, to January 1, 1888, when he was succeeded by Lieutenant - Governor David B. Hill ; Canal Auditor George W. Schuyler, from January 1, 1876, to May 20, 1880, when he was succeeded by John A. Place, who held the office till it was abolished in 1883; AttorneyGenerals Charles S. Fairchild, from November 2, 1875; Augustus Schoonmaker, Jr., from November 6, 1877; Hamilton Ward, from November 4, 1879; Leslie W. Russell, from November 8, 1881.

In 1883 a law was passed creating the office of Capitol Commissioner, abolishing the office of superintendent of the Capitol, and empowering the single commissioner to take full charge of the work, at a yearly salary of $7,000. This bill was signed on the 30th of March, 1883, and the same day Governor Cleveland sent to the Senate the nomination of Isaac G. Perry. He was confirmed April 5, and he held for the succeeding 11 years.

With the abolition of the old commission in 1875 came a change in architects, Mr. Thomas Fuller being superseded by an advisory board, appointed July 15, 1875, consisting of Frederick Law Olmsted, Leopold Eidlitz and Henry H. Richardson. Up to this time the exterior walls had been carried up upon the Fuller plans, a working model of which had been constructed at a cost of $3,000, and which was on exhibition for several years. This plan was that of the Italian Renaissance, which was now modified by Eidlitz and Richardson to the Romanesque, but work had not proceeded far when the Legislature passed an act directing a return to the original style and that the building be carried up to the roof in accordance therewith. This lias been done so far as possible, the result being what is called the Free Renaissance.

The interior of the new Capitol is largely the work of Henry H. Richardson, Leopold Eidlitz and Isaac G. Perry. Mr. Richardson designed the magnificent Senate Chamber, Mr. Eidlitz the Assembly Chamber, Eidlitz and Richardson the superb Court of Appeals and the finely proportioned Executive Chamber, and Isaac G. Perry the grand western stairway, and the beautiful northeastern stairway. Mr. Perry also was the architect who designed the magnificent eastern approach to the Capitol and the beautiful western facade. Further, Mr. Perry greatly improved the interior by letting in light and air, and by putting in ventilating shafts and light shafts through the building.

Cost Of The Capitol. The expenditures for the new Capitol have been as follows:

1863. Purchase of land.. $51,593 66
1864. Purchase of land.. 9,453 55
1865. Purchase of land.. 10,860 08
1866. Purchase of land.. 65,250 00
1867. Construction 10,000 00
1868. Construction 50,000 00
1869. Construction 451,215 63
1870. Purchase of land.. 396,022 24
1870. Construction 827,575 49
1871. Construction 482,942 37
1872. Construction 856,106 98
1878. Construction 1,175,600 00
1874. Construction 610,275 16
1875. Construction 1,392,712 08
1876. Construction 908,487 92
1877. Construction 728,220 20
1878. Construction 1,075,700 00
1879. Construction 994,836 44
1880. Construction 1,035,678 56
1881. Construction 1,392,328 75
1882. Construction 1,266,756 25
1883. Construction 1,345,956 30
1884. Construction 1,306,425 30
1885. Construction 866,723 16
1886. Construction 552,681 62
1887. Construction 51,473 28
1888. Construction 167,957 60
1889. Construction 316,362 67
1890. Construction 169,482 53
1891. Construction 528,256 53
1892. Construction 826,564 77
1893. Construction 803,472 03
1894. Construction 741,365 15
1895. Construction 400,000 00
$21,868,336 30


Construction $20,935.156 77

Purchase of land 583,179 53

$21,468,836 30

Mr. Perry reported to the Legislature of 1895, that it would cost $2,638,112.16 to complete the Capitol. His report upon this matter was of an interesting nature. He said in this report to the Senate on January 22, 1895:

In compliance with the following resolution adopted by the Senate, January 9, 1895, viz.: "Resolved, That Hon. I. G. Perry, Capitol Commissioner, and a competent person to be designated by the Governor, be and they are hereby directed to report to the Senate on or before the 21st day of January, 1895, a statement of the material on hand intended for use in the completion of the Capitol, its cost and present value, together with specifications of the work necessary to complete the Capitol building, and an estimate of the cost of such work, and also their opinion whether it is advisable to have such work done by contract.” I herewith most respectfully make the following report, and estimate of the cost to complete the Capitol:

Statement of Materials on Hand for Use in the Completion of the Capitol.

Eleven thousand two hundred and fifty feet Hallowell granite (rough) $8,206 80
Two hundred and twenty feet six inches red granite (rough) 231 45
Four thousand eight hundred and fifty two feet nine inches Corsehill freestone (rough) 6,522 47
Three hundred and sixty six feet two inches Medina freestone (rough) 570 60
Five hundred and ninety seven feet eight inches Indiana limestone (rough) 565 20
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------$16,096 42

Six granite column bases $450 00
Six granite columns 2,400 00
Six granite column caps 900 00
One hundred seventy feet Fox Island granite (rough) 212 50
Fifty feet Knoxvllle marble rough 150 00
One thousand four hundred ninety six feet nine inch's Hallowell granite moulded string course 14,967 50
Thirty two feet ten inches polish red granite columns and pilasters for mantel (finshed) 492 50
Sixty two feet ten inches Indiana limestone (finished) 314 16
Two hundred seventy six feet Corsehill freestone (finished) 1,380 00
Twenty four granite balusters finished 1 380 00
Twenty one granite balusters (one-quarter finished) $288 75
Thirty four Corsehill freestone balusters carved and completed 850 00
Five Corsehill freestone balusters cut and partly carved 100 00
Four Corsehill freestone balusters simply cut 35 00
Roofing tile 500 00
Twenty feet Knoxville marble cut and polished 140 00
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------$24,551 41

Two eight-light combination brass chandeliers $492 75
One two-light combination brass bracket 22 50
Forty three one-light electric brackets 53 75
Two and one-third dozen gas globes 7 00
Forty Edison mica-covered cut-outs 10 00
One hundred seventy feet of No 12 lead-covered stranded wire 9 85
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------$595 35
.......................................................................................................$41,243 18
Plant for carrying on the work................................................................65,000 00

Total...............................................................................................$106,243 18

The following estimate has been carefully prepared in detail. The method of keeping the account of the various kinds of stonecutting is to keep the cost of each class of stone-cutting work separately, and the accompanying estimate has been based on that experience, and I am sure the prices and quantity will be found accurate.

Estimate for the Completion of the New York State Capitol.

North terrace.................$56,669 68
South terrace...................47,682 37
East terrace.....................53,284 03
Two basement entrances 11,454 00
----------------------------------------------------------$168,284 98

Eastern Approach.

North and south driveways...............$24,523 75

Circular balustrade on terraces
north and south of third run of stairs...28,802 69
Finishing balustrade of first and
second run of steps...........................11,856 30
Balustrade on second platform and
side terraces and finishing approach
east of driveway..............................$107,060 78
Finishing balustrade of third run of St...$17,060 65
Two circular bays at third platform.........11,604 48
Fourth run of steps and upper platform...43,181 33
.....................................................$244,571 96
........................................................................$413,505 17

Center section of eastern facade (granite and brick work)........................$98,424 17
Alterations to floors and roofs in connection with the center
section of the eastern facade and finishing north east pavilion roof.............80,897 91
....................................................................................................$1,192,827 85

North portico...........................$189,690 09
South portico.............................182,620 09
Western approach and portico..101,653 18
------------------------------------------------------------------------466,898 86

To construct tower of Iron, covered with copper and to complete Interior of tower..170,347 90

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------$2,230,068 61

East lobby first floor...................$24,098 25
East lobby second floor................27,715 00
West lobby.................................30,267 08
-----------------------------------------$82,070 33

To complete western staircase...............................117,142 00

To complete corridors In connection
with western staircase............................................27,308 00

Interior skylight and cornice over
western staircase....................................................27,030 00

Electric fixtures for western staircase
and western lobby...................................................20,080 00

To furnish and put in elevator south
of western staircase..................................................5,000 00

Finishing elevator openings........................................1,616 50

Finishing and furnishing apartments for State
Comptroller and Stale Treasurer.................................89,693 00

Finishing courtroom of Court of Appeals........................3,000 00

Finishing fifth and sixth stories of library.....................26,000 00

Inclosing library elevator with steel panel
work and wiring for electric motor................................$4,189 50

Finishing northerly corridor adjoining tower and
room in fourth story northeast pavilion...........................6,032 40

Interior skylight over Senate staircase..........................10,000 00
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- $354,784 73

Fireplace for Assembly parlor...............................................$1,000 00

The plumbing of the Capitol is in a very unsanitary condition
and it will cost to make it safe to the occupants of the same....45,000 00

Repairing vestibule walls at the east and west ends
of the Assembly Chamber......................................................7,500 00

Repairing northeast curtain roof that is
covering with tin Instead of slate..............................................450 00

Repairing roofs and cornices of four small towers
on north and south sides of building........................................4,500 00

Repairing pedestals ledges and other granite work
in central court.....................................................................6,500 00

Repairing roofs on several parts of the building.........................2,600 00

Cutting down twenty four attic windows in four pavilions
and putting in new frames (This work is required in order
to make rooms available)......................................................17,952 00

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------84,502 00

------------------------------------------------------------------------$2,679,355 84

Deduct for amount of materials on hand...................................41,243 18

Total..............................................................................$2,638,112 00

The resolution requests my opinion as to whether it is advisable to complete the Capitol building by the contract system.

In answer I would say that, in my judgment, it would be for the best interests of the State that the work be carried on and completed by day's work.

The greater amount of work yet to be done in the completion of the Capitol is granite cutting. The interior of the building, as will be seen by the estimate, together with an examination of the building, is practically completed except the western staircase and the east and west lobbies.

The majority of the stonecutters employed are first class workmen intelligent sober and industrious men who take a pride in their work and as will be seen on examination of the same it will be readily conceded by competent judges that the work is of a very superior quality better than I believe would be accomplished by contract which is an important matter in the finishing of the monumental work under consideration.

The completion of the building demands the best workmanship that can be procured, thereby requiring the best workmen.

Some parts of the early construction are defective, and it will be necessary to strengthen said work in such manner as to make it permanent, as has been the case with a large amount already done.

As regards the center section of the eastern facade, I would say that prior to my having charge of the work, the plans were changed, and, as will be seen, the center section is discontinued at the third story, and the load which it was originally designed that this wall should carry, rests upon the inner wall, and is carried up to the roof lines, overloading the foundation, which has caused the same to settle and disturbed the work adjacent to it, that is the groined brick arched ceilings in the first story, and the granite groined arched ceilings over the second story. The present plan removes this burden and places it upon the outer wall, which is constructed with a foundation of sufficient strength and solidity to permanently carry the weight.

The apartments now occupied by the Court of Appeals were finished in 1883, except the main courtroom, which was only partially finished at that time. Plans were prepared last season and an appropriation of $5,000 was made for that work, and it will require $3,000 additional to complete the same in accordance with the plans approved by the Judges of the Court of Appeals.

When the courtroom is finished, it will be an absolutely perfect room. There will be two tiers of carved frames for portraits. All of the frames available have been filled with portraits and it became necessary to make additional ones, and it was deemed advisable to make the room complete by putting in two full tiers of carved portrait frames on all the available space of the four walls, which finishes the room complete. All of the large frames (11 in number) have been put together, five of which have been completed, and the other six partially done. Forty frames of smaller size are provided for in the lower tier, the material of which is out, and the carving of which is about one third done. It will require about two months’ time to fully complete the work of finishing the courtroom.

Special attention has been given to make the carved work interesting, as in the case with the work already done. The carving of the frames has not been duplicated. Each of the new portrait frames are of special design and so arranged as to produce a harmonious effect.

I most respectfully suggest that the members of the Senate examine the work that has been done to strengthen the interior of the structure and that which is yet to be done, and I am confident that they will decide to have the work continued under the same system which has prevailed for the last few years, and they may be sure of the final result being satisfactory.

I would gladly at any time accompany a committee on a tour of inspection of this great structure, and I take this opportunity to state that I have done everything in my power to reconstruct such portions of the building as had given way, in a manner to make the work permanent, and the present indications are that in every instance the new work has been a success.”

The Legislature Moves In.

The Capitol was first occupied by the Legislature January 7, 1879, the Senate meeting on the second floor, in the room originally intended for the Court of Appeals, the Assembly in the Assembly Chamber. The same evening a grand reception was given by the citizens of Albany, when 8,000 people were present. Gilmore's band of New York, and Austin's orchestra of Albany, furnished the music. The supper was served under a canopy in the central court.

The formal occupation took place on the evening of February 12, 1879, when in presence of both houses of the Legislature, the Court of Appeals, the State officers and others, assembled in the Assembly Chamber, prayer was offered by Rt. Rev. William Croswell Doane, D. D., and addresses were delivered by Lieutenant-Governor, William Dorsheimer, Speaker Thomas G. Alvord, and Hon. Erasius Brooks. The Senate Chamber was first occupied March 10, 1881. Other parts of the building have been occupied as they have been made ready for the various officers and departments.

Description of the Building.

Some writers upon architecture say that the white granite Capitol with its towers reminds them of the famous Tag Mahal in India. Others think it a superb reflection of French architecture. The situation is a most commanding one. The Capitol square, which embraces all the land between Eagle street on the east, and Capitol place on the west, and between Washington avenue on the north, and State street on the south, is 1,034 feet long by 830 feet wide, and contains 7 84-100 acres. The elevation of Capitol place is 155 feet above the level of the Hudson, and the ground falls off to the eastward 51 feet. In front, State street stretches away toward the river, one of the broadest and handsomest avenues in the country.

The size of the structure impresses the beholder at once. It is 300 feet north and south, by 400 feet east and west, and with the porticoes will cover three acres and seven square feet. The walls are 108 feet high from the water table, and all this is worked out of solid granite brought, most of it, from Hallowell Maine. There are other buildings which, in the mere matter of area, exceed this one. The Capitol at Washington, for instance, covers a little over three and a half acres, but it is of marble and of sandstone painted white. The new City Hall in Philadelphia covers nearly four and a half acres, but that is also of marble. The government buildings at Ottawa, Canada, are of sandstone. All lack the massive effect which this great pile of granite produces. Its outer wall at the base is 16 feet 4 inches thick.

The central court is 137 by 92 feet, extending an open space to the sky, and admitting much needed light and air. Above, the six dormer windows that open on the court, and that are above the fourth or gallery story, are sculptured the arms of six families that have become more or less distinguished in the history of the State.

The Stuyvesant arms are on the north side west. The carving is as follows: Party per fess argent and gules; in upper a hunting hound in pursuit of a hare In lower a stag current. Crest, a demi stag issuing from a royal crown. Motto, Jovi proestat fidere quam homini.

The Schuyler arms are on the north side, middle. The carving is as follows: Vert a cubit arm habited issuing from the sinister base point holding a falcon proper. Crest, a falcon proper gorged with a fillet, strings reflexed.

The Livingston arms are on the north side, east. The carving is: Quarterly, first and fourth quarter argent three gilli-flowers; second quarter quarterly first and last gules a chevron argent, second and third azure three martlets; third quarter or, a bend argent between six billets. Crest, a demi Hercules with club in dexter band and the sinister strangling a serpent. Motto, Si je puis.

The Jay arms are on the south side, west. The carving is: Argent a chevron gules, in chief a demi sun in splendor, between two Mullets argent below, in base a rock proper surmounted with a large bird close. Crest, a cross calvary.

The Clinton arms are on the south side, middle, and are carved as follows: Argent six cross crosslets, fitchee, three, two, one, on a chief two mullets, pierced. Crest, a plume of six ostrich feathers on a ducal crown.

The Tompkins arms are on the south side, east. The carving is: Argent on a chevron gules between three birds close, as many cross crosslets. Crest, a unicorn's head armed and maned and gorged with a chaplet laurel.

The carving can best be seen from the upper stories.

The first or ground story, which is nearly on a level with Washington avenue and State street, is a handsome one. Entering either from State street or Washington avenue, the eye rests upon massive granite columns supporting the floors of the rooms above. The long corridors which branch off from these entrances are beautifully ornamented with stone work. Here upon this first floor are situated the offices of the State Treasurer, the Superintendent of Public Works, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Superintendent of Prisons, the Superintendent of the Insurance Department, the State Board of Charities, the Commission in Lunacy, and the Fish Commission. The Assembly stairway, of white Dorchester freestone, is reached from one of the corridors, and the Senate stairway, of Corsehill red sandstone, is reached from another. Both of these stairways are of remarkable beauty and of splendid design.

The Second Floor.

The second floor of the Capitol is distinguished for the handsome offices in it of the Governor, the Secretary of State, the Comptroller, the Attorney General, the Adjutant General, the Statutory Revision Commission, and the State Board of Health. Added to these, facing the great central court of the building, are well lighted committee rooms of the Senate and the Assembly. The Executive Chambers, or the Governor's rooms, are in the southeast corner on the second, or entrance floor. On the way to this portion of the Capitol one is struck by two very important differences in construction between the southern corridors and the corresponding passages on the north side of the building. These differences consist in the use of colored marbles here for wainscoting, and in the admission of light by windows rising from the top of the wainscot above the level of the eye, and surrounding the doors leading into the various committee rooms that receive direct light. The effect of the wainscot is of great richness and variety, and it also seems substantial and enduring. The richness and variety of color is truly wonderful and it contains in low tones more combinations than the most elaborate palettes of a painter could reach in a lifetime. The most prominent tints are shades and hues of red, and these are relieved by numberless colder tones, grays and browns predominating. The marble has been selected with a harmonious scale of color, and is put together in simple slabs, the joining edges of which are beveled perpendicularly, and are held in place by a slightly convex string molding, and a cap of brown stone, which, where they abut upon the doors, are daintily carved into terminal bosses, while the whole rests upon a molded base of brown stone. This wainscot is more pleasing than any combination of tiles could be, but its effect would be entirely thrown away were it not for the means adopted for lighting the corridors through the windows mentioned above. Commissioner Perry, during his term of office, also put plate glass in all the doors opening upon this corridor, so as to give it far more light than it originally possessed.

The main room used by the Governors of the State is at the southeastern corner of the building. It is a room of admirable proportions; 60 feet long by 40 feet in width. The walls are wainscoted to a height of 15 or 16 feet with mahogany, arranged in square panels surmounted with a band of carving and a carved molding above. The space between this and the ceiling of mahogany is covered with hangings of Spanish leather, which harmonize in its soft tones of golden brown and red and olive, with the mahogany. On one side of the room is an enormous fireplace having a shelf and several emblematic panels of elaborate carving above it. The ceiling is composed of beams, which divide the space into panels, having rails perforated in the form of a quatrefoil surrounding the panel. There are convenient arrangements to connect with the offices of the executive attendants and the billroom by small doors in the paneling, and altogether the room is well adapted to the reception of persons having business to transact with the Governor and his assistants. Upon the walls of this Executive Chamber hang portraits of Governor George Clinton, Governor William H. Seward, General LaFayette, General George Washington, Governor Hamilton Fish, Governor William C. Buck, Governor Edwin D. Morgan and Governor Roswell P. Flower.

The rooms of the Secretary of State, in the northeastern corner of the building are also handsome. There one finds portraits of former holders of the office of Secretary of State. Among these portraits are those of Chauncey M. Depew, Hilton G. Scribner, Azariah C. Flagg, John A. Dix, Joseph B. Carr, Diedrich Willers and Frederick Cook. The offices of the State Comptroller are in the northwestern angle of the building, where they communicate by a private stairway with the State Treasurer's office upon the floor beneath. In the Comptroller's office are numerous portraits of the Comptrollers of the State. Among them are portraits of William L. Marcy, William A. Allen, Lucius Robinson, Frederick P. Olcott, Ira Davenport and Frank Campbell. The Attorney-General's room at the southwestern corner of the building is a symphony in red. It is a beautifully proportioned rooms of a red color. There one finds portraits of former Attorney-Generals, among them Charles F. Tabor, General John Cochrane and Denis O. Brien.

The third floor is where the visitor finds the halls of the Legislature---the Senate Chamber, and the Assembly Chamber. There is a beautiful corridor running along the court, between it and the Senate Chamber. It is lined and vaulted with gray sandstone, and has a row of sandstone columns in its center, above which there is a double-arched vault extending to either wall. Upon this spacious corridor open the main doors leading to the Senate Chamber.

The Senate Chamber had for its architect the leading American architect of the time, H. H. Richardson, of Boston. The space in which he had to work was 60 feet in breadth, nearly 100 in length, and about 50 in height. He has reduced the plan of the room to a nearly square form, cutting off from either end of it the lobbies, above which are placed the galleries, opening on the chamber proper. These lobbies, opening from the corridors, are simple in treatment, yet by a slight similarity in detail they, in a measure, prepare the eye for the Senate Chamber itself. They are wainscoted with light marble, arranged panelwise in slabs and rails, and are ceiled with quartered oak. From the west lobby opens the Lieutenant-Governor's room, comfortably fitted up with a carved and polished mahogany wainscot and fireplace, and an oak ceiling supported on corbels of marble. By the arrangement of the galleries over the lobbies, the actual floor space of the Senate Chamber proper is reduced to about 60 feet by 55.

Entering on this floor by the main doorway from the vaulted corridor above described, one first sees the south wall from which the chamber is lighted by three large openings rising from a level with the floor, and six lesser openings near the ceiling. Two of the large windows are filled with disks of stained glass, which shade from browns and rubies near the floor through olives and golden hues to the semi circular tops, which are filled with varied iridescent and opalescent tints. The central window is obscured by the reredos behind the president's desk, which rises to the spring of the window arches, but does not cover the semi circular window head, which like the others, is filled with many hued opalescent glass.The stained glass has been used not only to add brilliancy of color but to avoid the glare of light that has proved so objectionable in some of the other rooms. These windows are arched, and the stone moldings above and below them are carved with intricate and delicate patterns of interwoven lace-like forms, and a carved band of stone divides the lower part of each window from the semi circular upper light. The capitals of the angle columns are more heavily cut into conventional forms, taken from oak leaves and other foliage. The wall space between the windows as far up as the spring of the arches, is of Knoxville, Tenn., marble, a reddish gray stone, not highly polished, though having a smooth finish.

Above the three arches of the lower windows for about 12 feet (perpendicularly) the wall is paneled with Mexican onyx. These panels are cut into slabs three feet square and are separated, or rather framed, by slightly convex rails of Sienna, (Italy) marble, the mottled reds, yellows and browns of which contrast with the tints of the onyx. For additional support the slabs are backed up with slabs of ordinary marble. The variety of color displayed in the onyx is very remarkable, the prevailing tints being mottled and semi-translucent whites, cream colors, sea water olive and ivory. These tints are broken and waved by lines, stria and splashes of raw Sienna coloring, rosy brown, and numberless shades of other neutral browns, some inclining toward red, and some toward green, and even blue, while the surface everywhere varies in play of light and shade of semi opacity and translucence. The various slabs, no two of which are alike, are arranged with a the columns the galleries bow out slightly, giving the effect of balconies, and are protected by a balustrade composed of columnar balusters of Sienna marble and rails of gray marble, the projections of the galleries being supported by long, flat corbels of gray stone, elaborately carved. The wall is thus divided into three spaces—the marble foundation wall, the arched space giving on the galleries, and the space for the gold frieze. The frieze space again carries the eye to the north wall, where it is shown in its greatest mass. Appearing on the south wall in a small strip above the arches of the upper tier of windows, and in rather greater mass on the west wall, it shows itself here in a broad, unbroken surface equal to more than one-third of the whole wall surface. The value of this arrangement will be seen at a glance, for the gold surface, catching the light of the upper windows directly opposite, reflects it over the room.

Half way between the east and west walls is the main entrance of the corridor, and on either side of the main entrance are two great open fireplaces jutting out into the room. The doorway and fireplaces are constructed of marble, as is the space between them. The openings of the fireplaces are about six feet in height and something more in breadth. The cheerful effect of these, when filled with blazing logs, the flames of which are reflected on the polished onyx and marble from all aides of the room, may well be imagined. Above the fire openings are to be carved legends or symbolical devices. Above these are the broad faces of the chimney breasts, which are to be cut in bas-relief with representations of historical or legendary scenes, emblematical of, or illustrating the legislative character of the room. The chimney pieces are finished with and surmounted by hoods slanting back to the wall at a steep angle and ornamented with crockets and carved bands. The whole chimney pieces are about half as high as the room, reaching to the string course below the gold frieze. Above the doorway and wall space of Knoxville marble one sees the wall space up to the frieze covered with the Mexican onyx panel, and like the frieze, in greater extent of surface than elsewhere. So placed, these two great fields of onyx and gold catch the broad southern light and afford a great diversity in the play of color, and offer the necessary repose to the eye after looking at surf aces broken by the arches of the windows on the south, east and west walls. Above the onyx and inclosed within the frieze is a long rectangular space, which may be filled in with mural painting of some allegorical subject fitted to the place.

The Assembly Chamber.

The Assembly Chamber was designed by Leopold Eidlitz, and as it appeared when finished according to his grand conception, it was a magnificent room. It looked like a church built of sandstone with its arches supported by four gigantic pillars of Tennessee marble. But unfortunately for Mr. Eidlitz his stone ceiling proved unstable and had to be removed. For the stone ceiling there was substituted one of oak and papier mache, and thus the beauty of its design has been greatly marred. The Assembly Chamber is 84 by 140 feet, including the galleries, although the chamber proper is but 84 by 55 feet. Four great pillars, four feet in diameter, once sustained the largest groined arch in the world, the keystone being 66 feet from the floor. But this stone ceiling has been removed, the ceiling of oak is 20 feet nearer the floor, and while the room yet has much beauty, much of its former impressiveness has been lost.

The Court Of Appeals.

Nine spacious rooms were assigned by the Capitol Commission to the Court of Appeals, six in the third story, and three in the fourth floor; the two stories a at this point being connected by an ornamented iron staircase. The courtroom is in the southeast corner, over the Executive Chamber, and is 35 by 53 feet and 25 feet high. It is finished in quartered red oak, timbered ceiling of the same material, with carved beams and deep recessed panels. The five window openings are finished with Knoxville marble, the arches resting upon carved trusses and columns recessed into the angles formed by the jambs and outer belting, terminating in ornamental trusses. A deep carved wood string in line with the trusses, and the carved capitals of the marble columns divide the oak paneling on the walls into two parts. The framework of the upper section is filled in with large plain panels, and the intention is to decorate, by gilding, the rails. Tin- panels are designed to be painted in varied designs to harmonize with the wood carving. The lower section below the window arches stands upon a molded base and is filled in with double raised panels and subdivided longitudinally by carved string courses, containing between them a section of vertical fluted work in which are fixed at intervals in carved frames the portraits of the judges, many of which hung in the Court of Appeals room of the old Capitol.

A portrait of John Jay, the first Chancellor, or head of the Court of Appeals, occupies the center space above the judges' bench. Upon either side are portraits of the late Chief Judges Chas. J. Folger and Sanford E. Church, the first Chief Judges of the present court. There are also portraits on the walls of Samuel Nelson, Martin Grover, Rufus Peckham, Samuel Hand, Samuel Spencer and other eminent judges.

On the west side of the room is a recessed fireplace of large dimensions, over which is diplayed the arms of the State carved in the oaken panels of the mantel over the recess. The recess of the fireplace is lined with Sienna marble and has a bench on either side of the fireplace of the same material. The lintel over the fireplace is also Sienna marble, richly carved and extending across the whole recess. Resting on the lintel is a large panel composed of several choice specimens of Mexican onyx skillfully arranged.

The judges' bench has been carefully designed in style and form to suit the requirements and wishes of that honorable body. The front is divided into panels set in framework; the panels are exquisitely carved in varied designs and separated by ornamental balusters, the whole resting on a molded base. Carved in the renter panel are the arms of the State. Three is a medallion convex of carved grotesque heads located along the projecting top. Perhaps no room in the building is better adapted to its purpose than this. Four other rooms adjacent form a continuous suite extending north from the courtroom along the eastern front. A room for lawyers in attendance on the Court of Appeals is opposite the courtroom on the west side. In the corridor loading to the Court of Appeals are fine portraits of William M. Evarts and the late David Dudley Field.

The State Library.

One of the most magnificent rooms upon the third floor is the State Library. It extends completely across the western wing of the Capitol. In a central hall, which has a high ceiling beautifully painted with flying cupids with garlands, are chairs and tables for readers. Here is the central administration of the library, where reference books and other books can be obtained from the librarians. The State Library has 167,000 volumes. Part of these are law books. The law library occupies the northern wing of the State Library, while the south wing is used for the books of general literature. The oak book shelves and steps, and mezzanine floors in all of the library are of great beauty.

The Western Staircase.

The western staircase is one of the most beautiful staircases in the world. It occupies the center of the western wing of the Capitol and consists of an immense double stairway of red Corsehill sandstone. The carvings upon this stairway are of great beauty. In a report to the Legislature of 1895, Isaac G. Perry, Capitol Commissioner, spoke in the following interesting manner about this western staircase:

"The work of erecting the structure was commenced March 23, 1884, and continued at intervals when appropriations were available, the actual time expended on same being five and one-half years. The structure occupies a space 76 feet 10 inches north, and south by 69 feet 10 inches east and west. The height from the tile floor in the first story to the top of the cornice is 105 feet, and from thence to the summit of the glazed dome is 14 feet, making a total of 119 feet.

The east and west main corridors of the western section of the building extend along past the great staircase in the first, second, third and fourth stories, except on the west side of the second story, where the entrance lobby is located, and which connects with all four of the corridors, which are embellished with columns and pilasters with carved caps and string courses. The effect produced in viewing the stairs from the great lobby in the second story is most imposing. The cross sections of corridors opposite the "staircase in the various stories are emphasized by piers and arches on the north and south limits, and all walls within these sections have been made to harmonize with other portions of the structure.

"The plan consists of broad central runs of steps starting in the corridors and extending through the center openings between the cylindrical piers, flanked with columns in the east and west corridors in the first story, in the east corridor and west lobby in the second story, and in the east and west corridors in the third story. These center runs curve outwardly from the center line of the steps, increasing the length of the lower steps, which are also constructed on convex curves, and extend up a little more than one-third of the height of each story and land on central platforms. These platforms are flanked by short runs of stairs on two sides at right angles to the central runs, which extend to and land on platforms reaching to the walls, from which are four runs of steps, two on each side along the walls next to the south and north corridors, thereby making four landings, two in each corridor of the second, third and fourth stories. By this plan the construction of the staircase is such as to form four liberal sized wells, to which light is admitted through the glazed dome and also through the windows in the side walls.

"The central portion of the stairs are supported on eight bearings, resting upon molded granite bases, and extending up from the foundations at the angles of all the platforms through three full stories and part way up from the third to the fourth story. The whole inner area of the fourth story above the pedestals from the platforms at the junction of the runs of steps is open, leaving the whole space within the outer colonnades free up to the glazed dome, which spans the whole area, admitting a flood of light down through the staircase. The framework of the dome will be constructed of iron ribs, glazed with clear white plain enameled glass, and the electric lights will be arranged between the dome and the glazed roof, by which means a great flood of artificial light from the obscured lamps will be admitted to and thoroughly light the upper portion of the stairs and the surrounding corridors of the fourth story.

"From the tops of the platforms are pedestals extending up above the same to the height required to receive the balustrades in the first, second and third stories, and reaching up above the platforms between the third and fourth stories, the height required to receive the balustrades and statues to four of the pedestals and the curved caps to the other four.

"Clustered columns with molded bases rest upon the pedestals, except in the upper story, and are embellished •with carved caps, by which mode of construction eight ornamental architectural supports are formed, thereby making continuous vertical piers at the eight points where strength is required, and by this means of construction the inner portions of the structure are permanently supported. There are also eight pilasters and piers attached to the north, south, east and west walls in each story, on which rest the upper springs of the graceful elliptical arches carrying the upper runs of steps which land in the corridors of the first, second, third and fourth stories, and together with the lower stages of arches, the various runs of steps are supported. These arches divide the elliptical groined ceilings, and also the groined ceilings under all platforms into forms of parallelograms.

"Very careful attention has been given to the form and decoration of the balustrade in the six openings of the third story. The balusters stand on ledges which project into the staircase, forming bays, from which a full view of this great work is obtained. The ledges on which the balustrades rest bear spirited carving. On the center ledge on the north side is an excellent carved head of Columbus in relief, and the three caravels in which he and his company made their first voyage. Upon the western ledge is carved the Viking ship, and on the east ledge a modern steamship is represented, the two latter in bas-relief. The sculptured work is cut on a plain surface surrounded by rich foliage. The rails of the three openings and the steps of the same on each side are richly carved, the foliage lapping around the columns, the whole producing a very rich and interesting effect.

"On the south and corresponding ledge of the center opening is carved the head and bust of a typical American girl, the arms of which are concealed by the foliage, and projecting through the same, and in sight are the hands. On the west ledge is a ploughing scene, and on the east ledge a log schoolhouse set in a clearing, the scene representing a forest of timber, and children on their way to school. The ploughing scene and the schoolhouse are in bas-relief, each surrounded by rich foliage.

"The entrance to the State Library is from the western corridor of the same floor. A broad string course situated just below the springs of the arches of the doorway and the recesses extends the whole length of the west wall, and returns across the north and south end walls, extending to and including the caps of the columns at the junctions of the north and south corridors. This string course together with the caps to the columns and pilasters have been completed. Much care was given to the designs, producing a variety of detail and form to such an extent as to make it an attractive and very interesting work. On the transom over the entrance to the State Library is the carved representation of the head and neck of Minerva, with a wreath of oak leaves falling down on either side of the same, the whole set in well designed and carefully executed foliage. On the lower section of the transom are the words 'State Library' with carving representing palm leaves, springing out from behind the caps of the columns on either side, which meet the lettering in a well executed representation of an ivy entwined around the letters. The doorway is flanked with coupled columns, the caps of which are exquisitely carved, as is also the case of the caps of the single columns on either side of the two recesses, and the four coupled and two single pilasters standing upon pedestals opposite and corresponding to the ones supporting the clustered columns of the staircase, and the first stage of pilasters extend up to the under side of the polished granite lintels with carved stops at the openings and recesses. A carved head representing Homer is recessed between the carved capitals of the pilasters on the north side of the doorway and that of Shakespeare between the carved capitals of the pilasters on the south side of the doorway. Resting upon the granite lintels is a second stage of pilasters, standing directly over the ones in the first stage, and extending up from the same to the underside of the carved corbels that support the granite beams which carry the ceilings of the fourth story. Cupids are represented in the spaces between the pilasters and columns at either side of the Library doorway, and at other points in the string course. Heads representing old men and cupids, are introduced at intervals in the string course, set in twining foliage.

"The opposite and eastern corridor wall is embellished with columns with carved capitals in the angles formed by the window openings, and the walls which are embellished with pilasters standing on pedestals and granite lintels, the same as described above for the western corridor.

"On the east side of the first story are carved corbels under the arches supporting the center runs of the steps representing 'Justice' on one, and 'Liberty' on the other. On the west side the corbels are carved, representing the lamp and open book on one, and the cross on the other. The emblems are surrounded by richly carved foliage.

"The corbels supporting the third-story arches, which carry the center runs of steps on the east, bear the words 'Excelsior' on one and 'E Pluribus Unum' on the other, and on the west side is a quotation from the Declaration of Independence, the letters carved on a smooth surface surrounded by natural foliage, and near the carved head of Thomas Jefferson, which is carved between the caps of columns on the pier just below. The corresponding corbel supporting the opposite arch represents a shield bearing the stars and stripes, and surrounded by carving representing laurel, etc., and near the carved head of George Washington, which is carved between the caps of the columns on the pier just below.

"The cylindrical piers, on each side of the center section of steps to the second story, are flanked with four columns, the shafts of which are round placed so that the columns form parallelograms on the piers. Between the capitals of the piers, which consist of a variety of flowing foliage, are historical heads. On the inside of the right hand pier, looking from the western lobby, is the carved head of General George Washington, and on the opposite pier facing Washington, that of Thomas Jefferson, and on the side facing the lobby are the heads of General Scott, and General Zachary Taylor. Flanking these last named heads are those of General Wool and General Thomas. On the inside of the piers in view when descending the steps, is the head of J. Fennimore Cooper, with smaller heads surrounding it, representing the subjects of many of his writings, and Americus Vespucius.

"On the opposite piers of the east corridor, between the capitals of the piers, which consist of a variety of flowing foliage, are also historical heads. On the inside of the right hand pier, looking across the steps, is the carved head of General Schuyler, and on the opposite pier that of General Jackson, and facing the corridor, the heads of Benjamin Franklin and DeWitt Clinton, and flanking the same on the right and left are the heads of Henry Hudson and Champlain. On the inside of the piers as viewed when descending the steps are the heads of John Jay and Silas Wright. The abacus of the carved capitals return around the same and are recessed and rest upon the carved heads. The piers are embellished below the necks of the carved work with flowing foliage, all making a very rich setting for the sixteen carved heads on the four piers that have been completed. Several competent judges have made favorable mention of the heads, and it is hoped and believed that they are creditable to the memory of the various distinguished people they represent.

"A portion of the models have been prepared for the capitals of the clustered columns of the third story, consisting of the late President Abraham Lincoln, William H. Seward, Alexander Hamilton, George William Curtis, the scientist Joseph Henry, and Robert Fulton. These models are on exhibition at the Capitol and so far as they have been examined by competent judges are considered good representations of the distinguished subjects.

“"The material employed in the construction of the staircase is mainly of Corsehill freestone which is of a soft light red color and was selected on account of its uniform close texture and solidity together with its suitability for carving and being of a color best adapted for the greater portion of the work Tests show that it is capable of carrying 7,000 pounds to the square inch.

"The steps are of Medina freestone, from quarries near Albion, Orleans county, reddish brown in color, and of very close texture, and regarded as one of the best known materials for steps, from the fact that it will resist wear almost equal to granite, and possesses just grit enough to prevent it from becoming slippery. The color of the steps form a pleasant contrast with the stone of the main structure, producing harmony of color. The lintels in the second story, heretofore referred to, are of 'Bay of Fundy' polished red granite. The lintels in the third and fourth stories, and the granite beams that support the paneled stone ceilings in the corridors of the third story, are of what is known as Stony Creek granite, from quarries near New Haven, Conn., of a deep reddish brown and somewhat ununiform in its color, and produces when polished (as is the case of the lintels and beams of the staircase) varied shades, and the charming contrast with the Indiana limestone, which is of a light drab color, resting upon the beams and together with the walls and corbels on which the beams rest, producing a charming harmony. The molded bases on which all the supports of the stairs and stonework of the corridors rest in the first story are of 'Fox Island' granite from quarries near Hallowell, Me."

The Eastern Approach.

The eastern approach to the Capitol is the chief one. It looks down State street; and the visitor approaching the Capitol from the lower part of Stato street can not fail to admire this grand entrance to the State's Capitol. William Henry Russell, the famous London Times correspondent, declared the Capitol to be the finest building in America. Since the eastern approach was designed by Capitol Commissioner Perry, and carried to completion under his care, this declaration of Mr. Russell has been eminently true. Mr. Perry, in his annual report to the Legislature in 1895, thus described this grand eastern approach:

''The eastern and principal approach to the Capitol provides for an entrance way to both the first and second stories, through an arcade in the first story and through a portico over the arcade in the second story. The foundation was laid in 1891, since which time the work has been steadily progressed each year when money was available for that purpose.

"The plans of the structure are on a liberal scale, and the eastern approach extends out from the building a distance of 166 feet 7 inches, and connects with the central and projecting section of the eastern facade. The first section is 111 feet broad, measuring to the outside of the pedestals. The strings and steps curve outward at the lower ends and terminate in richly embellished pedestals, on which is designed to be placed statuary bearing electric lights.

"The first run of 16 steps are 100 feet 7 inches broad and are constructed on convex curves, the radius of each step being increased from the lower to the upper step, and land on a broad curved platform, at which point there is a great corbel supporting pedestals at the ends of the platform; both the corbels and pedestals are designed to be richly embellished with carving. From this platform there are 16 additional straight steps landing on a platform which is also on a level with the continuation of the terrace, and from which the next run of steps start to the second story. Resting on a great pier at the junction of the terrace and the upper run of steps, is a great cap 4 feet 11J inches by 7 feet 3 inches, rising about 16 inches above the platform. This cap is designed to be carved, and will support pedestals with molded, bases and carved caps, which will receive the strings, balustrade and rails, and form a proper platform for supporting statuary, bearing electric lights, as contemplated by the drawings. This terrace extends along on either side of the upp'>r runs of steps to the roadway. Opposite the terraces are those along the east front, and on the north and south sides connecting with the porticoes of the side entrances on Washington avenue and State street.

"The road passes through an archway, forming a porte-cochere to the first story of the Capitol. This archway it, 24 feet in width by 67 feet along the roadway, and is divided into three bays with, stone groined ceiling supporters on piers with columns in the angles, the caps of which are designed to be carved.

"The foundations were built up to a height of 20 feet with granite cut to parallel thicknesses, constructed in the most thorough manner, requiring 4,000 yards of concrete, 9,000 cubic feet of granite, 8,981 cubic feet of limestone and 11,133 cubic feet of rubble masonry of limestone and granite, between the piers.

"The four piers resting on the above named foundations are constructed of finely wrought granite and have been carried up to a level of the under side of the pavement of the porticoes, ready to receive the superstructure. The piers on either side of the roadway are carried up on a rectangular form to the height of eight feet, from which point the piers are circular in form, each flanked by four columns, cut on the solid and crowned with a block of granite preparatory to carving. The piers and columns have molded bases and represent a very great amount of work and produce a substantial and beautiful appearance.

"East of the arched driveway or porte-cochere to the first story, are two sections divided into three bays each, with elliptical granite groined ceilings between the main elliptical arches, supported on piers flanked with columns and surmounted with blocks of stone preparatory to carving. The effect of these arcades is substantial and grand. On the west of the driveway next to the building and opposite the roadway, is a fourth bay, treated in the same manner as the ones above described.

"The section of the terrace next to the roadway is curved outward, greatly increasing the width of the platform on either side, forming a spacious and attractive feature, especially in the colonnade and the construction of the steps from the terrace to the second story, alas of the colonnade. The pilasters and columns which support the terrace connect with the retaining walls of the roadway on the north and south sides, which extend at right angles to the terraces. These retaining walls are embellished with pilasters with molded bases, the pedestals resting upon the pilasters and wall, and extend up above the balustrade and are finished with molded bases with ornamental caps. From the lower pedestals of the retaining wall is a carved console, which ramps down from the under side of lions' heads on the pedestals to a low coping constructed on curves, which, together with the opposite wall, provides a broad entrance to the roadway leading across from street to street. These copings terminate in a low round carved stop, located on a line with the inside of the sidewalks.

"Starting from the platform and terraces are two runs of steps to the second story. The first run containing 22 steps which extend to a platform, making in all 23 risers 59 feet 6 inches wide to the outside of the pedestals at the bottom, and 52 feet 4 inches wide at the top. This run of steps is constructed on convex curves, the radius of each step being increased from the lower to the upper step, landing on a platform 65 feet broad by 11 feet wide, from which there are 21 straight steps to a great broad platform 24 feet by 57 feet, the height of which is within one step of the pavement of the portico. This platform is to be constructed with granite slabs, each piece being the full length of the width of the platform.

"The entrance to the great lobby in the second floor is through three archways supported on columns and piers, with six steps which raise from the pavement of the portico to the floor of the lobby in the second floor. The Senate staircase and elevators are located on the south side and the Assembly staircase and elevators on the north of the lobby, which extends through the tower, and is lighted on the west through openings of the central court.

"The ends of the platforms between the two runs of steps extend out over great projecting corbels weighing about 20 tons each (which I believe are the largest pieces of granite carving in this country), and are supported on clustered columns. The ends of the platforms rest on these corbels, around which the balustrade extends, and form bays at either end, presenting a very pleasing feature midway between the two upper runs of steps leading from the broad terrace to the second story. The corbels are richly carved with a well-sculptured head of Jupiter on the south, and Mercury on the north, in the upper sections, surrounded by foliage, and the lower section is carved in ribs of various forms with foliage at intervals lapping over the same.

"It will be borne in mind that all the material used in this great approach is of finely-wrought granite from the Hallowell Granite Works quarries, and that the work has been done with the greatest care and precision and superior to any other granite work in this country.

''Commencing at a point of the pedestals at the junction of the outer limit of the circle of the terrace and the balustrade of the roadway on the north and south sides, the balustrade extends a distance of 78 feet on each side to the lower pedestal of the roadway, and each is divided into four bays filled with balusters. On the opposite side the total distance is 180 feet. From thence to the north and south porticoes the distance is 146 feet, making a total of 552 feet of terrace.

"The balustrade commencing at the pedestals at the foot of the first run of steps is carried along between the pedestals and along the terrace and down the retaining wall of the roadway to the lower pedestals on the north and south sides of the approach. The rails and balusters are connected with the projecting front of the building and continue along the terrace and down the steps from the sidewalk and connect with the newel posts, and along on the north and south sides of the building and connect with the porticoes. The rails start from the pedestals of the two upper runs of steps and continue up and around the bays formed by the great corbels, and up to and connecting with the projecting walls of the building. The total length of the balustrade is 1,150 lineal feet, each baluster being nine inches in diameter. The balustrade will be one of the prominent features hi this great work, viewed from the various points. The various slopes, curves and levels of the balustrade to the roadway, terraces and steps, when viewed from all positions, will present a most charming appearance.

''The entire work of the approach and the center section of the eastern fagade when completed will add dignity and prominence to the structure."

The Fourth Floor.

In the fourth floor of the Capitol are the five offices of the Regents of the University, of the Capitol Commissioner, the Board of Mediation and Arbitration, the Civil Service Commission, the Forestry Commission, the State Entomologist, the Factory Inspector and the Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Executive Chamber.

Senate Chamber.

Assembly Chamber.


The "Tub," Newspaper Men's Headquarters and Benson's Turkish Baths.


THE "BOILER HOUSE." Or Steam-Generating Plant of the Capitol, with Shops at Left.

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