Sunday, May 19, 2013

Mae Brussell


1968, Marquis, World Who's Who In Science, Laurence Laird Layton, American allergologist, biochemist,
September 29, 1973, San Francisco Chronicle, page A-1, A Radio Shocker - Jim Dunbar Is Shot At While He's On the Air,
November 11, 1973, The Washington Post, page A-2, Oakland Bullets Had Cyanide,
August 2, 1977, New York Times, page A-16, Mind-Control Studies Had Origins in Trial of Mindszenty, Special to The New York Times,
November 20, 1978, Monterey Peninsula Herald page 1, Beatings, Threats Reported by Woman Who Attempted to Interview the Rev. Jim Jones, Los Angeles Times Service,
November 27, 1978, San Jose Mercury News, page 17-A, Jones lived well, kept to himself during mysterious Brazil stay, Special to the Mercury,
November 28, 1978, San Francisco Chronicle, page 4, 'Robot' Behavior of Ryan Murder Suspect, by Stephen Hall,
November 28, 1978, Monterey Peninsula Herald, L.A. Freelance Journalist, Now in Hiding, Tried to Inform the World About Jonestown,
November 29, 1978, San Jose Mercury News. page A-1, Toward the end, Jones slipped from reality into fantasy world, by Pete Carey, Staff Writer, Last of a series
November 30, 1978, San Francisco Chronicle - AP, Reagan Says Jones Favored Democrats,
November 30, 1978, San Francisco Chronicle, page 5, A Growing List of Temple 'Hitmen',
December 1, 1978, World Watchers International, Transcription of Tape #365, by Mae Brussell,
December 7, 1978, San Jose Mercury News, Mark Lane, FBI meet secretly, Guyana probe enters San Jose, by Knut Royce, Staff Writer,
December 10, 1978, San Francisco Sunday Chronicle & Examiner, page A-1, $3 million for hit list, says ex-Jones aide, by W.E. Barnes, Examiner Staff Writer,
December 18, 1978, San Francisco Chronicle, page 2, Survivor Heard Cheers After Temple Death Rite,
December 18, 1978, San Francisco Chronicle - Reuters, page 2, 700 Temple Dead Were 'Murdered',
December 28, 1978, San Francisco Examiner, page A-1, Narcotics as a control - How Jones used drugs, by Peter King,
February 5, 1979, San Francisco Chronicle, Gamut from Ho to Hum, by Herb Caen,
February 5, 1979, San Francisco Chronicle - UPI, page 10, Mind Control - The CIA's Plan to Create a Nuisance,
February 28, 1980, Monterey Peninsula Herald - AP, Berkeley Killings Revive Fear Of Peoples Temple Revenge,
December 25, 1987, Washington Post, page A-29, German Settlement Stirs Controversy in Chile,Court Blocks Effort by Bonn to Investigate Allegations of Forced Labor, Sexual Abuse, by Bradley Graham, Washington Post Foreign Service,
November 20, 1992, San Francisco Chronicle - Reuters, Brainwashing Compensation By Canada,

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From Marquis "World Who's Who In Science" (1968)


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September 29, 1973, San Francisco Chronicle, page A-1, A Radio Shocker - Jim Dunbar Is Shot At While He's On the Air,

A deranged young gunman fired three shots at Jim Dunbar's head yesterday while the talk show host was conducting a radio interview, shortly after 10 a.m., at KGO's studio at 277 Golden Gate avenue.

Although the gunman was just a few feet away when he fired, the bullets were deflected by a bulletproof glass window between the studio and the sidewalk outside.

Dunbar, a popular radio personality and host of KGO-TV's morning interview program, "A.M.," shouted to an aide to telephone police as the gunman ran inside the station's offices.

"Hey, will you guys call the cops on that? . . ." his listeners heard Dunbar say. "Whew! I just had a man take a shot at me."

Once inside the station, the gunman shot Ben Munson, 47, an advertising account executive for KGO radio.

Then, with several executives in pursuit, the youth passed Dunbar's view twice before heading for Hyde street.

SUICIDE

The young man shot himself in the head outside Hastings College of the Law and died two hours later at San Francisco General Hospital. Munson, the advertising executive, was in critical condition early today.

Munson, a KGO employee for 14 years, lives in San Rafael with his wife and five children.

Homicide Inspector Hobert Nelson identified the gunman as Lawrence Kwong, 25, who lived at the Westside Lodge, a psychiatric rehabilitation center at 1000 Fulton street.

KGO officials said last night they had been notified by the center that Kwong apparently held a gnawing grudge against Dunbar.

In a California street apartment he occupied until six months ago, he had scrawled: "Dunbar is an evil S.O.B. and has to be done away with."

Dunbar had just completed an hour's discussion with Congressman Jerome Waldie and was getting into an interview with Steven Wasserman of the National Lawyers Guild when the shooting began.

Waldie had left the station and was in his automobile with the radio turned to KGO when he heard Dunbar's shouts over the air.

"I had had a feeling that guy was dangerous," Waldie said later. "He kept walking past the window and he looked strange — like he was high on something.

"At one point, Jim (Dunbar) waved to him and he smiled back."

Waldie said he had mentioned his impression of Kwong to Dunbar, who replied, "I don't like the looks of that man either, but don't worry — there's five inches of bulletproof glass between us."

So Dunbar and the Democratic congressman had continued with their discussion of Vice President Spiro Agnew.

SHOOTING

When Kwong later pulled out his .22-caliber pistol and began firing, right at Dunbar's head, Dunbar shouted for assistants to call police.

Kwong encountered Munson right inside the station door. Five shots were heard. One of those apparently lodged in Kwong's own left leg.

Bob Benson, the station's operations director, heard the shots — "they sounded like firecrackers," he said — and came out to see what was going on.

CHASE

Accompanied by two other KGO executives, Ron Denman and Al Racco, Benson followed Kwong out the door to Golden Gate avenue.

Kwong staggered around, changed directions a couple of times, then ran to Hyde street and around the corner.

As the three from KGO pursued him, a messenger, standing next to his bicycle, shouted, "Don't go after him; he's just reloaded."

Denman carefully went around the corner while, a block away, at Hyde and McAllister, outside Hastings College of the Law, Kwong put the gun to his own head, pulled the trigger and fell to the ground.

Denman walked over to him and kicked the gun away.

Benson said neither he nor anyone else at the radio station had any idea why Kwong wanted to shoot Dunbar.

"As far as I can tell, he was just an isolated psycho," said Benson.

HIATUS

The station went into three minutes of commercials after the shooting began. When live programming returned, listeners heard the voice of Gregg Jordan, KGO's sports director.

"I'm a little shaky," Dunbar had said. "I don't feel like going back in there right now."

At about noon, Dunbar spoke to reporters.

"I had the feeling there was something peculiar about this guy," Dunbar said. "He kept appearing and he was shaking. It made me uneasy."

When Kwong fired at him, Dunbar said, "it sounded like somebody rapping on the glass."

The glass cracked, but didn't shatter.

Inspector Nelson, investigating Kwong's background, said the young man once had been treated at San Francisco General Hospital for some sort of mental problem.

Westside Lodge is one of the services of Westside Community Mental Health Center.

Dr. William D. Pierce, director of the mental health center, said the service is run by Pacific Medical Center.

SILENCE

Dr. Allen Enelow, chief of psychiatry at Pacific Medical Center, said he was prohibited by law from discussing a patient or a patient's medical history.

Dr. Enelow said, however, that Westside Lodge handles patients who have been in hospitals for treatment and are "presumed to be recovering."

It was learned from another source that Kwong was admitted to Westside Lodge after 85 days in St. Mary's Hospital. St. Mary's Hospital acknowledged Kwong had spent 85 days there — but wouldn't say why he was in the hospital.

BROTHER

Kwong was believed to have a brother living somewhere on the Peninsula. Homicide Lieutenant Charles Ellis said that was being checked out.

KGO announced, meanwhile, that Dunbar will be back at work on his programs today.

KGO radio said last night that Kwong's mother is in a mental hospital in Hong Kong.

The station also said Kwong believed "KGO radio was controlling his mind. He once went to Hawaii to get away from KGO radio," one of his fellow patients said.

A private detective, John Immendorf, said he was contacted six months ago by Kwong, who told him he had been kidnapped — and that a transmitter had been implanted in his stomach.

Kwong wanted Immendorf to investigate the station, because the signals from his stomach could only be picked up by KGO, he claimed.

Dunbar, 42, came to KGO radio in March 1963 from WLS, the American Broadcasting Company's station in Chicago.

He came here as the station's program director and four months later took over as host of a talk show. He began doubling on Channel 7 television in January 1966.

Dunbar grew up in Detroit, is a graduate of Michigan State College, and worked on radio stations in Detroit, East Lansing, Mich., Manhattan, Kan., and New Orleans, before moving to Chicago.
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November 11, 1973, The Washington Post, page A-2, Oakland Bullets Had Cyanide,

Oakland, Calif., Nov. 10 (AP) — Investigators say bullets used in the murder of Oakland's school superintendent contained cyanide.

Roland Prahl, chief investigator for the Alameda County coroner's office, said Friday that five slugs recovered during the autopsy on the superintendent, Marcus Foster, had the "distinctive odor of cyanide." A coroner's report verified the presence of the poison.

He said one bullet, found in the shirt pocket of the slain school chief, had a "tracing" of the poison.

"Just by looking at them, it appears the core or lead was removed and cyanide crystals placed inside," he said.

Foster and his deputy, Dr. Robert Blackburn, were ambushed outside the school district administration building Tuesday night as they left a school board meeting.

Foster, 50, died from eight bullet wounds, not from the poison, Prahl said. Blackburn was hit by shotgun blasts and not by the cyanide bullets. He is in serious condition but recovering under police guard in Highland Hospital.

Letters from the "Symbionese Liberation Army" to radio station KPFA and the San Francisco Chronicle claimed credit for the murders. They read in part: "Target Dr. Marcus Foster and Robert Blackburn. Warrant Order: execution by cyanide bullet."

KPFA news director Paul Fisher was served with an Alameda Superior Court search warrant for the letter and its envelope but refused to produce them. The San Francisco Chronicle, which also received a copy of the letter claiming credit for the ambush, said it had already turned its copy over to authorities.

"We refused to hand over the original to protect, under the First Amendment, the confidentiality of our news sources so we may have the credibility as a reliable source of news." KPFA manager Roger Pritchard said.
Plainclothesmen from the Berkeley police and the Alameda County district attorney's office searched the station and found the letter and its envelope.
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August 2, 1977, New York Times, page A-16, Mind-Control Studies Had Origins in Trial of Mindszenty, Special to The New York Times,

WASHINGTON, Aug. 1—In the summer of 1977, it may be difficult for Americans to comprehend the frame of mind of the men who nearly 30 years earlier started the Central Intelligence Agency's effort to manipulate human behavior.

As some of the former high-ranking C.I.A. men recall now, they had looked into the vacant eyes of Joseph Cardinal Mindszenty at his treason trial in Budapest in 1949 and had been horrified.

They had been convinced that his confession had been wrung from him while he was either under the influence of some mysterious mind-bending drug or that he was standing before the dock in a post-hypnotic trance. The sight touched off memories of earlier "show trials" in the Soviet Union.

The C.I.A. leaders were certain the Communists had embarked on a campaign to control men's minds and they were determined to find a defense, setting out in earnest the next year—1950—with Project Bluebird, which evolved into Project Artichoke, then became MK-ULTRA - MK-DELTA. With each code name change, they broadened their sweep, until there remained virtually no avenue of human behavior control they were not exploring.

Fears Seemingly Confirmed

Subsequent developments seemed to confirm their fears: The arrest in Germany of two Soviet agents armed with identical plastic cylinders containing hypodermic needles, said to cause a victim "to become amenable to the will of his captor." Then, the startling confessions of downed American airmen to false charges of carrying out germ warfare against North Korea.

A short time later, however, in 1953, a high level military study group determined that events had not been what they seemed. Neither the Russians nor anyone else had devised a means of turning men into robots and there was "little threat, if any, to national security," the study said.

The intelligence community rationalized: They would go ahead anyway, against the chance that the Communists might some day live up to their dread. Furthermore, they saw great potential in developing these tools for their own offensive use.

There was an "urgent need," the C.I.A. and other intelligence agencies argued, to develop "effective and practical techniques" to "render an individual subservient to an imposed will or control."

The C.I.A. men, who led the way, enlisting the support of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Departments of Agriculture, Health, Education and Welfare and several other agencies, acknowledged among themselves that much of what they were setting out to do was "unethical," bordered on the illegal and would be repugnant to the American people. So they made certain that these activities were tightly held, known only to the director, Allen W. Dulles, and a handful of operatives and high-ranking aides.

"Precautions must be taken," one agency official wrote in an internal memo, "not only to protect the operation from exposure to enemy forces, but also to conceal these activities from the American public in general," adding that this information "would be detrimental to the accomplishment [of the agency's] mission."

Fragmentary accounts of the C.I.A.'s efforts to control men's minds have been published in the past. But a far more comprehensive picture has emerged from a study of more than 2,000 pages of freshly released agency documents and an investigation by a team of New York Times reporters.

The behavior control, undertaken by men who presumably saw themselves as sincere and patriotic, takes on in retrospect the appearance of a bizarre grope into the world of science fiction. The C.I.A. investigators let their imaginations run: Was there a way to dissolve the Berlin Wall? What about a knockout drug that could incapacitate an entire building full of people? A pill that would make a drunk man sober; a way to manufacture food that looked and tasted normal but, when eaten, would create "confusion-anxiety-fear."

Rubber From Mushrooms?

One long discussion focused on whether rubber could be produced from mushrooms. Another on whether water witching could locate an enemy submarine.

They worked on ways to achieve the "controlled production" of headaches and earaches; twitches, jerks and staggers. They wanted to reduce a man to a bewildered, self-doubting mass to "subvert his principles," a C.I.A. document said. They wanted to direct him in ways that "may vary from rationalizing a disloyal act to the construction of a new person."

One of their longest running goals was to develop a way to induce amnesia. They wanted to be able to interrogate enemy espionage agents in such a way that neither the agents nor their superiors would know they had been compromised, and they wanted to be able to wipe clean the memories of their own agents after certain missions and, especially, when they were going into retirement.

They were interested in simple destruction, too. As with the other business that made amnesia so attractive, they wanted to be able to get away with murder without leaving a trace.

An Expert's Suggestions

One apparent medical or scientific expert, whose identity has been deleted from the documents, suggested that the agency might kill a man by putting him in a small, air-tight room with a chunk of dry ice, giving off suffocation carbon dioxide gas. He also proposed reducing a victim's body temperature to below freezing or exposing him to a lethal dose of X-rays. Or, he said, there were two "techniques" that required no special equipment: smothering the victim with a pillow case or strangling him with a bath towel.

In attempts to develop ways to administer lethal and mind-altering drugs surreptitiously through clothing as thick as a leather jacket, they tried out small spray guns and pencil-like injectors.
They conducted interviews with scientists and doctors and members of other intelligence agencies around the world. They studied the writing of the psychologist who worked with Adolf Hitler, wondered about the use of the "occult" and of "black psychiatry," and of course pored over their own stream of intelligence data.

There was an agent's report of a "confession gang" that had arrived in Shang-hai, and, without the use of "old-fashioned torture or drugs," could obtain "any confession they desire." In one case, the report from China went, "the prisoner was not allowed to close his eyes for 26 days."

Most of the ideas the C.I.A. considered never got off the drawing board. For a few years in the early 1950s, though, the agency had one or two "special interrogation" teams that went on operational missions in Europe and Asia. A team was supposed to consist of a psychiatrist, a hypnotist and an interrogator and was to elicit information through the use of drugs and hypnotism.

In actual practice, the size of the teams and the procedure they followed varied. In one series of interrogations in Europe, for example, they employed neither hypnotism nor a combination of drugs and hypnotism—the very essence "of special interrogation" at the time—because the psychiatrist was in a hurry to resume an interrupted vacation and no hypnotist was available.

11 Days of Questioning

Working in the basement of a suburban home, guarded at times by armed military police in civilian clothes, the team questioned three European espionage agents who had been working for the C.I.A. "behind the Iron Curtain" and whose loyalty had become suspect.

Over 11 days, the three agents were individually given intravenous injections of an unidentified drug—possibly sodium pentothal—then engaged by the interrogator and the psychiatrist in fantasies.

The team decided that all three agents had responded to questions truthfully and should be continued in operational use. But they reported in the document that one of the agents who had resisted the effects of the drugs and later disappointed his interrogators by making reference to the "solution" that was injected, thus giving no indication of "amnesia," seemed a "poor operational type."

They said they felt that "if ever taken into custody by the Soviets he would also tell them the truth as he knew it under the slightest duress" and should not be trusted with important assignments.

A former senior intelligence official told of another "special interrogation" effort in Europe in which the C.I.A. tried to determine whether a Viennese count who had been promising information on Soviet cipher codes was telling the truth. The count was given sodium pentothal and hypnotized, the official said, but "it was a complete bust; he just laughed at us." Some time later the count was subjected to the C.I.A.'s "old reliable," the lie detector, and the agency concluded he had been lying.

The C.I.A. was fascinated by LSD and other psychochemicals that they thought might be useful in getting people to talk or in temporarily putting them out of action. They were aware that it was considered unethical to experiment on people with drugs without their knowledge, but they decided that "unwitting" testing was essential if accurate information on LSD and other substances was to be obtained.

Fatal LSD Experiment

In the C.I.A.'s very first experiment with LSD on a group of unwitting men, one of them, Dr. Frank Olson, a civilian working on top secret germ warfare in a unit at Fort Detrick, Md., which provided data for both the Army and the C.I.A., went into a depression that ended in his leap from a 10th-story hotel room window in Manhattan in the fall of 1953.

Earlier in the same year, in the first experiment with psychochemicals that the Army had sponsored at a civilian facility, Harold Blauer, a professional tennis player, had been given a fatal dose of mescaline derivative at the New York State Psychiatric Institute in Manhattan.

The fact that both men died in Government experiments was kept secret from their families and the general public for more than 20 years. Two years after the deaths the C.I.A. made an arrangement with the agents of the Bureau of Narcotics to test LSD surreptitiously on unwitting patrons of bars in New York and San Francisco, some of whom became violently ill and were hospitalized, never knowing exactly what had happened to them.

Some of the C.I.A. officials—past and present—and former military men who worked on the behavior control project, look back at their endeavors with a measure of disappointment that they had accomplished so little, but they had no regrets.

"I think it was certainly worthwhile," said one former agency official who agreed to speak only with the promise of anonymity. "People had quite a lot of fears, and if nothing had been done, people's imaginations could have gone most anywhere. I think what we did helped. It proved that things weren't as bad as people might have thought."
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From Time magazine - December 4, 1978, pg. 20



Jones' lawyers Garry and Lane in Georgetown last week
"Charles and I will write the history."
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February 5, 1979, San Francisco Chronicle, Gamut from Ho to Hum, by Herb Caen,


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December 18, 1978, San Francisco Chronicle, page 2, Survivor Heard Cheers After Temple Death Rite

Matthews Ridge, Guyana--Thirty to 45 minutes after the "revolutionary suicide" seemed to have ended and silence had fallen on Jonestown, a survivor hiding in the bush heard what he says sounded like a chorus of cheers from within the commune.

"What I heard, I would say was three cheers," the survivor, Stanley Clayton told a coroner's jury here late Friday. "It sounded like a lot of people. It was just a lot of voices."

The jury is conducting the first formal inquiry into the deaths of more than 900 people in Jonestown.

As he attempted to re-enter the commune on November 18 to recover his passport, Clayton said, he heard five gunshots being fired and dropped back into the jungle. Later, he said, as he pulled the passport from an office file, he heard a sixth shot, snapped off the light, then waited several minutes before slipping out along the main dirt road.

Clayton, a 35-year-old former security guard and kitchen hand, said he saw no one else alive in Jonestown. But he said that as he walked to a police outpost six miles away, at Port Kaituma, he met villagers who told him they had seen others apparently fleeing Jonestown.

Clayton said he had not run into the bush until all but 100 to 200 persons had died. When many men and women seemed reluctant to join in the death ceremony, he said, the Rev. Jim Jones, beseeching and cajoling through a microphone, came down from the stage with a phalanx of security guards and began "pulling people up from their seats saying they must go."

Clayton recalled: "He kept telling them, 'I love you. I love you. It is nothing but a deep sleep. It won't hurt you. It's just like closing your eyes and drifting into a deep sleep.'"

The prosecuting attorney, the magistrate and the five locally selected jurors did not question Clayton about unidentified survivors, the gunshots or the duress that he reported.

At the opening of the inquest four days ago, Guyana's chief criminal pathologist told the court he had found only two victims of gunshot wounds among the Jonestown bodies: Jones and Annie Elisabeth Moore, the cult leader's personal nurse. Each, he said, had been shot once.

Outside the courtroom, Clayton, who has reportedly received several thousand dollars from The National Inquirer for exclusive rights to his story, refused to elaborate on his testimony.

He gave a vivid account of mothers and nurses lifting cups of cyanide-laced, fruit-flavored drinks to the lips of babies and of some women injecting the poison into their children.

"There were mothers and people crying," he said, "and Jim came across on the speakers telling them to 'Shut up. Don't be scaring the babies like that. Make them feel happy.' He was saying they have to die proud with dignity.

At first, Clayton said, it seemed that many in the commune thought they were participating in one of the "white night" drills that Jones conducted, that they were not actually taking poison.

"After mostly the babies were gone, I would say, people began realizing this was really taking place," he testified.

It was at this point, he said, that many men and women seemed reluctant to continue the death ceremony and that Jim Jones stepped into the crowd and began guiding them toward the poison vat. Jones's wife, Marceline, also walked among the followers, Clayton said, hugging them and saying, "I'll see you in your next life."

After watching most of the cultists die, Clayton said, he began trying to find a way out. He said he bumped into several members of the security force. One turned a bow and arrow in his direction, but others gently directed him back toward the pavilion, he said.

Finally he embraced one guard and said he was going to say goodbye to some people in a nearby tent. "I looked back and saw nobody was following me," he said, "and I took off."

New York Times
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November 20, 1978, Monterey Peninsula Herald page 1, Beatings, Threats Reported by Woman Who Attempted to Interview the Rev. Jim Jones, Los Angeles Times Service,



Los Angeles Times Service

LOS ANGELES — Mysterious visitors, assaults in her home and threats against her family have haunted freelance reporter Kathy Hunter since she returned from a futile attempt to interview the Rev. Jim Jones at his Peoples Temple settlement in the Guyana jungle.

Her trek to the tropics last May turned into a bizarre nightmare, she said, when fires were set three times in rooms adjoining her quarters. Mrs Hunter, who shifted suites after each blaze, said the fires started after an argument with Peoples Temple aides.

Mrs. Hunter, 58, of Ukiah, spent 11 days in Georgetown under government protection from Peoples Temple, she said.

"The temple members are paranoid," she said in a telephone interview Sunday. "They have a thing about conspiracies. They feel everyone who asks about them is against them."

Beaten Three Times

In the five months since she returned, Mrs. Hunter said she has been beaten three times, the last incident occurring in October.

"Three men jumped me in my living room. I'll never forget their faces," she said. The intruders repeatedly warned her not to write anything more about Peoples Temple, she said.

Earlier, a lone assailant grabbed her when she went into her backyard one night to see why her dog was barking.

"I was pulled into my garage, choked and told that if I kept investigating the temple, the next time I would be killed," she said.

When she flew to Los Angeles to supply information about Peoples Temple to the district attorney's major frauds unit, two men confronted Mrs. Hunter in her hotel room.

Threatened Husband, Son

"They said they wanted to talk about Peoples Temple. I don't know how they found me, but they threatened my husband and my son," Mrs. Hunter said, her voice faltering. "You couldn't print the things they said they would do to my family.

"They said I would have to live with it, that they wouldn't touch me," she recalled.

Mrs. Hunter went to Guyana on assignment for several newspapers in the Ukiah area in northern California, where the temple once had a branch. She wanted to interview Jones and temple members who had relatives in Northern California.

A San Francisco temple administrator told her she would be welcome in Guyana, so Mrs. Hunter flew to South America on May 17.

Pleasant Talk

"The afternoon after I arrived, the temple people called. We had a pleasant talk. I invited them over to my hotel," she said.

Three of Jones' aides met with Mrs. Hunter in the hotel restaurant.

"At first everything was lovey-dovey, but when I told them I wanted to interview Reverend Jones alone and in person, the chill set in," Mrs. Hunter remarked.

"Then I said I wanted to talk to each of the relatives alone and outside — where we couldn't be overheard," she said.

The conversation became heated, with one of the temple men saying that "all newspaper and television reporters were bad," Mrs. Hunter said.

After that interview, the fires were set in rooms adjoining Mrs. Hunter's hotel suites.

Visa Cut

"My visa was cut to one day from the original 11, and I was told to leave the country on the next plane," she said. "Apparently, the temple is in contact with Guyanese immigration officials."

Mrs. Hunter stayed on, missing the flight. She later found out from Guyanese friends that temple members were waiting for her on the airport road. She believes they planned to kill her.

"The government gave me an armed guard after the second day. I got an escort to the airport when I finally did leave," she said.

In addition to the attacks and threats since her return, which she believes have come from Peoples Temple, she said attorney Mark Lane visited her home and tried to link her to a conspiracy against the group. Lane is a lawyer for Jones.

Will the threats keep her from writing more about Peoples Temple?

"No," Mrs. Hunter said. "I'm Irish. They can't stop me."
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November 27, 1978, San Jose Mercury News, page 17-A, Jones lived well, kept to himself during mysterious Brazil stay, Special to the Mercury,

BELO HORIZONTE, Brazil — During a mysterious 11-month visit to Brazil in the early 1960s, Jim Jones lived well, donated food and clothing to the poor and generally kept to himself, according to neighbors.
One neighbor said a U.S. Consulate car was used to do shopping for the Jones family, but the consulate described that as "highly unlikely."

Police officials said Jones, his wife Marceline, and their four children arrived aboard a commercial airliner on April 11, 1962, at Sao Paulo, Brazil's financial capital. Immigration officials, who carefully control passports in Brazil, identified the children as the Jones' natural son, Steven, 3, and three adopted children: Susan, 9, Lew Eric, 5, and Warren, 1.

The Jones family went on to Belo Horizonte, capital of the mining and agricultural state of Minas Gerais, where they checked into the expensive Financial Hotel, the officials said.
Later, they said, Jones and his family moved into a large house at 203 Maraba Avenue, in the city's well-to-do Santo Antonio section.

A retired Brazilian engineer, Sebastiaco Carlos Rocha, who lived next door, said the Jones family "enjoyed a very expensive lifestyle."

Rocha gave this account of Jones' stay in the city, about 250 miles east of Rio de Janeiro:

"He lived like a rich man. Most days, he would leave the house with a suitcase at about 6 a.m. and return at around 6 or 7 p.m. He never said where he went.

"During the few conversations that we had, Mr. Jones told me he was a retired U.S. Navy captain and was in Brazil to 'recuperate from the Korean War.' He said he planned to go to Argentina or Cuba after visiting Brazil.
"He was not a very communicative person and he seemed to have very few friends in Belo Horizonte. Except for his mysterious trips with the suitcase, he spent most of his time with his family at home.

"When he did talk, he would ramble from one subject to the next and did not seem to make much sense. At these times he seemed somewhat mentally unbalanced.

"Mr. Jones seemed to enjoy talking about war in general. He also displayed great preoccupation with the world's social problems and said he hated hearing anything bad about blacks and or people in general."
Rocha's teen-age daughter, Maria, said Jones' wife gave a different reason for their visit to Brazil.

"She said they were here because she suffered from a lung ailment and doctors had told them that the climate here would be good for her," Maria said.

Rocha said "some people here believed he was an agent for the American CIA. I never saw him drink or smoke. He said he received a monthly payment from the U.S. government for his military service but he did not say how much."

Rocha said Jones attended a church operated by American Pentecostal missionaries in a suburb of the city.

"He engaged in some heated arguments with the missionaries there but I don't know what the debates were about."

Other neighbors, who asked not to be identified, said Jones would turn aside questions about his plans in Brazil, but they said his daughter Susan told them her father intended to establish a branch of his Peoples Temple in Brazil.

Several neighbors said a car bearing the emblem of the U.S. Consulate would deliver groceries and other items to the Jones home from time to time.

A spokesman for the consulate said it was "highly unlikely" a consulate car would have been used for such purpose.

Police officials said Jones and his family were given temporary visas, good only for 11 months. When the visas expired in February 1963, officials said, the Jones family left the country for an undisclosed destination.

Brazilian authorities said records gave no other indication Jones had visited Brazil at any other time.
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December 18, 1978, San Francisco Chronicle - Reuters, page 2, 700 Temple Dead Were 'Murdered'

Chicago---Guyana's top government pathologist believes that more than 700 of the 911 Peoples Temple cult members who died at Jonestown last month were murdered, the Chicago Tribune reported yesterday.

"I do not believe there were ever more than 200 who died voluntarily," the government's chief medical examiner, Dr. C. Leslie Mootoo, was quoted as saying.

Mootoo was the first medical examiner to arrive at the Jonestown jungle commune after the reported mass suicide of Peoples Temple leader Jim Jones and his followers on November 18.

The doctor said he performed 70 autopsies and 33 of them showed cult members died from poison injected into upper parts of the arm where it could not have been self administered.
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November 30, 1978, San Francisco Chronicle - AP, Reagan Says Jones Favored Democrats

Bonn, West Germany--Former California governor Ronald Reagan said yesterday that Peoples Temple cult leader Rev. Jim Jones appeared to attract more members of the Democratic party then Republicans.

"I'll try not to be happy in saying this," Reagan said. "He (Jones) supported a number of political figures but seemed to be more involved with the Democratic party having been helped by him or seeking his help."

Reagan, who lost the 1976 race for the Republican presidential nomination to Gerald Ford, is currently on a tour of European capitals and was interviewed in his hotel suite here overlooking the Rhine river.

Reagan described the mass suicide of more than 900 Peoples Temple members in Guyana as "a horrible thing almost without precedent."

He said Jones was a man who began "apparently very legitimately" and then alienated supporters when "he began to see himself as the object of worship rather than the God he preached about."

Reagan said Jones, whose headquarters was in San Francisco, did not represent a "national wave. He wasn't like some charismatic leader who could dominate an entire country."
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December 28, 1978, San Francisco Examiner, page A-1, Narcotics as a control - How Jones used drugs, by Peter King,



Some of the Thousands of Drugs Smuggled Into Guyana
The cult had enough for hundreds of doses for each member.

Potential troublemakers or defectors from the Peoples Temple flock in Jonestown were kept under tight control in a special "extended-care unit" where they were heavily drugged, according to former residents of the jungle commune.

There were enough dangerous drugs at the remote compound — thousands of doses of anti-depressants and downers — to treat each of the 900 cultists who lived there hundreds of times.

Although the temple had an official anti-drug policy — some members were ex-addicts who had kicked the habit under Jim Jones' influence — there were enough drugs at the mission to supply a city the size of Georgetown, Guyana (population 66,000), according to an American pathologist who inspected the scene.

Police and government authorities in Guyana are sorting out documents pertaining to drugs found at Jonestown as their investigation spreads into areas beyond the killings. The drug question has been a low priority up to now.

Dale Parks, a temple defector who was a nursing supervisor at Jonestown, said he was shocked at the quantity of drugs found at the medical clinic there: "There's no way that many people were receiving treatment. I know they were using things to keep people under control, but not like this."

Parks, a trained therapist for respiratory ailments, said the "extended-care unit" consisted of eight beds separate from the mission clinic.

"If a person wanted to leave Jonestown or if there was a breach of rules, one was taken to the extended-care unit," he explained. "It was a rehabilitation place, where one would be re-integrated back into the community. The people were given drugs to keep them under control."

After a few days or weeks, Parks said, the patients lost their desire to leave the commune and no further behavioral problems were anticipated.

Asked about the use of drugs for brainwashing, Parks said, "It is a reasonable assumption that such went on in the extended-care unit."

Another temple member, who asked that his name not be used, said: "People who wanted to leave were fed drugs like Thorazine so they would come to their senses. We were told the CIA would haunt us for the rest of our lives, that we could never live in peace."

Parks said the extended-care unit was started recently, in about August or September, to replace physical punishment as a means of keeping unhappy temple members in line.

After Debbie Blakey's defection from the temple and her allegations of physical abuse, Parks said, Jones became concerned that investigators would try to verify her stories. That was when the extended-care unit was formed, Parks said.

He said people emerging from the facility were closed-mouthed about the treatment and repentant about their past behavior. "I'm sure they were threatened," he said.

During a joint two-week investigation by The Examiner and the Associated Press, a partial drug inventory was obtained. It revealed that the drugs in the Jonestown warehouse included thousands of doses of Quaaludes, Demerol, Seconal, Valium and morphine, plus 11,000 doses of two drugs used to control the behavior of manic depressives and others with extreme psychotic problems.

Medical officials say the drugs promote suicidal tendencies, can cause hallucinations, blurred vision, confusion and speech disturbances, involuntary movements and produce emotional highs and lows.

In addition to being used on cultists Jones believed could cause him trouble, the drugs were administered liberally — and forcibly in many cases — during the suicide-murder ritual that left 914 people dead.

Dr. Lynn Crook, a pathologist from Medical University of South Carolina, was sent to Guyana by the U.S. government to help inspect the bodies. He suggested that narcotics might have been used to pave the road for mass suicide. He said many of the cultists might have been under the influence of drugs when they drank the deadly cyanide-grape punch.

In addition, such narcotics as Thorazine, a strong tranquilizer, and chloral hydrate, generally known as "knockout drops," were added to the cyanide, probably to ease the suffering caused by the poison.

The drugs, according to survivors of the events and former temple members, were smuggled into Guyana, avoiding the South American country's strict importation regulations on pharmaceuticals.

Grace Stoen, a former temple member and one of its foremost critics, says Jones' followers were frequently asked to go to a physician, complain of an ailment, and turn over their prescription to the temple. Jones was most interested in acquiring sleeping pills, she recalled.

Stoen said a temple member who worked as a psychiatric technician at Mendocino State Hospital stole patients' medication.

Jonestown survivors said cultists making the trip from San Francisco to Guyana were encouraged to bring as many drugs as possible with them. Guyanese customs officials, although they knew of the drugs, let the temple members' luggage into the country routinely without a thorough inspection, sources said.

"Jones never bothered (Guyanese) customs and customs never bothered Jones," Dr. Crook said local Guyanese told him.

Parks said crates containing "something Jones wanted brought in" would be packed on top with personal belongings. Customs officials seldom bothered to check crates or trunks that temple members told them were packed with personal items, Parks said.

And a memo obtained by the Associated Press details ruses that temple members would use to distract customs officials. They included romancing them, having an elderly man fall out of his wheelchair and packing Tampons at the top of crates of medical supplies to discourage customs searches.

Sources also named a temple member in San Francisco who is a registered nurse as the person in charge of procuring the drugs. They couldn't explain how the woman did it.
A spokesman for the California Board of Pharmacy said the nurse could have obtained the drugs legally if she was acting on behalf of a physician. He suggested that a more direct method to obtain large quantities would be to buy from the manufacturer, who then exports the drugs.

Many of the drugs at Jonestown were manufactured by U.S. firms, although not necessarily in the United States. A check with some of those firms brought denials of any involvement. Many said they have policies against that kind of foreign sale.

Drug industry officials in Guyana said only minute amounts came through official channels there. Drugs bought for use in Guyana must be registered and cleared through a government agency, and none of the drugs found in Jonestown were, the officials said.

Dr. Joyce Lowinson, a psychiatrist and member of President Carter's Council on Drug Abuse Prevention, said the list of drugs indicated that "there were a lot of psychotic patients, or they (Peoples Temple) were using them to control people."

Many of the Jonestown drugs are habit-forming. Several require that antidotes to reverse an adverse reaction be in stock, but none of the antidotes were noted on the drug list.

Some of the drugs were especially dangerous, too. Therapeutic doses of Demerol, for instance, have precipitated unpredictable, severe and occasionally fatal reactions.

The following are examples from a partial inventory that has been independently authenticated by law enforcement sources.
  • Thorazine (chlorpromazine), 10,000 injectable doses and 1,000 tablets in a size normally given only "for severe neuropsychiatric conditions." The drug acts "at all levels of the central nervous system." It is effective for the "management of the manifestations of psychotic disorders" and for control of the manic depressive.
  • Quaaludes, 1,000 doses of the sedative-hypnotic drug frequently used in suicide attempts.
  • Vistaril, 1,000 doses. Used for total management of anxiety, tension and psychomotor agitation; can render the disturbed patient more amenable to psychotherapy in long-term treatment of neurotics and psychotics.
  • Noludar, 1,000 pills. A sleeping aid that produces both physiological and psychological dependence. Moderate overdoses can produce delirium and confusion; large overdoses, stupor leading to coma.
  • Valium injectable, 3,000 doses. Useful in treating neurotic states manifested by tension, anxiety, apprehension, fatigue, depressive symptoms or agitation.
  • Valium tablets, 2,000. An overdose of Valium in either form tends to make suicidal patients more likely to make a death attempt.
  • Morphine sulphate, injectable, 200 vials. This strong pain killer can be habit-forming and have complex psychological effects.
  • Demerol, 20,000 doses. A narcotic analgesic, it should be used with great caution and has multiple reactions similar to those of morphine.
  • Talwin, 1,150 doses. Similar to Demerol in morphine-like actions. The drug has a history of creating psychological and physical dependence.
  • Seconal, 1,000 pills. An extremely dangerous sedative and hypnotic that can be habit-forming. Must be used under medical supervision.

Examiner staff writers Nancy Dooley and James A. Finefrock also contributed to this story.
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November 29, 1978, San Jose Mercury News. page A-1, Toward the end, Jones slipped from reality into fantasy world, by Pete Carey, Staff Writer, Last of a series



JONESTOWN, Guyana -- Toward the end, the Rev. Jim Jones was two men -- the man he thought he was and the man he had become.

Surrounded by a following that, through fear and increasing dependence, showered him with personal attention, Jones slipped away from reality.

Maybe there never was a solid reality in the rain forests for a fast-talking minister-hustler from Lynn, Ind., who expanded his vision to Indianapolis, Ukiah and then San Francisco before moving on to Guyana.

Jones increasingly used drugs, and as the morphine oozed through his veins he stumbled around his empire in a daze.

"I watch your pain and it tears me up," wrote Tish Leroy, a key committee member at Jonestown. Her thoughts were in a self-analysis sent to Jones in May or June of this year.

"You complain that we watch your every move and judge you -- and it's true," she wrote. "Certainly I am guilty of that . . . I make allowances for what I see you doing that seems other than it should be, and on the other hand I watch your pain and it tears me up inside."

Nearly all of the approximately 1,000 members of the camp had watched their "father" with growing concern after he arrived with his flock in June 1977.

By that time his paranoia was full blown. Alarmed at media investigations of his organization and consumed with hatred for the United States, he finally decided to leave for the South American jungle hide-away he had first heard about in 1961 in an article in Esquire. It was written when The Bomb was the monster and sudden death by nuclear blast appeared to be the human race's most likely post mortem.

There were nine places in the world, according to the magazine, where it would be safe to live in an atomic war. One was Guyana.

All planned out

"He told me he had been thinking about coming to this place for 16 years, and he showed me on a map," said Richard Clayton, one of the survivors of the final cyanide-laced Kool-aid holocaust. "I think he had this planned out all the time."

Now, after the bloody extinction of a sect that was 80 to 90 percent black, Clayton thinks Jones may have been a secret racist determined to enslave and kill as many blacks as he could.

There is no question that the hierarchy of Jonestown was designed along racial lines.

But was he designing a plantation or was he simply a demented man whose beliefs had begun to twist crazily -- a philosopher of death holding a knife at the throat of his students?

"Hey, man, I don't know the answer to that," said another survivor, Robert Paul. "All I know is I was a field nigger."

Blacks held the laboring jobs in Jonestown and whites had the office jobs.

"He really only trusted whites," said Juanita Bogue, a 21-year-old survivor who was one of two whites out of 75 persons who worked in the fields. Her sister was the other.

"If a black person accused a white person of being a racist, the way Jones responded would make you think he was a racist himself. His most trusted workers in the radio room, the office, were all white. It seemed like he's pit the whites against the blacks."

Pushed racism

On one of his harangues, with the flock assembled in the meeting area they had constructed, Jones would argue that whites should be consumed with guilt because they had made the blacks suffer. At the same time, he'd say that his best workers were white.

"To me, that was pushing racism," said Ms. Bogue. But there was no objection.

"People thought Jones could read their minds," she said. "When they passed by him, they would put all the bad thoughts out of their minds, so he wouldn't know. You have to understand that there were some fairly simple people out there."

Once he arrived in Guyana, as best as can be determined, Jones never left his jungle empire. He had drawn a crowd with religious proclamations on the steps of a Georgetown Catholic Church when he first arrived, had met with people in the Guyanese capital, and then had left for the interior and Jonestown.

Looks like island

Through the window of a plane droning over Guyana's northwest section the eye takes in two colors: blue, the sky, and a deep green, the jungle. It is thick, and stretches away for miles. The little cleared strip at Port Kaituma, where U.S. Rep. Leo J. Ryan and his party arrived to touch off the beginning of the end, appears as an island. There is no escape. Jones apparently wanted it that way to control his flock.

The combination of isolation and power did strange things to Jones. His sect had always meted out discipline. At Redwood Valley near Ukiah, infractors had to strip nude and swim across a pool in front of the congregation. In San Francisco there were beatings -- and rumors of worse.

But in Jonestown the discipline became an end in itself.

"They never did kill anybody, but they'd torture the hell out of them," said Paul.

"You didn't have n freedom. You couldn't leave, and if you talked about it you'd get a beating and be put on public service," one of Jones' punishments.

Gerald Parks, 45, from Suisun, recalls a tour of public service. "The crime was talking about the United States, and about going back to it. I really got hammered for it, and then they put me on public service."

Had to dig ditches

Parks was dragged out of bed at 5:30 after sleeping on the floor in his little jail, and his assignment was digging ditches under guard -- all day long, without a break.

"You couldn't raise up to rest," he said.

Behind it all was Jones' need to build a productive society. He wanted more and more from his people, and he got it. The incredible fact is that Jonestown, with its $7 million is assets, was constructed in less than 6 months, starting in August 1977.

The work left people exhausted. As the village took shape they would struggle back to camp and eat, listen to Jones lecture for the evening, do whatever else he bid them, and then fall exhausted into bed.



The most skilled carpenters in the community built their leader a house. Down a meandering garden path, away from the community, Jones could sit in it and pore over his files, use his drugs, dream up new fantasies to practice on his flock, and meet with his male and female lovers.

It had a screened porch, an unthinkable luxury in a community where people were housed 14 to a room in 10 by 12 foot cottages.

Isolation, power and worship. Jones used the combination to create fantasy.

"The first time I saw you, Father, I knew my life would be changed," wrote one young woman camp member. "I was caught up by a ray of sunshine, filled with gold dust motes, as warm and comforting as honey, was literally saturated with it, found myself above the congregation, turning in this warm ray of love . . . thank you, Father, thank you for the freedom I feel."

Jones began to brag to his followers that some of them were begging him for sexual favors. He had to grant them, he said, but only to keep them from leaving.

Gerald Parks recalled that "all of us had to admit to being homosexuals. Then we found out it was him. He was going with guys. The leaders of the whole show were his lovers, and they'd brag about it right up front to us."

Jones began to lecture the group about the virtues of homosexuality. He urged people to pair off with persons of the same sex, explaining that it didn't produce babies.

Sexual politics

The sexual politics of Jim Jones reached a crescendo during one camp meeting when, seated on his throne, swathed in blankets that even covered his head, he announced that a man who worked as a mechanic and a young woman who worked in the bakery had touched one another.

"We weren't supposed to have a relationship without clearing it through a screening committee first," recalled Ms. Bogue. "Most people didn't pay any attention to that, and the main thing was that no one had any time for relationships. After working in the fields, attending meetings, and going to lectures, all you had time to do was fall in bed.

"At any rate, these two people were called in front of everyone. Jones said they had been seeing each other. Apparently someone saw the boy over at the bakery and had reported that the girl had given him a cookie. That became a big rumor, and pretty soon people were saying they were in love. The funny thing about it is that they weren't. They hardly knew each other.

"But Jones wouldn't hear that. He said if they were so excited by each other, they could make love right here and now. They brought in a mattress, made them take off their clothes and get down on it, but it didn't work."

Toyed with people

In the isolation of his jungle empire, Jones had begun to use his people like playthings. He toyed with them, these simple people with only a rare high school graduate among them, telling them ghostly stories about the world outside and tightening discipline with rough twists of the screw.

His handpicked guards carried guns around the camp. People were forced to conform to every thought that Jones proclaimed.

Meanwhile, Jones was lost in a cloud of pharmaceutical vapors. The camp began to smell like a drug cabinet.

Fluttering in the muck of the meeting hall a few days ago was a tiny corner of paper with a note jotted on it. The paper had been used on one side to answer a quiz on a socialist revolutionary activities.

"1. Fifth anniversary, Allende. . . . 2. Socialist destabilize. . . . 3. French guillotine. . . . 4. Organized rebellion in Nicaragua."

On its back was the note, probably passed to someone at the meeting:

"I keep smelling a whiff of formaldehyde. Do you have any idea where it might come from? Jack."

Legal proceedings

The last chapter of the Jonestown story really starts 150 miles to the south, in a Georgetown courtroom, where a case was brought by Grace Stoen, who had fled Jonestown without her child, John. She wanted him back. But Jones believed he was the child's father and said he would die rather than give him up.

In early September, legal proceedings began.

On Sept. 9, horns and sirens ripped through a muggy jungle day and guards with guns ran through the camp, ordering everyone to meetings.

A wild-eyed Jones faced his rag-tag army. The village was about to be attacked by mercenaries, he said. They were trying to take some of the children away, including his son John. It would be a fight to the death.

The camp advanced to its perimeters, waiting through the night for an attack that never came.

"We were supposed to kill the person next to us, if they ran away during the battle," Juanita Bogue said.
Defending children

The alarms and attacks were repeated again and again during coming weeks. Jones told them he was defending the children.

"This was set up to look like it was over the custody case of a lot of children. But you had the feeling it was just over John," said Ms. Bogue.

The tensions in the camp became almost unbearable, as one white night -- Jones gave the alarms this name -- followed another.

At the white night meetings, they would rehearse taking poison. Suicide had become Jones' obsession.



Jonestown also had become a financial drain. The Social Security checks for the elderly, the checks for the mentally disabled and veteran's benefits for others came to $60,000 a month. It wasn't enough.

Members of the People's Temple canvassed Georgetown for contributions. The Jonestown band played at dances. Jones still wanted more money.

He finally crawled into the shell of his house and muttered piteously to his flock over a field telephone hooked to the public address system:

"I love you. I'm working so hard. I stayed up for 14 hours for you, doing paper work. I'm weak. I'm dying. But I love you."

In an already disordered psychological milieu, the broadcasts of a sick leader were like sandpaper on ray nerves. And when he emerged from his house occasionally, the camp was confronted by a man who looked physically healthy and rested. He would insult and abuse and conduct punishments for anyone who talked of returning to the states.

'Wrong ideas'

"Humiliation from one we love is much harder to handle than humiliation from an outsider," wrote Tish Leroy to her "dad," the Rev. Jones. "Though I can always justify the lies that get told, I deeply resent being told them. I understand the end justifies the means.

"The undersurface of me resents being stifled and stopped in expressing. We are not really allowed to give honest opinions for these are dictated as policy, and it is treasonous to have differing thoughts. Yet I can give you a whole list of 'wrong ideas' I did express to the tune of being blasted and humiliated for it and told how wrong I was, only to watch events prove me right. But I grow weary of humiliation, and am no longer willing to be blasted for honesty."

Ms. Leroy, dissenter, warned Jones that she would invite confrontation but only at the worst impasse, only when "there is really a desperate loss endangering the collective." Then, "I will speak out regardless."

The time undoubtedly came soon.

Ms. Leroy was unusual. People were normally afraid to be honest with Jones. But the self-analyses were the one place where they were afraid not to be.

"They thought he could read minds," said Jim Bogue, 46, of Suisun. "My kids put me wise to him. We were planning an escape for two months and they said he sure as hell would have picked it up. So I realized he couldn't do it."

It's possible that Jones had just the opposite trait. He was so wrapped up in his own mind and its fantasies that he had barely any perception of what his people were thinking. The self-analyses were his only chance to find out, to weed out dissent, to calculate his risks.

Feared attack

Toward the end, his risks were growing. Dissent was running high. By now, he believed that Grace Stoen had hired mercenaries to attack the camp, and he told people that bullets had been fired past his head.

Tim Carter, 28, of Burlingame, a farmer heroin addict who became Jones' "PR" man in Georgetown, said he was standing beside Jones one day when a bullet whisked past him.

Jones made plans for leaving. Not alone, but with everyone.

"He said we had a pretty close working relationship with Cuba," recalled Mr. Bogue. "He said we could go to Cuba any time." Any time turned out to be a few weeks later. "He started loading people onto trucks to go to the boat. The old folks were supposed to ride in the trucks and the others were going to walk 15 miles to Port Kaituma," she said.

"He was so crazy. Off we went. He took one trailer load out and the rest of us stood in line for hours."

The trip was canceled, and the line forming in the heart of the Guyana jungle for a trip to Cuba broke up and everyone went back to bed.

Then Jones announced the group was leaving for North Korea. And then for Africa.

At this point, after a successful life of drawing thousands of dollars and people to his side, Jones faced the bitter end. Grace Stoen had drawn attention to his jungle hell. Rep. Leo Ryan was planning an excursion to Jonestown and a congressional investigation.

Jones fidgeted and protested the visit. He wavered, and finally allowed Ryan to enter. It was the end when he allowed Ryan to walk in the crack the spell.

Package arrived

Jones had known it would happen this way. A package he'd ordered had arrived the week before Ryan's visit, and Richard Clark, a laborer, stored it away in the warehouse.

It was a box of cyanide.

Ryan came to Jonestown with a group of reporters and television cameraman. He stayed overnight, spoke with campmates, and received an ovation when he observed that most camp members seemed happy.

But Ryan faced an enemy, not a host. Jones had decided to have him and the others killed.

The roar of the happy crowd was rehearsed, the chats with camp members had been carefully staged in advance, with one camp member playing Ryan and the other playing the role of a contented citizen of Jonestown.

Even so, people broke ranks when Ryan was about to leave. Nine of them wanted to leave with him.

"You should have seen Jones. He offered us money not to leave. Anything. He couldn't believe it. He begged us to stay," said Ms. Bogue.



But they left with Ryan and walked directly into an ambush at the nearby airstrip at Port Kaituma. Ryan and four others were killed, and Jones prepared his camp for death. The time had come for the final white night.
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November 28, 1978, San Francisco Chronicle, page 4, 'Robot' Behavior of Ryan Murder Suspect, by Stephen Hall,

Laurence Layton, the man charged with killing Congressman Leo Ryan and four members of his fact-finding party in South America, displayed increasingly peculiar behavior even before he left for Guyana last May, according to members of his family.

Three members of the Layton family discussed their decade-long association with the Peoples Temple this past weekend, and pondered last week's numbing events in Guyana.

The relatives said Larry, 32, acted as if he were in a "post-hypnotic trance" as he was drawn further into the Peoples Temple, which he joined in 1968. Shortly before he traveled to Guyana, his father recalled, Larry showed up at the family's East Bay home one afternoon dressed in a full surgical gown and promptly dived into the backyard swimming pool.

This close-knit Quaker family is now torn between the agony of losing Larry, in spirit and mind, to the sect, and the slim familial hope that his "very peaceful" nature rendered him incapable of participating in the Port Kaituma shootout.

There are no comfortable conclusions.

"The thing I wonder about," said Tom Layton, 36-year-old brother of the suspected gunman, "is if the Peoples Temple ordered Larry to do whatever he's done. I wonder if the Peoples Temple is in any way going to support his defense in court, since he was a loyal servant following orders. . . ."

"He was a robot," said father Laurence Layton, a flat distant timbre in his voice.

Larry's character became even more "rote," as family members describe it, when he arrived in Jonestown shortly after his sister Deborah, 25, fled the jungle outpost.

The conditions at Jonestown -- the beatings, the armed surveillance, the rehearsals for mass suicide -- were subsequently reported by Debbie.

From the very moment she entered the Peoples Temple agricultural mission in Jonestown last December, Debbie thought of plans to escape.

The day I got there, I knew I had to leave," she recalled, gently stroking the hand of her middle-aged father as she sat at his feet. "It was horrendous, all these people with all these guns, watching you while you worked. I knew I had to leave."

Debbie said she detected a "small initial paranoia" in the temple's San Francisco headquarters before sect leader Jim Jones shifted the group to Jonestown in 1977.

"But when you got into Guyana and then got into the interior, you had no contact with the outside world," she said. "The only thing you heard was what Jim Jones said over the loudspeakers.

"At night, you heard guns being shot in the jungle," she continued. "Jim told us it was mercenaries coming after us. He had you believing the whole world was against you."

Beyond the paranoia that poisoned the fate of the sect as surely as the cyanide that ultimately killed more than 900 disciples, Debbie Layton also realized that Jim Jones' egalitarian utopia was disintegrating in the jungle.

"Jim was the only one to have a king-sized bed, the only one to have a refrigerator," said Debbie. "He was even the only one to have a mosquito net."

She also said that church policy played favorites, "so certain pretty women were assigned to certain men."

And despite the temple's reputation as a champion of racial equality, Debbie admitted that "the people who made the rules were all upper-middle-class whites."

All three daily meals consisted almost solely of rice, with meat and vegetables served once every three weeks, she said. Temple members grew to relish visits since Jones put on a show on those occasions.

"Everyone was glad when a guest came because for once the work hours were shortened, you could wear clean clothes and the food was good," Layton recalled. "It was a relief."

When Debbie first arrived at Jonestown, she spent a month and a half working in the fields. Then Jones transferred her to 12-hour work days in the radio room, where she maintained contact with Georgetown headquarters of the Peoples Temple.

Her first step toward freedom came last March, when Jones appointed Debbie and several other temple members to chaperone a group of temple children for a trip to Georgetown, where they would present a cultural program for Guyanese officials.

She did not reveal her escape plans even to her mother, Lisa, who also lived at Jonestown.

"She didn't know I was going to leave," said Debbie, remembering their final farewell. "I hugged her good-bye. And she said, 'I know I'm never going to see you again.'"

"But thank God she didn't tell on you," whispered the elder Layton.

Debbie's able management of the Georgetown temple during the visit prompted Jones' wife, Marceline, to recommend her for a permanent post there. Once based in Georgetown, Debbie began placing clandestine telephone calls to brother Tom and sister Annalisa, 33, in Northern California.

Final departure plans were arranged with the U.S. Embassy in Guyana, which provided Debbie with an emergency passport and escorted her to the airport.

But there was a final nerve-wracking delay. Debbie was prepared to leave May 12, but a dispute with Guyanese officials at the airport delayed customs clearance and the Pan American World Airways jet took off without her. She threw off Peoples Temple members who spotted her at the airport by telling them she was on a special mission.

Debbie left Guyana for good the next day.

"When I went up the steps of the plane to leave," she said, "I couldn't believe I wasn't being shot in the back."

Upon arrival in the Bay Area, she immediately went into hiding.

The Layton family believes that son Larry was then whisked from the Peoples Temple in San Francisco to Guyana so that his defecting sister would have no chance to talk to him.

"I tried to get in touch with him at the temple," said Larry's father. "Well, hell, they'd already shipped him out."

Larry called up the family from Guyana several days later. His father recounts, "I said, 'Laurence, don't go into the interior! Don't go into the interior!" He'd never been in the interior, but he kept telling me how beautiful it was. Obviously they were telling him what to say. Since then, it was just insanity."

Debbie Layton has heard from temple survivors that Larry was further distressed when his mother, 63-year-old Lisa Layton, died at Jonestown about three months ago. Debbie believes her mother had falled out of favor with Jones because she expressed opposition to the violent beatings that marked jungle discipline.

"This is our only consolation in the whole thing," said Laurence Layton. "She didn't live to see the collapse of the whole thing, the end of all her hopes. They all believed they were doing good things."

Once repatriated, Debbie began informing the State Department and the press about conditions in Jonestown. A radio-phone call from Larry to his brother was an attempt to discredit his sister's revelations.

"But I could hear Laurence go into his rote," said Tom. "Everything he said was prepared as a response to everything negative in the press up here, whatever they were currently getting attacked for."

Suddenly, after Layton senior came on the line, the phone connection was cut off.
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December 7, 1978, San Jose Mercury News, Mark Lane, FBI meet secretly, Guyana probe enters San Jose, by Knut Royce, Staff Writer,

Controversial attorney Mark Lane and Terri Buford, longtime Peoples Temple treasurer, held a secret meeting in a San Jose hotel Wednesday with federal officials investigating the murder-suicide in Guyana.

The meeting was held under tight security. One official said San Jose was chosen as the site because it was hoped the session would attract little attention.

The discussions reportedly centered on the possibility of immunity from prosecution for Buford in the event she cooperated with investigators.

Lane and Buford met with U.S. Justice Department lawyers, a deputy district attorney from San Francisco and FBI agents. The two were taken this morning by federal agents from the San Jose Airport to the Hyatt House, where the secret meeting was held.

The outcome of the meeting could not be determined Wednesday night.

Lane has been a Peoples Temple lawyer since September.

Donald Freed, a Lane associate who met with the attorney and Buford in Los Angeles on Tuesday, said Lane was "going to the wall on the concept that the only persons who wore a white hat in this carnage is Terri Buford."

Freed also said that Lane would argue for "guidelines for immunity," and that he "wants to see the money (estimated at $10 million) go to the survivors." In addition, he said, Lane wants "to protect the life of Terri Buford."
A federal source said the Justice Department had made no deals with Lane or Buford in agreeing to the meeting, which he said was held in San Jose for security reasons.

Buford, 24, is believed to have left the Jonestown, Guyana commune in September to take over the leadership of the Peoples Temple in San Francisco. She reportedly defected soon afterward and contacted Lane.

Lane has kept her away from reporters, but has claimed, in interviews, that she had intimate knowledge of the temple's finances and other information that would shed light on the events that led to the tragedy. He has said she has information on Peoples Temple accounts in Switzerland and Panama that hold $7 million, and of $3 million stashed away at the Jonestown commune.

While keeping Buford incommunicado, Lane has been preparing a series of stories on the Peoples Temple, based in part on her information, that is scheduled to be released next week.

A source at the Hyatt House said the FBI had called Tuesday to reserve a room. Wednesday morning, the source said, a woman asked the hotel's receptionist where Terri Buford's room was, and was ushered to the Monterey Suite, which was reserved under the name of Larry Lawler. A Lawrence Lawler is an FBI agent in the San Francisco office.

The federal investigation is said to focus on whether the murder of Rep. Leo J. Ryan was an assassination conspiracy, which would provide federal jurisdiction in the slaying of the congressman.
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February 5, 1979, San Francisco Chronicle - UPI, page 10, Mind Control - The CIA's Plan to Create a Nuisance,

Washington---The CIA once proposed mind-control experiments in which hypnotized subjects would have an uncontrollable impulse to "commit a nuisance" on Groundhog Day in 1961, agency documents reveal.

The proposed experiments were contained in formerly secret CIA documents released last week under the Freedom of Information Act to the American Citizens for Honesty in Government, an organization sponsored by the Church of Scientology.

There is no evidence the experiments were carried out.

The proposal was contained in a heavily censored CIA memorandum dated Oct. 20, 1961, which said in part:

"We suggest that initial experimentation on amnesia and post-hypnotic suggestion could most efficiently and with the least risk of embarrassment be tried on (censored) . . . in experiments in which we would go no further than to have them forget the hypnosis episode and on Groundhog Day 1961 have an uncontrollable impulse to return to (censored) and commit a nuisance on the steps of the (censored)."

The memo, whose origin and destination were censored, said the CIA hoped to find out whether an unwilling subject could be quickly hypnotized and whether, once hypnotized, the victim could be made to undergo amnesia and "durable and useful post-hypnotic suggestion."

The memo seemed to indicate that criminals were suggested as the subjects of one set of experiments, and that the subjects should not be persons of high intelligence.

The document also suggested experimenting with the use of hypnosis for interrogating subjects.

"Concurrently with these more or less longer range experiments on low level (censored) subjects, it would be feasible to experiment with hypnosis as an interrogation technique by reopening certain now dormant unsettled cases in (censored) and elsewhere," it said.
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February 28, 1980, Monterey Peninsula Herald - AP, Berkeley Killings Revive Fear Of Peoples Temple Revenge,



BERKELEY (AP) — The murders of a couple who turned against the Rev. Jim Jones have resurrected fears of a death squad unloosed to revenge the demise of the Peoples Temple 15 months earlier.

Even as the hundreds of dead were counted at Jonestown, the Guyanese jungle settlement, Al and Jeannie Mills feared they would be killed for leaving the charismatic Jones and for providing comfort to other "defectors" as tales of beatings, sexual perversion and suicide drills leaked out.

On Tuesday night, Al Mills, 51, was found shot in the head, lying face down in his bedroom of the family's cottage here. The body of his 40-year-old wife Jeannie, also shot in the head with a small-caliber weapon, was discovered on her back in an adjacent bathroom.

The couple's 15-year-old daughter, Daphene, was in critical condition last night in Alta Bates Hospital. She reportedly was shot twice in the head and her chances of recovery were slim, sources said.

The Alameda County Coroner's office added few details of the couple's death in its preliminary report Wednesday, adding only that there were no signs of a struggle.

Son at Home

Berkeley police were even more close-mouthed late Wednesday after they had questioned the couple's 17-year-old son, Eddie. The youth told police he was in the home after 9 p.m. when his grandmother, who had come to visit, found the victims. But he insisted, police said, that he was watching television and hadn't heard the shootings.

Residents near the Mills cottage, whose doors were often unlocked in the evening, also said they hadn't heard a disturbance, but one neighbor thought a van left the area around the time of the killings. Police couldn't explain why the young Mills or neighbors didn't hear the gunfire.

Police also said they could not say why the Millses were shot.

They also downplayed conjecture that the crime was the work — possibly the first — of a Peoples Temple hit-squad, but their word did little to assuage the fears of former members who have insisted that the evils of the church were not buried with the 914 persons who died in Guyana in November, 1978.

A member of the San Francisco Police Department's intelligence detail, which had investigated the possibility of a hit-squad, would not say whether findings supported a death plan. Last November, a police spokesman said that the detail had concluded that an assassination team didn't exist.

Triggered by Visit

The ritual of murder-suicide was triggered by a visit by Rep. Leo Ryan, D-San Mateo, and newsmen who came to the jungle compound to investigate reports of mistreatment and brain-washing that were described by the Millses and other defectors.

Ryan, three newsmen and Temple member Patricia Parks, who was trying to flee Jonestown, were shot to death on the Port Kaituma airstrip.

Mills and his wife joined the Jones flock in 1969 when the church was gathering strength in Redwood Valley, a peaceful spot tucked away 125 miles north of San Francisco. It was there the Indianapolis-born preacher would later enjoy the favor of politicians and social leaders who praised Peoples Temple as a caring movement that understood the needs of the many blacks in the congregation.

At that time, the Millses were Elmer and Deanna Mertle, names they shed after fleeing the church. The hard decision to leave came after watching their 16-year-old daughter, Linda, in 1974, writhe under 75 blows of a paddle — punishment ordered by Jones after Linda apparently embraced a friend that Jones deemed a "traitor" to the church.

That cruelty and The Human Freedom Center, a haven the Mills created to give others a shot at life outside the temple, are described in Mrs. Mills' book, "Six Years With God," which was published last year.

Feared Retaliation

Angela Miller, editor of A and W, the New York firm that published the work, said the couple "was positive there was going to be some kind of retaliation" against them, a fear heightened last November as the first anniversary of the Jonestown holocaust approached.

On the last tape recording he made from his "throne" in the steamy agricultural outpost, Jones blamed the visit of Ryan in part on Mrs. Mills. "The people in San Francisco (surviving church members) will not be idle over this. They'll not take our deaths in vain, you know."
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December 25, 1987, Washington Post, page A-29, German Settlement Stirs Controversy in Chile,Court Blocks Effort by Bonn to Investigate Allegations of Forced Labor, Sexual Abuse, by Bradley Graham, Washington Post Foreign Service,



Stylized picture of a nurse with two children is the logo used by Colonia Dignidad, an agricultural community founded by a German minister in southern Chile.

PARRAL, Chile—The settlers came from West Germany looking for a hideaway and found one down a long, dusty road in the sparsely populated foothills of the Chilean Andes.

But the sullied past of their spiritual leader, the secretiveness of the vast enterprise they built here and the recurring horror stories about their lives have kept them in the news and under suspicion for more than two decades.

Leaders of the settlement, known as Colonia Dignidad (Dignity Colony), insist that it is nothing more than a disciplined agricultural community whose members want privacy. But chilling declarations from the few who have fled from behind the colony's double barbed-wire fences tell of forced labor, sexual abuse, mind-altering drugs, corporal punishment and the segregation of men from women and parents from children.

A former secret police agent and a police informant have backed up claims by several one-time detainees that political prisoners were tortured and killed at the colony in the early years after Gen. Augusto Pinochet took power in 1973.

After a quarter-century of either ignoring the colony or at times even fraternizing with its members, many of whom are German, West German authorities have decided to try to lift the veil surrounding it. The West German ambassador and chief consular officer visited the colony in early November to conduct interviews. According to Bonn officials, the diplomats came away with the impression that colony members were not able to speak to them freely.

A special commission appointed by the West German government arrived in Chile Dec. 13 to probe further. The colony blocked the investigation with a court order and the delegation left Chile Dec. 18.

A West German Embassy spokesman said the mission, despite its failure to gain access, would present a report to Foreign Minister Hans Dietrich Genscher.

A parallel effort by a German judge to sort fact from fiction is moving forward after years of delay, now that a Chilean court has approved a request to take depositions from 33 individuals connected with the settlement.

"There have been investigations before, ending with our society being cleared," Harmut Hopp, a doctor who serves as colony spokesman, said in a telephone interview. "We don't understand why so many German authorities are interested in us now. We don't have any importance in international politics."

As part of an apparent response to the probe, the settlement, which usually is closed to journalists, allowed a reporter from the pro-Pinochet Chilean newspaper El Mercurio to visit earlier this month. The resulting double-page spread portrayed an austere commune whose ways may be a bit eccentric but not sinister.

According to the article, family life there takes a back seat to work, and relations between the sexes are regimented. Youths are discouraged from marrying until they are 21. Children are kept in single-sex dormitories until they leave to marry. Young people are not permitted to watch television or listen to the radio. Women do not wear trousers or short skirts.

Colony members put in long hours without pay.

"Work should be the purpose of human life, and one should not feel that one must rest after eight hours of work," Hopp was quoted in Mercurio as saying. "There is a malformation in modern man that makes him think he is obligated to rest and have fun after eight hours of work."

In a departure from past practice, the Catholic University television station was allowed to show scenes of children playing and members of the colony working in the bakery and dairy. On its news show Dec. 16, it quoted the colony's president, Hermann Schmidt, as saying criticism was "all lies."

The settlement's strict ways and its bitter confrontations with critics over the years have instilled a sense of unease among some Chileans who live nearby.

"People here are afraid," said Sister Paulina, one of three nuns who were legally evicted from property claimed by the colony after months of harassment in 1984. "People know they can buy the colony's products and even go to its hospital for medical care. But they also know that confronting the colony past a certain point means danger."

The colony was founded by Paul Schaefer, leader of a breakaway Baptist sect who left West Germany in 1961 as police sought him on charges of sexually abusing children at a youth home he ran in Sieburg, near Bonn. Schaefer turned up in Chile in 1962, bringing about 60 adults and children. Some of the youngsters had come with their parents' consent; others, according to filed complaints, were taken under false pretenses.

Since then, the colony has grown into what its critics describe as "a state within a state." It maintains its own airfield, 65-bed hospital, wheat mill, bakery, meat processing factory, dairy and cemetery, according to visitors and colony officials.

According to witnesses, the settlement has a fleet of heavy trucks, a mechanics workshop, a power plant and facilities for making bricks and slate tiles. It also has a powerful radio communications system, with which it stays in touch with ancillary operations, including an office in a house in Santiago.

It operates a school and provides free medical attention to neighbors, a service that supports the settlement's claim to be a charitable organization.

The colony opened a roadside restaurant near Bulnes two years ago, where its brown bread, honey, cheese, sausages and cakes are sold. The colony also changed its name recently, to Villa Baviera (Bavarian Village), reflecting its affinity for the southern German state of Bavaria and the governing party there, the conservative Christian Social Union, whose chairman, Franz Josef Strauss, is prominently displayed on posters at the colony.

About 250 adults and 100 children live at the settlement, according to colony officials, but no public record exists of births and deaths there.

Invited guests are often treated to banquets and choral singing in a pastoral mountain setting. The uninvited are brusquely turned away.

At a remote-controlled gate some distance from the colony's main entrance, a woman's voice warns visitors through an intercom not to take photos from the road of the colony's property without written permission. The main entrance is 22 miles east of Parral and the settlement sprawals across 12,000 acres.

The colony first broke into the news in 1966 when Wolfgang Muller, then about 20, escaped and accused Schaefer of a reign of terror. Muller said he had been forced to work long hours in the fields for no pay and was frequently beaten. He also told authorities that he had been sexually abused by Schaefer before they came to Chile and that Schaefer had used memory-altering drugs on him when he became rebellious.

According to Muller's accounts, children were separated from their parents in the settlement and later instructed to address them as aunt and uncle. Muller said a number of former Nazis lived in the settlement, but he denied that Nazi or anti-Semitic ideas were part of the community's ideology.

If Muller's declarations sounded fantastic, those of the second person to flee that year, Wilhelmine Lindeman, were supported by medical evidence. She told of being drugged and was found to have had several injections.

Days later, however, Lindeman denied her statements and agreed to return to the colony. Her decision came after a visit by Schmidt, who informed her that her husband had just arrived from West Germany and was waiting for her at the settlement. Nothing more was heard of the Lindemans.

The outcry caused by the two cases led to questions in the Chilean Senate and an official inquiry. A commission entered the colony but said it found nothing. Amid accusations of bribery, the inquiry was dropped.

Three years after the 1973 coup that brought Pinochet to power, a United Nations human rights report referred to testimony about dogs at the colony trained to attack intruders' sexual organs, experiments testing torture tolerance limits and the use of drugs to break detainees.

"It seems," the report said, "that in Colonia Dignidad there is a specially equipped underground torture center with small soundproofed cells, hermetically sealed. The detainees' heads are covered with leather hoods, which are stuck to their faces with substances that are supposedly chemicals. In these cells, interrogations are carried out through electronic equipment, including loudspeakers and microphones, while detainees are tied naked to metal frames to receive electric shocks."

Allegations that the colony had become involved in political repression under the Pinochet government received dramatic support in 1977 from Juan Rene Munoz Alarcon, a former Socialist Party member who turned collaborator with Pinochet's secret police and was later imprisoned by the government for trying to protect a one-time leftist colleague.

In a taped deposition to the Vicariate of Solidarity, the Catholic Church's human rights group in Santiago, Munoz identified the colony as one of several places where persons who had disappeared after being seized by security forces were held. He later was found stabbed to death.



Uninvited visitors get no farther than a remote-controlled gate marked with the colony's logo. The roughly 350 residents run a hospital, a bakery and a dairy.

Also in 1977, the West German magazine Stern and the human rights organization Amnesty International published reports accusing the colony of being a site of secret-police torture of political prisoners. Supporting the allegation were statements from several former prisoners. An ex-agent, Samuel Fuenzalida, testified that he had delivered prisoners to the colony on two occasions in 1974, were he was received by a man known as "the professor," whom he later identified form photographs as Schaefer.

The colony sued Stern and Amnesty International for libel, accusing them of a leftist-inspired campaign of lies. But the colony has since dodged requests by the West German court hearing the case to inspect the camp.

Last month, Stern published harrowing accounts form several people who had escaped the colony three years ago. One was Hugo Baar, a Baptist minister and a Russian-German exile who fled the Ukraine, established a religious colony in Germany's Westphalia in 1955, then moved to Siegburg—where he met Schaifer and helped organize the colony. After a falling out with Schaefer, Baar slipped away from the colony in December 1984.

Three months later, Georg and Lotti Packmor also bolted, leaving an adopted son behind. In testimony to West German authorities that Stern quotes, the Packmors recounted beatings, drug injections and other sadistic treatments that they said were intended to destroy individual personalities and turn colony members into virtual slave laborers.

These fresh reports, on file at the West German Foreign Ministry since 1985 but kept confidential, prompted the German Embassy in Santiago to cool what had for years been rather cordial ties with the colony. Foreign Minister Genscher is said to be intent on exposing it. The Bonn government sends $48,000 to $80,000 in pensions to colony residents each month, according to German press reports.

Among the things German officials are known to be looking into is the possibility that 20 to 30 children who have disappeared from West Germany may have been taken to the colony.


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November 20, 1992, San Francisco Chronicle - Reuters, Brainwashing Compensation By Canada,

Ottawa--The Canadian government announced compensation yesterday for victims of brainwashing experiments conducted in the 1950s with CIA funds.

The "depatterning" experiments were carried out on about 80 people who were drugged and subjected to electrical shocks and other experiments.

The experiments conducted at Montreal's Allan Memorial Institute by psychiatrist Ewen Cameron between 1950 and 1965 were jointly financed by the Canadian government and the CIA.

The settlement arose out of a lawsuit filed by a woman sent to the institute suffering from depression in 1963. Linda Macdonald, 55, said she was drugged, kept asleep for 86 days and given more than 100 electroshocks and subjected to "psychic driving" to wipe her brain clear.

Released after five months, she did not remember her husband, children or the first 26 years of her life. She could no longer read or write, cook a meal or make a bed.
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December 1, 1978, World Watchers International, Transcription of Tape #365, by Mae Brussell,

Time length: 60 min.

Mae Brussell: Good evening. This is Mae Brussell in Carmel, California. This is tape number 365, and it's December 1, 1978.

This may be kind of a rambling tape for you because it's really hard for me to put my feelings together; I'm kind of punchy. It will be two weeks tomorrow since the shootings took place down in Guyana. And for those of you who live in California, I don't have to describe the media barrage that we've had on television and radio constantly. Usually I stick with news over the printed word.

I'm going to be talking about the killing of Congressman Ryan and the people down in Guyana and the Peoples Temple, and then the culmination of the murder of Mayor Moscone in San Francisco and a member of the Board of Supervisors there, Mr. Harvey Milk.

All this came down within a short period of time, and if I can I'm going to try to make some sense out of it if for you and for myself. I've worked hard on it the last two weeks and I think I can give you an overall summary view of what I see. Then in the next few weeks I'll give you the specifics to fill in the picture. I'll give you the outline now of the way I've broken down the Guyana-San Francisco mess and then you can follow that outline if you have the patience, or are so inclined, and then read the news that came out preceding, or in the future, and see along the framework that I'm seeing.

It didn't surprise me that the next stage after the Zodiac killings in California and the Zebra killings and the SLA and the Strangler and the Manson Family massacres and all of these other bloody California syndromes that I've talked about for so long -- it didn't surprise me that out of that racism, out of that counterintelligence operation, and the meanness of the powers that be that run our State and Federal Offices, that such a thing can happen as happened in Guyana. It didn't surprise me. I don't like to say I told you so, and I don't want to tell you how bad the future is going to be, but I still feel pretty sick about this.

I think that one picture is worth a thousand words, and you should get Newsweek and Time this week, and People magazine, and look at them and take whatever information you can out of them. And remember what happened here: not only did this massacre take place down in Guyana, but what followed was the most intense racism, the way it was handled, and the collusion of the Federal Government. Those are the things that we will go into for the next few weeks.

I see relationships of this event down there to my past research on assassinations and the SLA, and as I say, the California violences.

Of course one common denominator through all of this -- going from the Kennedy assassination right up to what Newsweek has on the front cover "The Cult of Death" -- is Mark Lane. He is prominent at both ends of the spectrum. He was right there in Dallas with Marina Oswald as soon as John Kennedy was killed, and he was out there hanging in a tree or in a swamp at the time that these people died down in Guyana.

Next week on the tape for those of you who don't live in California and didn't hear it, I think I'll reproduce his press conference, the one he had in San Francisco a month ago; what he said about the Peoples Temple. And then his interview when he came home from Guyana. He had a press conference Wednesday, October 4, 1978 in San Francisco in which he said Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple were being harassed. The headline was Peoples Temple Colony Harassed. And he said he was satisfied that the concentration camp charges against Jonestown were false, and he thought that people had been misused and made these remarks.

He declined to name the agent that he had talked to but he hinted because Jim Jones had been harassed that he was going to file this large multi-million dollar lawsuit in ninety days. He was going to name as defendants the FBI, the CIA, the State Department, the Internal Revenue Service, the Treasury Department, and the Postal Service, because he said there's a conspiracy against 1200 people -- 1200 American expatriates. He said it's an embarrassment for the government because of its tremendous success down there; He said it was a beautiful place to live.

The Peoples Temple also got out a newsletter which they mailed to me October 21, 1978. Mark Lane said:
"I've been deeply impressed with what I've seen there at Jonestown. It makes me almost weep to see such an incredible experience with such vast potential for the human spirit and soul of this country to be cruelly assaulted by our intelligence agents."
And then Charles Garry, the attorney for Peoples Temple, said he went to Jonestown, and he enthusiastically refers to that as "a community where racism, sexism, ageism have been overcome as a new social order. An answer to a better life."

And Don Freed -- they're quite a trio: Don Freed, Charles Garry, and Mark Lane. I've known them quite a few years. Mark the longest. Don Freed said in the release:
"Martin Luther King, if he could see Jonestown, would recognize it as the next step in his agenda, and say, 'One, two, three, many more Jonestowns.'"
And then the Sun Reporter out in the bay area had some more of the press conference of Mark Lane. He told about Federal Communications hassling them because they wanted a short wave station for doctors to get medical care to save lives. It turns out that on that short wave they had all kinds of coded messages and even discussed with Charles Garry the plans to kill 1200 people down there if necessary.
In his Press Conference Lane described Jonestown as a model community. The visits there gave him a glimpse of the future. He added that the government of Guyana is particularly pleased at the success of the Peoples Temple, since it is a model for other Caribbean countries to follow.
That was Mark Lane. He described the education of people in Jonestown as more sophisticated and successful than in United States schools. These men said there was no sexism, no ageism, no racism. He said there's no money in Jonestown; there is no need for it.

Of course what followed, according to Mr. Layton -- one of the suspects for killing Congressman Ryan -- he said there was a footlocker of three million dollars cash being taken out in the woods. Then there were millions of dollars in Swiss bank accounts and in Guyana, which would total many, many millions of dollars.

It turns out these people were crowded in rooms like a slave ship and worked twelve hour shifts, and cried for food. The white staff had meals, regular meals and dinners. And the blacks worked out in the fields -- only two people worked in the fields that weren't black -- and they were forced to work and grow out there.

Mark Lane said, "There's no money in Jonestown and no need for it." And they were taking gold from these people and diamonds and jewelry and personal objects and had accrued from them, and other monies, millions and millions of dollars.

Mark Lane was particularly impressed by the quality of medical care at Jonestown. Where the community's 1200 inhabitants are served by 70 health workers. "Natives cared free of charge for native Indians," he said, "and Albert Schweizer's famous hospital in Africa was compared to what Jim Jones was doing in Jonestown."

That's why I want to play the tape for you next week, so you can hear Mark Lane rave about the medical clinic that people came from all over the world to see. And the accredited college.

I'm particularly quoting Mark Lane to start my series on this because I'm very proud to say that I've hated his guts and tried to expose him for years. Any of you who've listened to KGO in the San Francisco area, the all day talk show -- it goes on all day and night -- I've been tape-recording people just lambasting Mark Lane and Charles Garry, and really out for their guts and outraged at what they did, knowing what they knew in advance, and what they know now. They're attorneys. You should hear what my complaints about Lane were. The public has taken over because they have seen for the first time what he is.

As I said, he was impressed by the medical quality of Jonestown. They had 70 health workers serving only 1200 Native Americans that would have been taken down there. He compared it to Albert Schweizer's hospital. He said he even had a 2 1/2 hour physical exam during one visit to Jonestown.

These are three different press releases that came out exactly one month before this terrible rash of murders took place.

In contrast to that, the San Francisco Chronicle has an article -- and you'll be seeing a lot more about this subject -- Tuesday November 28th: 'Robot' Behavior of Ryan Murder Suspect
Laurence Layton, the man charged with killing Congressman Leo Ryan...displayed increasingly peculiar behavior even before he left for Guyana last May. Larry, 32, acted as if he were in a "post-hypnotic trance" as he was drawn into the Peoples Temple, which he joined in 1968.
He came home once to his family in the East Bay in a full surgical gown and jumped into the swimming pool. His brother, Tom Layton, 36 years old, wondered if his brother was hypnotized and turned into a robot to take orders.

His father, Laurence Layton, said, "He was a robot."

I called Laurence Layton [Sr.] this week on the telephone and I'll give you some more of that conversation. His wife had died down in Jonestown. One daughter, Debbie, had escaped and is under guard twenty-four hours a day because she was the one blowing the whistle. It's the one son down there that's being charged with the murder of Congressman Ryan and the others in the shootout.

They said that he was a robot when he came home, and that he had taken orders. The Layton Family was wondering what protection he would have at a trial, since he seemed to be a robot in the hands of Jim Jones.

The father is a professor at San Jose State, I believe, and he taught at the University of California. He recognized that his son was really in a post-hypnotic state.

The San Jose Mercury,November 29th 1978 has a two-page article. From my ten papers a day I have been inundated with news, but this two-page article here just counter-acts the kind of bullshit that Mark Lane was saying a month ago. And Charles Garry knew about it. He was very revealing on KGO this week, but the San Jose Mercury just gave some examples. Jim Jones had said to the people down there:
"You complain that we watch every move and judge you -- and it's true...I make allowances for what I see you doing that seems other than it should be. And then on the other hand I watch your pain and it tears me up inside."
He had a population there of eighty to ninety percent black. He was described as being a secret racist; that he wanted to enslave and kill as many blacks as possible. A man named Richard Clayton said that he thought the whole purpose was to kill as many blacks as possible.
"He really only trusted whites," said Juanita Bogue, a 21-year-old survivor who was one of the two whites out of 75 persons who worked in the fields. Her sister was the other.

If a black person accused a white person of being a racist, the way Jones responded would make you think he was a racist himself.
He would praise all the white people in the radio room and in the office -- they were all white. He'd pit whites against blacks. He had a constructed area where they would meet and he'd argue that whites should be consumed with guilt, and they make blacks suffer. Then he would tell them on the loudspeaker that the best workers he has are white.

Mrs. Bogue says Jim Jones was pushing racism wherever he could. After he arrived in Jonestown he had a religious proclamation on the steps of a Georgetown Catholic Church, which I think is interesting, and then went into Jonestown where he stayed until he died -- This is Jim Jones.

This particular article tells about isolation and power. I'll give you more about people being stripped nude and forced to swim in the swimming pool in front of people, and then were beaten until they were bloodied.

They had no freedom; you couldn't leave. If you talked about it you got a beating and you were put on public demonstration. A crime down there was to talk about wanting to go back to the United States. One man, Gerald Parks, talked about it and he was dragged at 5:30 in the morning out of a jail cell and was put to digging ditches for 12 hours. He couldn't take a break from 5:30 in the morning until the evening. He had to keep doing that down in Jonestown.

The labor was free. The slave labor built a house for Jim Jones and he had a screen door and a mosquito net which nobody else had down there. Then he'd pour over his files. He used all kinds of drugs and amphetamines and injections.

The other people slept in community rooms that were fourteen people to a room, ten by twelve feet, in a climate that is very warm and sticky with no way out.

There was a port cut-off, the Port Kaituma, and there was absolutely no way to escape from that island.

The blacks worked twelve hours a day. They got a spoonful or two spoonfuls of rice. Some of them wrote letters about passing by the windows and seeing the food and other people eating it.

Jim Jones had tremendous sexual hang-ups, and we'll go into some of those as time goes on, on the other tapes. Mark Lane had a press conference and said, "No racism and no sexism." Jones complained that his penis was too big, and that he had to suffer by relieving himself all the time. He taught people to be homosexuals; he told them the virtue of homosexuality. The men were to sleep with men, women with women. He said that way you didn't produce babies. Which sounds more like Adolf Hitler than any kind of real socialism; this was the same kind of socialism that Adolf Hitler had.

There's a story here about two people that took a liking to each other: there was a man and a woman (a young couple) and she worked in the bakery. She allegedly gave him a cookie. Jim Jones heard about it, so he put a mattress up on the stand of the pulpit there and made them take off their clothes and said they could make love right here and now. They brought in the mattress and tried to get them to demonstrate because they took an attraction towards each other.

In this review in the Mercury -- and this is just one article, I'm sure many of you have collected them in the last two weeks -- he used people like play things; he toyed with them. They were very simple.

He picked guards -- some the age of high school graduates, that carried guns around the camp -- that conformed to every thought. It goes on to say that he had homosexual relations with all the guards; they were his lovers. And he'd announce it to the people. Those were the people that guarded the camp. And those are a lot of the people that are down in Jonestown now under arrest that are witnesses for the trial.

Tim Carter, from Burlingame, California, a former heroin addict, was Jones' PR man in Georgetown. He's the one who helped with the bullying around, and walking with the gun and scaring and terrorizing the people who were working. Sometimes he would tell them they were going on a trip to Cuba, and they'd take one truck to a boat. There was a harbor there with a boat that goes out to the river. He'd make other people walk 15 miles to Port Kaituma, and then the trip would be called off and they didn't go to Cuba. That reminded me of the people that worked in the Nazi concentration camps at I.G. Aushwitz that walked six miles to work, and six miles back in rain or snow and no shoes. And if they died on the way they died. And that's the way they worked; he walked these people.

Again from this article in the Mercury:
Jones fidgeted and protested the visit [of Ryan]. He wavered, and finally allowed Ryan to enter. It was the end when he allowed Ryan to walk in and crack the spell.
A box of cyanide had been delivered; a package came to Ryan's compound to "Richard Clark" and it was stored away in case Congressman Ryan saw something he wasn't supposed to see. A member of the crowd broke ranks when Ryan was about to leave and nine of them wanted to leave with him. And this article says:
"You should have seen Jones. He offered us money not to leave."
The person who is down there is recounting. They couldn't believe that a few could get out with Congressman Ryan.

They also offered Ryan a large sum of money in Washington, D.C. not to come, but he turned it down and insisted on coming.

On future tapes I'll go back to quotations of many articles just in case you don't have them, but I just want to show you the sexism and the racism from just one article on one day. The type of stuff that's coming out and the robots. I think that's interesting because Mark Lane was adamant against my talking about mind control in 1975 at the Conspiracy Conference in Boston. And I've said that many times. When I was at Flo Kennedy's house in the summer-spring of 1975 he said, "I'll never appear with you publicly. People know you're crazy. There's no evidence of mindcontrol in the United States."

I wonder how deep Lane's relationship was to this Jim Jones operation going on. He came in the last month to be the attorney for Jim Jones, but how did Jones select Mark Lane, a man who was adamant against mind control, and the Intelligence [Agency] using mind control, when that's what this operation was about? And Lane turned out to be their attorney.

This is a very dangerous thing for two attorneys like Charles Garry and Mark Lane to assure the American people and the Congress and the news media of the enviable institute; medical institute; educational institute; the privileges they had. Lane said the reason the United States was fighting this operation of Jim Jones down in Guyana was that we were embarrassed by the success of what he could achieve. And it would be an embarrassment to the United States to see that people could leave the United States and live without drugs or television.

It turned out they were heavily drugged; they were tranquilized; there were tranquilizers and drugs in the food. Drugs everywhere. A laboratory filled with drugs. And Jones was on drugs. Mark Lane had said the United States Government is embarrassed because there is no sexism and no narcotics, and they're doing their thing so eloquently that it's a model for other countries that would embarrass any country to see.

That was the Jonestown Mark Lane described. Not a year ago, not two years ago, not even three, but October 1978 -- one month before Congressman Ryan went down there.

Now we get to the nitty gritty of what is Jonestown about? What happened? What is going to happen in the future with the hit men? The organized crime? The seven or eight million dollars cash to kill public officials? To kill newspaper people? What does it mean? How did it form? Where is it going? And that is what I'm going to do with you the rest of the time on this tape.

I hope I can do the outline on this tape, and on the other side, so that we can go into the details next week.

I took all of the information of the two weeks that came down, and I'm going to read you the outline that I'm working with. I've already broken it into approximately seventy different manila folders. Into each of these folders I will put the articles that I've collected, or write up the tapes from the radio talk shows going almost twenty-four hours a day for two weeks and into the future. And then come up with a story bigger and even more frightening than even the SLA article. I wrote "The SLA Is The CIA". Well, this is the baby of the SLA. It produces a monster bigger because the questions I asked in 1974 weren't answered. If they were answered I promise you we wouldn't have this in '78. If you don't have that article you can order it from me. They're a dollar plus postage. Read it carefully.

But this is the outline I'm doing on the Jonestown massacre:


  • What Happened




  • The History of it, and




  • What it means to your future



  • In the first section I have Chronology of Events, because the chronology is always important. The dates when he went to Brazil. The day he moved up to Ukiah. He goes to Brazil for a year and a half, he's with the CIA, then he has $100,000 and goes to Ukiah. The date he was in Bloomington, Indiana, years before Emily and William Harris were there. But what dates were equivalent to the Georgetown Foundation formed in Bloomington, Indiana that Tom Charles Huston was later a part of? And Spiro Agnew?

    The chronology of Jim Jones, of the land purchase, and of the assurances to people that everything was going all right. Their lives. When they appeared to be robots. Anything that has to do with time sequences will go into one section called Chronology.

    Then always is the motive, the script, the summary of what is the camp about. I have five Roman numeral sections. This is section one with five sections under it. And always there is a motive. When I do my research I come up with what I think is the motive, and then I look for all the supportive evidence. If it doesn't support what I think is the motive I can change it later, but gauging by the two weeks of news and my past research, I would say that there was more to Jonestown than what you think was happening.

    I think that clinic of seventy medical people was for experimentation. I think it was to smear all the democrats by giving Jones a role by being instrumental with everybody from Senator Humphrey and Shirley Chisolm and Bella Abzug, or the Carters, and Willie Brown, and Dymally, and Mayor Moscone in San Francisco; to smear all the Democrats and get them terribly involved with something that comes out corrupt and tainted with racism and murder and death.

    It outdoes Watergate. Watergate was in '72, and the seeds of this came down in '72 and began to blossom in '73.

    If you should see the movie "The Boys From Brazil," I would call this "The Boys From Guyana."

    I'm going to go into the contingency plan. That's next underneath here in this first Roman numeral section that I have. One: the script was to have a place to experiment on black people; mind control; electrodes; sexual deprivation; fear; mass suicides; test emotions of people who are known to be addicts. Those who aren't are tested for violence, and so forth. And have a testing program, an experimental program where you don't give a damn about the people, but test them.

    The problem was that if any person came in, whether it was Congressman Ryan or any single person, they might have seen the seeds of what you saw at Aushwitz, or Dachau, or Treblinka.

    In the event that an invading army came, whether it was one newsperson, or one person who left with information, in the event that they came, there had to be a contingency plan to destroy all people involved. Because we would find out that they had electrode implants or experimentation stages. I'll go into this further and in detail. I think this is why the Guyana government didn't go in. Our State Department didn't go in until those bodies were rotted beyond recognition. The Army could have been in there in four hours. Our fleet was in Cuba in Guantanamo. We have military bases in Venezuela, and certainly over in Trinidad, and all around. And besides that, the property was rented by Jim Jones. He was an American citizen, so I don't see how much it had to do with the Guyana government. There was an airport there. We had experience in jungles in Vietnam. He had clearings there; he had vegetable gardens where helicopters could arrive to take dead bodies away. So they could have arrived on the premises to come in with troops immediately. The minute a woman was killed in Georgetown and her 3 children had their throats cut, the troops should have been in there within hours. And if it was dark at night, they should have been in there in the morning.

    I believe that there were about forty-five people in Georgetown who had lived in Jonestown who could have identified the bodies within 24 hours. They had the list of members there. Families could have flown down from San Francisco. Within eight hours they could have gone to New York and then down to Georgetown. It wasn't that difficult. It didn't have to cost $10 million to send them to Dover Airfield and have the bodies decayed and rotten and out in the sun. I think the reason they stalled was to make sure that it would be impossible to determine anything on them or to see their faces. That's why I think they were lying face down. Many of these children were wards of the court of California. They all came from San Francisco in the juvenile court and had been given to Jim Jones for experimentation -- and I'll back this up with research I had done in 1972 and 1973. Somebody would have recognized that their kids had been shipped down there.

    Circumstances Under Which They Died: The children were forced by the adults to take poison. It wasn't a suicide, it was murder. Those that didn't take it were going to be shot. Because there was no autopsy they can't determine the cause of death; they've already embalmed them. They can't collect insurance because they're not identified. There's a lot of complications here and not a single one of them had to take place. They could have been in there within eight hours and cleared everything out, or been well on their way to clearing it out.

    The contingency was that in case anybody found out what was going on in that place every one would have to die. They had the weapons, they had the cyanide, they had drugs, they had tranquilizers. The key is what did they have to know? If these were simply poor black people down in a community in South America, why would you need hit squads now, with two to three million dollars to float around and murder anybody that talks? The only thing they could talk about is what they were doing down there. These were poor people with no education, drug addicts, some whites but not that many; a handful of people. What in the world would be the secret? If they wanted to go with him? If they were mesmerized by him? If they took [cyanide], like Time magazine says: "The Cult of Death." Was the Cult of Death the people inside the compound, or the forty or fifty people in Georgetown who know kept the ranks, the goon squads, to murder anybody who got out?

    The Cast of Characters. Of course I'll go into the background and biography of where they got their education and medical training. So far there has only been one doctor named out of a medical team of seventy -- this "Doctor Schacht" who went to medical school in Mexico. He administered the cyanide with a nurse, and he's dead. Or they said he's dead. We don't know about the nurse.

    The first section I'm doing under Roman numeral one will be Chronology. The summary of the purpose which I say, and later you'll see, why I believe it was a center for experimentation. As I say these were the Boys From Guyana and because of his time in Brazil with the CIA and wanting to go to Argentina and traveling and money and food brought to him by the American Embassy, it could easily have been a continuation of cloning or experiments on women or children. We don't know what was going on because the bodies were all turned over face down and were rotted before any person was allowed [to get to them] -- and then only the U.S. Army -- after they were completely rotten and putrid in the sun. So it's impossible to look in their uteruses or in their bodies and even begin to know what kind of experiments were carried out.

    I believe Time magazine or Newsweek said this week that there were electrodes done on the children's arms and legs. That's the kind of experimentation I think was going on down in Jonestown. Not a very pretty picture, is it? But this is what I think was going down in Jonestown.

    The section I'm doing under Roman numeral number two has to do with the contingency plans, specifically A) Suicide:
    • The suicide studies of the CIA.
    • The suicide studies, such as Candy Jones being told to kill herself.
    • The suicide study of the SLA, that they tried to say they wanted to die inside that burning house. They were actually shot at close range because they tried to leave the house.
    • The Jim Jones suicide shot, where he is shot in the head lying on the floor, and the gun that shot him is two or three buildings away. How in the world can you call that suicide? The gun wasn't even down by his side -- if he wanted to die. We know that the CIA has done studies on suicides, so this is really tantamount to cold-blooded murder. It can't be a suicide when you study suicide and have a captive audience and force them to drink poison or be shot.
    On the next side we'll do more on this outline.

    (END OF SIDE ONE)

    Good evening. This is side two of tape 365, and it's December 1st, 1978. This is Mae Brussell in Carmel.

    In addition to the suicide studies, I think it's important to separate the division of not only who was murdered at close range, who died among this huge amount of people, but who lived. There are about 40 or 50 people under house arrest right now in a hotel in Guyana. It would be interesting to see if they're all white. I understand that the goon squad, known as the basketball team, was in Georgetown the day that the mass so-called suicide (the forced murders) took place. And they were the clean-up team, and that these are the people that the handful of remaining people are afraid of because they were the torturers; the people that did the beatings; that watched the field workers for twelve hours; and had guns to see that no one escaped, and so forth.

    Who lived? We know Mark Lane and Charles Garry lived. But the question is how many blacks -- the handful that flew into Kennedy Airport this week. How many of that whole group are the "goon squad" that will not be prosecuted for killing the people in the compound? You see, they will say, "Those people chose suicide." I guess the only murder charges will probably be the ones for the Congressman and the newspaper people and the shooting of the aides at the airport, and not for for murders inside Jonestown. It's as if those people had no legal rights; they were forced to die. Nobody will be charged with their deaths.

    One important category of research to follow in this are the finances; the money that Jim Jones had in Indiana, and the money in Brazil and up in Ukiah and San Francisco. And the purchase of Guyana. And then the cold cash he had left.

    The use of aliases of various people involved here.

    And of course there's the tell-tale "diary." It wouldn't go without a good communist plot -- even though he was accused, or they suggested, that he had been with the CIA in Brazil and at the U.S. Embassy, and higher-ups in the Federal Government. Right away on the corpse there was supposed have been a suicide note left talking about communism. And the remark made when these millions of dollars were put in a footlocker to take it out to the jungle and give it to the Soviet Embassy. I'm very sure that it was not intended for the Soviet Embassy, but that was the story when the fascists' concentration camp broke apart. They still thought of saving the money. In fact, the men that took the money out have seen their wives and children die inside. Instead of rushing in to save them they took the trunk with the money and went out into the jungle.

    Of course it would be interesting to see the past arrest of Jim Jones, and his links with organized crime -- that's one section of its own.

    In the psychological profile of Jim Jones you see all kinds of stories about being lonely as a child, his mother worked in a factory, and his father was gassed in World War I. We get that human interest story that we got about Lee Harvey Oswald and his family, or James Earl Ray and his family. I remember Life magazine had a picture of James Earl Ray after he was charged with killing Martin Luther King. It made out that they were terrible derelicts, and had them out to be the poorest kind of people, hardly existing. Now you hear the House Select Committee on Assassinations telling about the high tentacles of politics that James Earl Ray's two brothers had in St. Louis, Missouri, and the contract to kill Martin Luther King. And they had clout around town, even though they were real bums. They were with the extreme right-wing. They were hardly separable. Ray was just a loner. We'll get that psychological profile of Jim Jones as compared to the political clout he had.

    It's interesting that the State Department got more mail on Jim Jones than almost any single thing in the years 1977-1978 and assured everybody that they had been to Guyana from Georgetown to Jonestown at least twenty times or more and that everything was all right. It was only Congressman Ryan who had direct experiences: friends of his or constituents that had disappeared or died and that touched his heart. Then he personally said, "What the hell, I'm going down there." The State Department did nothing to protect the people down there. They were told of these beatings, and articles were written. New West had an article. The other Congressmen seemed to pass it off, and everyone passed the buck, such as the FBI and the State Department. I think they did it with good reason because if it was a medical control center then they were ordered not to touch it. It's similar to the Manson Family being at the Spahn Ranch in California and the Sheriff's office got complaints all the time and they were ordered to turn their face down and not to touch it; you don't touch Charlie.

    I think the Federal Government, from Jimmy Carter and Mr. Brzezinski, right on down to Health, Education, and Welfare, and every government agency, were instructed: "Don't touch them. But in the event that the armor is cracked, then everyone be prepared to die." I think after the New West article, and after Congressman Ryan got interested in this, and some lawsuits were coming up in San Francisco, they had to go ahead and kill everybody before anyone got any idea of what was going on there.

    I will take all of the articles on the Ukiah church and study those. Jones went from Brazil with $100,000 and opened up a mental institution in Ukiah, which could be the beginning of mind and brain control. It was called "Happy Acres." And it wasn't just a Happy Acres farm. There was a guard, watch dogs, a watchtower, barbed wire. There was secrecy wherever Jim Jones went.

    If he had the clout to make social changes, produce votes, and be among the in-crowd -- there's a picture, again, in People this week of them with George Moscone and Rosalynn Carter -- he had a kind of protection, because it's really hard to break that inner circle unless you are producing something the government really wants. And to be able to produce two thousand votes is nothing. Martin Luther King could have a million, or a half million, people behind him at the Washington Monument, or the Poor People's March. He had no barbed wire and no guns and no stories of beating and clubbing.

    So the protection that Jones had from the San Francisco police, the juvenile courts, the Attorney General's office in California, the United States Attorney General, the Congress, the State Department, and the Guyana government is totally different than the profile. The blame will be put on Jim Jones for what happened, just as World War Two was put upon Adolf Hitler, or Watergate was put upon Richard Nixon.

    But that's only a fraction of the problem. That's one thing to keep very clear, that the funding and the political clout before the act was very, very powerful. But what did they do after Congressman Ryan was there?

    The main thing to keep in mind out of all this is that no matter what kind of a nut Jim Jones was, no matter what he said he wanted, no matter how the people fell for him, no matter what they gave him: he had the clout that after a United States Congressman was killed, and some major newspaper people from this country, the Guyana Government that was put in by the CIA wouldn't touch the place. Guyana first said, "We can't come in until the next day. It's five o'clock at night and it's dark." And everybody had to stay out in the darkness. The first hint that the government had a hands-off policy was that there was an army plane in Guyana and persons at the airport, and when these shootings took place and these dead bodies were on the ground the survivors ran over and said, "We need some help" -- they had some guns -- and they said, "No, we can't interfere." And then it got dark and the next statement was: "We can't interfere."

    The radio towers mysteriously went out in Jonestown on Saturday morning -- their only communication with San Francisco; there were no telephones. It reminded me of the police car in Dallas, Texas after Kennedy was killed, and the switchboards at the White House to the police cars in Memphis, Tennessee [when Martin Luther King was killed] -- the radio communication was cut off for a few moments. The Jonestown radio tower to San Francisco wasn't working. The excuse for not getting in was that it was dark, even though they have helicopters that can light up the whole jungle. We've used them in Vietnam, and the LAPD uses them to light up parts of town. They were available and not too far away.

    Then they said they were moving troops in cautiously, but on foot. And they had a long way to go in by foot, which just stalled time to get in there to see who was alive or who could be saved. Then they said they were flying in airplanes from the United States, but they would have to be assembled in Georgetown. Every stalling device was used.

    I have a Washington Post article from the Thursday after the murders -- the deaths were on Saturday -- and by Thursday they were sending in U.S. troops to get the bodies where they could have come in four days earlier. Everything was rotten and smelly and more difficult and expensive to identify. They said there was no money to send the bodies back to San Francisco but the four days that they rotted in the sun made the work so expensive -- into the millions of dollars -- and storing them in an Air Force base in Delaware and delaying it made it too expensive; Instead of sending them right to San Francisco where they could be handled they sent them to Dover Air Force Base.

    Everything smacks of racism. Some of the survivors were supposed to be sent to Charleston, South Carolina, according to a refugee relocation point. They didn't even say anything about returning them to San Francisco. But to put them to South Carolina where H.E.W. would give them some money and they could pay the government back, and work back, as if they haven't worked hard enough.

    Many of these people were elderly people that had worked all of their lives, that had homes they had given to Jim Jones, they had savings, and they had social security checks. And many of the checks were going down there. Instead of cashing those for each person and using that one month's check for their burial, they went into lump sums to pay back the government for delaying the bodies, processing, and fingerprinting. It doesn't go back to the individual who's left in some refrigerator or coffin in Delaware at the present time. So if some were to be relocated in South Carolina for whatever reason -- I can't imagine....yes, I can imagine. I take it back. I think I know what it was, as I said before, I think there is something they don't want you to see on these people. The first 7 or 8 people to come home were aged people who came into Kennedy Airport. If they're senile, if their memory is gone, we can say, "They are in a state of shock. We haven't seen them in a long time, if ever, before." And they sent the oldest, the few old people in.

    There's no way of knowing the state of mind of the younger people, whether these people were experimented on, because they're dead and they're rotted.

    In 1972 Dr. Jolly West of the CIA -- who was Jack Ruby's doctor at the time of Ruby's trial, for shooting Lee Harvey Oswald -- had moved out to California to the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute, where they planned a Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence. This is Ronald Reagan's baby, and if he gets to be President you can be sure they'll pull this one out again; out of the woodwork. This was planned in 1972 and the plans were submitted to the California Department of Health in Sacramento in April of 1973. I had written an article about this Neuropsychiatric Institute, exposed it as being a part of the CIA, and said that it would involve Third World people. It would involve the poor, the prisoners, the Indians. I have a pamphlet here from a demonstration about this experience. It said: "Will the violence be against our children, Third World people, women, prisoners, sexual minorities (such as homosexuals and gays or lesbians), mental patients, and you?"

    "What is happening," I asked, "about Jolly West?" And I had some questions to answer. Well, a group of us got a hold of the presentation papers in Sacramento for the funding for this institute, this Neuropsychiatric Institute at UCLA, which really came under LEAA Health, Education and Welfare. But they wanted some California money also. One of the studies that was to be done was an S. M. Heilig, H-E-I-L-I-G. Doesn't even say doctor; he's got an M.S.W. He wanted to study trends in self-directed violence and find out why there's so many suicides among the young. One of the studies was to work on suicide.

    Another was on hyperkinetic children. They would have child guidance clinics and study school-aged children who suffer from this "condition." It doesn't say anything about the parents being drugged or divorced or poverty, or no jobs or unemployment, ten or twelve to a room, television night and day, high sugar, white flour, or diet -- if anything. They were to study these children and one of the plans was to take a mass amount of youths from the Los Angeles area and use them for experimentations, and compare them to normal children, as against hyperkinetic children. Or suicidal people as against non-suicidal.

    A Sydney Cohn, who's on television all the time, an M.D., was to study LSD and psychopharmacological effects of marijuana, heroin, and so forth.

    Another study was the prediction of violence -- Now this was the important thing. They were going to take well people and guess whether they had the potential for violence. American Indians, poor blacks, women. They were to do a study, that I have here, on whether women are violent when they menstruate.

    One of the subjects was to [study] cult murders. A Dr. Jivan Tabibian,(?) a P.H.D., not an M.D., was to study sky-jackings, cult murders, and violence by fanatics. They had a long list of subjects they were going to study. [I believe it's possible that among these studies was] this Jonestown -- when I read the parallel of studies of mass suicides, former drug addicts, women, black, potentially violent, deprived, good cross-section of women, sexual fantasies, and problems, which is what he instilled in them by telling them they had to be homosexuals, and then they could study it.

    I thought this outline of what they planned in 1972 and '73 was interesting in lieu of the fact that so many welfare children were sent from a continuation school in the San Francisco area, and Oakland, down to Jonestown. They were given to Jim Jones: this fanatic, this racist, bigot, torturer. A man filled with sexual fantasies and fears. "Problem children" from the bay area -- and all these people came from the bay area -- were shipped down there.

    We fought -- "we" meaning a handful of people -- demonstrated up in Sacramento and fought this school, this Neuropsychiatric Study, that was supposed to center on violence. This was in 1973, but it began to be started in 1972. Then in 1974 the Committee of the Judiciary of the United States Senate -- and I've given you the address on the printed sheet -- had an inquiry into Individual Rights and the Federal Role in Human Behavior. A book of 651 pages. And a good hunk of that book has to do with that UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute. And one of the things Senator Sam Ervin wanted to know, he wrote a letter asking:
    "...whether Dr. William Sweet, Dr. Vernon Mark, or Dr. Frank Ervin will perform any work at UCLA project. I understand that Dr. Sweet and Ervin are now associated with the Neuropsychiatric Institute of UCLA and that they are closely aligned with types of projects to be conducted. Their work in the past has raised questions with regard to the constitutional rights of the subjects of their experiments."
    Dr. Vernon Marks and Dr. Frank Ervin and Dr. William Sweet went on the theory that the reason why the blacks rioted in Newark and Detroit in 1967 is that there is something in the black make up that causes some blacks to be violent, and others aren't. They began brain experiments and electrode implants at Boston Hospital in Massachusetts after the '67-'68 riots. They began experimental mental programs on blacks of all kinds, and poor, to see what makes them trigger off, or how can we keep them happy.

    Then they moved out to UCLA to start working with this Neuropsychiatric Institute. One of the things that was so frightening about that institute was the fact that they wanted a secret base, which reminds me very much of Jonestown.

    Incidentally, one of the coordinators of this neuropsychiatric project was James Fisk -- former high-ranking officer in the Los Angeles Police Department who was linked to the Criminal Conspiracy Section that Louis Tackwood had talked about, and was teaching political science at UCLA.

    On page 357 of this book -- I'll give you some quotations on the printed sheet, I'll give you the full letter -- there's a letter by Dr. Louis Jolyon West, who was also identified at the time of the Senator Church Hearings in 1976 as positively working with the CIA. He had written to J.M. Stubblebine. Mr. Stubblebine at the time we were protesting this institute was head of the State of California Department of Mental Health. He had written to Dr. Stubblebine and he said:
    DEAR STUB: I am in possession of confidential information to the effect that the Army is prepared to turn over Nike missile bases to state and local agencies for non-military purposes. They may look with special favor on health-related applications.
    This is the Federal Army that had missile bases, Nike missile bases. They would turn them over to that Mental Health Department and a CIA doctor, Dr. West, who was working with men who were experimenting on blacks, poor blacks, Indians, children, and women. And they would give him this property.
    Such a Nike missile base is located in the Santa Monica Mountains, within a half-hour's drive of the Neuropsychiatric Institute.
    That's UCLA, University of California at Los Angeles.
    It is accessible but relatively remote.
    Does that remind you of Jonestown? That is accessible, it's on a river, boats came and went, open harbor for weapons, medications, drugs, people visiting, but remote. It has its own airstrip, and the people in Guyana hardly knew the place existed after this came down. It's removed from Georgetown. And this Neuropsychiatric Institute would be removed from Los Angeles proper.

    He said:
    It is accessible but relatively remote. The site is securely fenced, and includes various buildings and improvements making it suitable for prompt occupancy.

    If this site were made available to the Neuropsychiatric Institute as a research facility, perhaps initially as an adjunct to the new Center for Prevention of Violence, we could put it to very good use. Comparative studies could be carried out there, in an isolated but convenient location, of experimental or model programs for the alteration of undesirable behavior.
    Now this is important because Jim Jones was always telling them they were bad; that they were naughty; that they were guilty. They had to write letters that they didn't like. They were stripped and punished. Children were thrown down wells and put under water until they almost drowned. They were put under floor boards and locked up from one to six days -- in empty hollow spaces. They were told they were naughty and bad and they had undesirable behavior. They punished them; they used forms of punishment and drugs.
    Dr. Jolly West:
    Such programs might include control of drug or alcohol abuse, modification of chronic anti-social or impulsive aggressiveness.
    Jim Jones diagnosed these people as having sometimes chronic anti-social behavior. If they worked twelve hours a day, they couldn't eat dinner until he gave a sermon, and then he told them they could eat. If he gave a sermon for six hours they had to listen. If they objected they were "anti-social." They couldn't have male and female boy- or girlfriends. They had to stay apart, sexually deprived, deprived of food, deprived of sleep. They simply worked all day. This is the work crew, the slaves. Fourteen people in those rooms, ten by twelve feet. And then if they behaved in a way that was impulsive or aggressive they could be drugged and tested.
    The site could also accommodate conferences or retreats for instruction of selected groups of mental health-related professionals and of others (e.g. law enforcement personnel, parole officers, special educators) for whom both demonstration and participation would be effective modes of instruction.
    This was written by Jolly West, January 22nd 1973, when they were going to get the Nike bases to test these poor people and deprivations and call in people for conferences. That's why when I started this tape I told you Mark Lane said that: "Doctors came in from everywhere. It was a model medical clinic."

    After the murders came down of at least 914 people they found syringes, needles, drugs, poisons, and it was a huge medical clinic as much as it was anything else, and not an educational institution.

    So who came for the conferences? Were these people being tested? Controlled? Electrodes? Lobotomies? Cloning? Were any of the women pregnant that had to be let to die? Were they implanted, like Adolf Hitler did? Jim Jones said he didn't want a birth rate, but were there experimentations? Of not male to female so that you wouldn't know if a woman got knocked up? Maybe he kept them separate with their homosexual relationships so that they could practice artificial insemination or cloning or taking seeds from women.

    We won't know what happened, because there's a contract out to kill anybody who talks. But you have to ask these questions, hard and clear, because sometimes in the last two weeks I have felt guilty that I went with a group of people -- and as I say there weren't many of us -- and I had friends in prison who would have been victims of these electrode testings, implants, and so forth, such as Hugo Pinell, the defendants of the San Quentin Six. There were people that I knew personally who would be the first ones sent down there. And I went up there and fought it and demonstrated. The team had a conference at U.C. Santa Cruz and I fought that, too. So I have to ask the question: If in Jonestown the machetes began [clearing away the property], the land was purchased, and it began to escalate in 1974.

    It had a clearing place with a medical clinic. Jim Jones himself didn't move down there until the New West article came out questioning what he was doing -- his practices, and so forth in 1977. He went down there for good because he was being figured [out] or linked to politicians up in California, too. And there was a custody fight over a child that he wanted to keep, and he stayed down there. But to me, with my way of thinking, this is the only secret that would allow those bodies to rot beyond the time that they could do autopsies; to allow no press people into see them; to turn everybody face down so you wouldn't see who was there; to have the contingency plan to murder every single person. You see, if the people left with Congressman Ryan, like this one woman did -- and she was shot at point blank -- they would talk and tell what was going on. One girl, Debbie [Layton Blakey], did leave and pleaded with people to investigate. Now her brother is being charged for killing Congressman Ryan and the others. If all of this had been listened to when she pleaded with them; when she escaped from there through a ruse to get out and came back up to Berkeley, California -- if they had listened to her, all of these people would be alive. But I don't think they were meant to be alive. I wonder what kind of tests they were doing, or if anyone was keeping a record of the tests.

    Sexual and emotional deprivation, lack of food, lack of sleep, constant guards -- what would Jim Jones gain from this? They say, "Well, he got power from these people; too much power." But it doesn't explain why the State Department wouldn't touch him; How he knew Rosalynn Carter by telling her, "You can call me at my special agency phone"; How he was with the CIA in Brazil; Where he got his $100,000 to go to Ukiah; How he broke Federal Communication laws by having conversations on radio towers that are strictly for business. How did he do all that? Accumulate links to organized crime, millions of dollars, hit squads for anyone who talks? It had to do with some secrets; dark secrets behind those walls.

    Jolly West concluded his letter to Mr. Stubblebine, M.D. He said:
    My understanding is that a direct request by the Governor, or another appropriate officer of the State, to the Secretary of Defense (or, of course, the President) would be most likely to produce prompt results. Needless to say, I stand available to participate in any way that might be helpful.

    Sincerely yours,
    LOUIS JOLYON WEST, M.D.,
    Medical Director
    There are fifty-seven pages in this Committee of the Judiciary Hearings of the UCLA Project. So I have to ask the question: If it was canceled, was the intent of studying the juveniles, the Indians, the blacks, the women -- was the intent to ship them down to Guyana from the San Francisco area? Could they use a man with as much charisma as Jim Jones? His father was in the Klan who passed himself off as a liberal. Jim Jones was a man who helped the poor and loved the poor, but actually was an outright racist, and anybody around him knew it. He played tricks with their minds. He played magic tricks on curing their diseases.

    One of the interesting things is that the day before the hearings were finished and the report was done, there was a letter pleading for this Neuropsychiatric Institute to begin. Secretary Earl Brian, who worked under Ronald Reagan at the Education, Health and Welfare, wrote:
    "In just four years in California..."
    And these are what I call the California murders,
    "...we have had 62 mass murders by sick individuals."
    You see, no links, no conspiracy -- by "sick individuals." And it suggests that last Tuesday we had the killing of Oakland School Superintendent Marcus Foster, and on the basis of the killing of Dr. Foster last Tuesday we have to go ahead and study these causes of violence. We then learn in January or February of 1974 that Dr. Foster was killed by Romero and Little of the CIA. [I wrote extensively about this in] "The SLA Is The CIA." It was a group of Nazis that said they were going to kill this man who was working with a white man [Mr. Blackburn]. They called him "The Salt and Pepper Man." The black man, Dr. Marcus Foster, got cyanide bullets, and this school chief that worked with him only got a regular bullet, and he's still alive today. That triggered off the notorious Symbionese Liberation Army.

    In the end of the appeals of the group that wanted the study of violence -- that institute down there -- they said that there's:
    "...callous disregard for public safety...we have gone ahead and initiated a special task force within the Department of Health to study all existing laws and administrative regulations relating to mentally disordered criminal offenders..."
    And they complained -- the powers that be that wanted this, this Earl Brian -- complained that his hands were tied in initiating the Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence. It was pigeon-holed by the California Legislature that year, and that they would have to go about finding another means: "Go ahead and get a special force going."

    What I fear is that because the California Assembly cut off the money for the school, this study, the Causes of Violence at UCLA, that it went into Jim Jones' operation and was shipped down to Guyana. That is possibly the place where people could be tested. And when anybody came in to see what was happening they were all prepared to die, and those who weren't were poisoned.

    My worst fear is that the State Department, HEW, the FBI, the San Francisco Police, the Los Angeles Police, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Defense Department, all knew what was going on in Guyana. Therefore, when Congressman Ryan went there they had to let him die and be sacrificed.

    This is a broad subject and I hope that my first week on this isn't too confusing. We'll do much more in the weeks to come. If you have any questions, write or call me and I'll include them on the tapes for you.

    This is Mae Brussell in Carmel. Next week I'll also do more about the killing of Mayor Moscone and Harvey Milk in San Francisco, and the links to the Peoples Temple.

    (END)
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