Tuesday, February 18, 2014

When The International Genealogical Index Became An Online Version Known As....


1995, Family History Library, Salt Lake City, 4-page Booklet Finding an IGI Source, (downloadable .pdf)
May 4, 1999 [1st web capture] © 1997, What Is the I.G.I.?, by Helen S. Ullmann,
August 12, 2003 [1st web capture] What Is the I.G.I.?, Revised & Expanded., by Helen S. Ullmann,
July 16, 2012, [1st web capture] International Genealogical Index,
January 4, 2011, The Ancestry Insider, Archived,




a definition help page by: Helen S. Ullmann C.G.


I know this is long, but I really think it would be helpful to all of you who get so frustrated with the IGI. Actually, I get frustrated too, but it's an incredibly useful tool.
You may want to download this and print it out. Please contact me with questions or suggestions for improving it.

For a more detailed article on this subject, see the New England Historic Genealogical Society NEXUS of Dec. 1993 (v. 10). This is a simplified recap of that. (See the end of this for inf. on getting a reprint).

First, the International Genealogical Index (IGI) is just that, an index, a finding tool. However, it is not like an index in a book. In order to make good use of it, you must make some effort to understand how it is put together.

It is primarily an index to temple work for individuals, which explains why there are often multiple entries for the same person. Church members have often submitted names for temple work to be done without having first found out whether it has been done before. There are various reasons why this has been very difficult to do in the past. The new IGI addendum goes a long way toward making it easier than ever before.

There seems to be a general recognition that there are two main kinds of entries in the IGI, those submitted by church members (often called "patrons") and those extracted directly from original records. We tend to trust the latter entries, and it is relatively easy to check out the original source.

If using the IGI on microfiche, these extracted entries usually have a batch number beginning with C or M or occasionally another letter, but some begin with numbers. The CD-ROM edition gives pretty complete information for each entry. But if you're using the IGI on fiche there is no substitute for reading detailed instructional material about this. Basically I would like to discuss the patron entries, as these are the ones that give people the most trouble. In order to evaluate the entry, you need to get hold of the material "behind" it, i.e., the piece of paper submitted by the patron to initiate the temple work. And what you most need from that is the source(s) used by the patron.
Submission has been done differently at different times. I call them four eras:
  1. 1. Pre-1942
  2. 2. 1942-1969
  3. 3. 1969-ca. 1990
  4. 4. 1990 to the present.
When you find an entry, look at the dates of temple work to identify which era the entry falls under:
  • b = baptism
  • e = endowment
  • s = sealing to spouse or parents
Sometimes there will be a combination.

1. Before 1942 the resources referenced in the IGI are the temple books, the chronological records kept by the temples of the work done each day. These are on the films indicated on the IGI microfiche when there is a number in the batch number column and the word "film" in the sheet number column. Many of these films can be ordered at Family History Centers (FHCs), but check the fiche listing restricted films. If they cannot be ordered, they may still be in the open cabinets in the reading room in Salt Lake. You will need to find an agent to look if you can't go yourself. A few are in what is called the Special Collections room. (Ask at the FHC what this means; I'm trying to be brief.)

What is more useful is the index to these early records. The Temple Index Bureau (TIB) is a series of index cards, now on microfilm, which often give additional information. These too are in Special Collections, but you can access them by using a Temple Ordinance Index Request (TOIR) form which should be available at an FHC. They are free from the Church Distribution Center (where you buy PAF).
If you send in a TOIR (the cost is $1 for each search) and they find an index card, they may also find a family group sheet from the next era for you.

2. In 1942 patrons began sending in family group sheets. These too are indexed in the TIB and can be accessed by using TOIRs. Or you can look at these on microfilm. There are several other series of family group sheets, so look in the subject section of the FHLC (Family History Library Catalog) under "Mormons - Genealogy - Sources" and roam around until you find a series beginning with film #127... The sheets are arranged strictly alphabetically by the head of the household (sometimes an unmarried woman) and then by birth date of people with the same name. Many FHCs like to get these on indefinite loan to build the collection.

Besides getting more data on the family and a patron's outdated name and address, THE IMPORTANT PIECE OF INFORMATION ON THESE IS THE SOURCE OF INFORMATION. Hopefully you will be able to interpret it and go to a book you would never have dreamed of looking at for information on your family, i.e., the index (IGI) has worked! Note: this is the main point of this little dissertation.

If you cannot interpret the source, play with the FHLC first if you have a clue to author or title. Then call the Family History Library (801-240-2584) and ask for the first floor library attendants' window. They can convert old call numbers to new. They will love this if many of you do it :).

3. The IGI began in 1969. At the same time patrons began using new forms, called Individual Entry and Marriage Entry Forms. Sometimes family group sheets were still used. (These were assigned batch numbers beginning with F, 50 or 60). The value of seeing these is not only the source. The patron's address may still be current and there may be additional information. But guess what,WHAT YOU MOST WANT IS THE SOURCE!
You get copies of these entry forms in either of two ways:
  • A. When received, they were assigned a batch number, with 99 sheets in a batch. (The first two digits of batch numbers beginning with 7 and 8 tell you the year they were submitted.) Then they were filmed. You can order the microfilm of them (about $3 apiece). If using the IGI on fiche you need to find out the film number (also called "Input Source") by using another set of fiche, the "Batch Number Index."
  • B. Or you can use the photo duplication form to get copies of 8 forms for $2.
(Again, read the small print. Some batch numbers with the 4th, 5th and 6th digits higher than 365 refer to extractions from New England vital records - [technical stuff - ugh]). I prefer option b.
That way a volunteer in Salt Lake gets to use his/her fingers walking through the microfilm. The films can be tricky to use. On the other hand, one film might have a great many useful entry forms on it. If you find a group of people with the same batch number, try it. In fact, try all these things. That's the only way you'll get comfortable with them.
4. About 1990 we began using a new type of family group sheet (8 1/2 x 11 instead of 8 1/2 x 14). These are available by the same method as above. About the same time, the church began using Temple Ready to process submissions on disk. While this has been extremely useful in many ways, no longer are patron names and addresses and sources available. We are referred to the Ancestral File. This situation may eventually change, but for the present, we cannot get "behind" the IGI on these entries.

For many years there has been a project to extract the old pre-1970 records and add them to the IGI. Most of the pre-1942 baptismal records are in the 1993 CD-ROM edition. Many of the 1942-69 records are in the new Addendum.

One final hint, if you find a patron listed on an old family group sheet, try looking for them in the Ancestral File. Then look for the submitter's name and address. You may find the current family historian.

At libraries:
NEHGS NEXUS, 10 (1993):148-151 (also available as a reprint from NEHGS, 101 Newbury St., Boston, MA 02116 for $2 or $3)
GENEALOGISTS' MAGAZINE 24 (1993): 294-97, 349-53
FGS FORUM 5 (Winter 1993) :5-10 and 6 (Spring 1994): 4-6

Have fun. Try these things one at a time. Reread often. Ask questions.
Helen S. Ullmann, C.G. hsu@world.std.com

Livingston County MI - USGenWeb Project Page
© 1997 All Rights ReservedCFC Productions - http://www.ismi.net/lcmigw/fhcigi.htm
For More Information Contact: prietsch@ismi.net


August 12, 2003 [1st web capture] What Is the I.G.I.?, Revised & Expanded., by Helen S. Ullmann,



a definition help page by:

Helen Schatvet Ullmann, CG, FASG


Since its inception in 1969, the International Genealogical Index (IGI) has been a marvelous finding tool — not a source in itself, but, as its name indicates, an index to records from all over the world. [[i]]
It has always been a good idea to understand the nuances of this database in order to make full use of it. While it is a great resource for locating people, one must not be misled by the many duplications and errors it contains. Now that the IGI is online, there are new ways to search it. But you will not be making optimum use of it unless you make some effort to go behind the individual entry and find the paperwork and sources associated with many of the entries. With this knowledge you will have a much better idea of when you will find information, how reliable that data is, and whether to pursue an entry that interests you.

Take, for example, my search for George Cook Stevens, a nephew of one of my ancestors.  From a thorough check of many sources, I was sure he had been born in Cheshire, Connecticut, about 1811-12, and it seemed he had been married in Massachusetts shortly before 1850.  But I had no date or place for any vital event.  A check of the IGI showed:

STEVENS, George Cook, son of George Stevens and Savilla Hitchcock, born 16 Jan 1811 at Cheshire, New Haven Co., CT.
LDS ordinances: baptized 17 Feb 1966 LG [Logan Temple], endowed 25 Feb 1966, sealed “pre-1970” Batch/film #0,448,102.[[ii]]

Without going into much detail at this point, the above information led me to a family group sheet referring to the “Greely Fam., p. 698-9.”Indeed George H. Greeley, Genealogy of the Greely-Greeley Family (1905) treats George’s wife, Mary Ayer, and gives all vital data one could wish (though without sources). It would have otherwise taken quite a piece of serendipity to lead me to George Cook Stevens in that book.
Finding the book that included George was relatively simple since I knew how to deal with a 1966 IGI entry.  But what about his grandfather, Hubbell Stevens?  There were two Hubbells — a father (who married twice) and his son.  So, ideally, there would be five entries under the name: two birth records and three marriages.  But I find over twenty!  How can we evaluate and interpret these entries?  Which are worth pursuing?  More on that later.

Some hints for searching the IGI

There are differences between searching the IGI on the old DOS version of FamilySearch, which is available at Family History Centers (FHCs), and searching it online.  However, both programs allow you to search in three different ways, for births or christenings of individuals, for marriages and for children of certain parents.
Trial and error is probably the best teacher in this case.  There are many nuances which you will pick up with experience.  For example, when doing a parent search in the DOS version, you will need to search three times, once with the wife’s full name, once with only her given name and once without a wife’s name.  Online you must enter at least the wife’s given name.  The search will find both those with and without her surname at the same time.

Actually, a search of the DOS version can be faster because you will be able to see the spouse’s or parents’ names on the index screen, which will help you decide whether to move to the detail screen.  However, the DOS version is static, containing entries made only up through the beginning of the year 2000, while the online version is updated weekly.

When searching the IGI by itself online, you have some options that are not available when doing a search in all the databases available at www.FamilySearch.org.  For example, you can locate a woman by only her given name if you include her husband and/or other limiting parameters in the search.

Submissions in different time periods

In order to make best use of the IGI, you need to understand that entries have been made in different ways at different times.   We can identify four distinct periods during which different types of records were generated. While this process may seem complex at first view, it is not really very difficult. These four eras are: 
4.1990 to the present

For the first two periods there is a card index on microfilm, compiled by the Temple Records Index Bureau (commonly called “TIB”).  The latter two periods are fully indexed in the present IGI, and church members have nearly finished adding in names from the first two periods.

First, though, it would be helpful to understand what the Mormons (or LDS, as we call ourselves) are doing with the IGI.  This huge database was designed to keep track of “temple work” undertaken on behalf of deceased persons.  Temple “ordinances” are performed by living church members as proxies for the deceased: baptism for the dead (c.f. I Corinthians 15:29), the endowment (a sort of course of instruction) and the sealing of married couples and of children to parents (c.f. Matthew 16:19).  Mormons believe that many persons who have died are waiting for these ordinances; others may yet decide to accept them.  Since it is an index to temple work, and since many members of the church do not (or in the past could not) check to see whether work has been done, many temple ordinances are unnecessarily repeated.  This explains why there are multiple entries for the same person.

From its inception, church leaders also visualized the IGI as a tool by which family historians could locate records in hitherto difficult-to-access or unexpected sources.  The IGI only began in 1969, however; Mormons have undertaken genealogical work since 1836.

The first era (pre-1942)

Before 1942 members took lists of deceased relatives to the temple with them.  The temples maintained separate ledgers of baptisms, endowments and sealings, arranged chronologically.  The patron’s name appears at the head of a group of names as the person at whose “instance” the work was undertaken.  The Church does not have accompanying family group records from this era, so there is no direct way to obtain further information.  However, the TIB card index generated during this period can lead you to other material.  The TIB is only directly accessible by church members in Special Collections at the Family History Library, but anyone else can address a letter to the Photoduplication Department, Family History Library, 37 North West Temple, Salt Lake City, UT 84150.  Include a check for $1 for each name. [[iii]]

Most, but not all, of these names have been “extracted” from the old temple record books and are now in the IGI.  You will recognize these entries by the word “relative” in place of parents or spouse when you are searching the DOS version of FamilySearch.  Online, the entry will lack the name of a spouse or parent.  When you click on the film number given in the entry, you will find yourself in the Family History Library Catalog (FHLC).  When you click on the title and then on “film notes” you will find yourself at the beginning of a long list of microfilms.  Scroll down until you find the film number and look at the date of the records on that particular film.

Most of the time you can order that microfilm at an FHC.  Before ordering, read carefully to see if the film is restricted.  Some of these films can be consulted only in Salt Lake City, so you may need to hire someone on the spot.  However, most are no longer in Special Collections and can be viewed by anyone.  Use the page and reference number given in the IGI entry to find the name. 

These temple volumes may or may not be helpful, depending on the details given and on the surrounding names.  Searching for an Edwin J. Mills in Michigan, I found him in the temple book among a group of Howlands.  This was a clue to look at a Howland genealogy.  Edwin had married Cornelia Howland.

The second era (1942-1969)

You may find, when you look at the date of the temple book, that it falls during this second period.  From 1942 to 1969 temple patrons submitted names on family group sheets.  The patron’s name, address and sources of information [[iv]]  were listed.  The “Family Group Records Archives” (FGRA) contains most family group sheets submitted during these years and is available on microfilm (where the George Cook Stevens family group sheet appears).  While there are indeed numerous errors and omissions on these sheets, many are the result of meticulous research or reflect otherwise inaccessible family records.

To find these, search for film number 1275000 and you will find the whole series of films.  These sheets are alphabetical by head of family, usually the husband.  If the person is a wife or child, and the spouse or father is unknown, a TIB card may make a connection.

In compiling family group records during this period, patrons referred to the earlier TIB cards.  On many of these sheets the baptism and endowment dates are pre-1942, but the sealing dates are later.  So, if you see by clicking on the film number for the temple record book, that an ordinance was performed between 1942 and 1969, you can be fairly sure of finding a family group sheet.  You may also find one for entries of the earlier period.

Generally, you will derive more information from the TIB card and family group sheets than from the temple record book films referenced in the IGI.  A “P” or a “C” in the upper left corner of the TIB card indicates the person appears as a parent or child on a family group sheet.  If you request a TIB card by mail, you should also receive the relevant family group sheets.

On the other hand, you may want to see the group of names submitted by the patron.  In this case, consult the film referenced in the IGI.

The third era (1969-1990)

In the 1960s the Church began using computers and volunteers to extract births, christenings and marriages from many countries.  And in 1969 the system for member submissions was again changed.  Now there are two major types of submissions for temple work.  When you look at the source information, you will almost always find that the origin of the entry is either “submitted by a member” or “extracted from” the church or civil vital records of a particular place. Both types of entries have “batch numbers.”

The more you understand about the batch numbers used since 1969, the easier it will be to know what lies behind any given entry.  For member submissions, family group sheets were now only used when persons could only be identified in relationship to parents or siblings.  Most of the time, individuals and spouses were submitted on “entry forms.”  Three persons or three marriages appear on each form, with sources and the name and address of the submitter.  When an entry form arrived in Salt Lake City it was assigned to a “batch,” the number beginning with the last two digits of the current year (e.g., a batch beginning with 73 or F73 arrived in 1973).  The entry was assigned a sheet (i.e., page) number within that batch, and many batches were then microfilmed together.  The resulting film is often called the “input source.”

Names derived from extraction projects also have batch numbers, which usually begin with a letter of the alphabet.  In this case, the original records, e.g. Irish civil records, are the “input source” microfilms.  You can see what the input source is by clicking on the film number and reading the consequent FHLC entry. Then decide whether to order the microfilm to see the original record.

In the case of extractions, an IGI entry may sometimes also refer to an alphabetical printout.  You can order this too and use it as an index to the original record.

With member submissions from this period, you have two alternatives.  You can order the input source film and look for yourself, perhaps finding a whole group of forms submitted by the same person.  Or you can use a photoduplication form (available at FHCs) to send for a copy of the entry, which will include the patron’s name and address, source(s), and perhaps additional data on the person you seek.
Carefully read the fine print on the photoduplication form.  There are exceptions, particularly in regard to New England extraction projects, which have all-number batch numbers. Also be aware that batch numbers beginning with F, 50 and 60 are patron-submitted family group sheets. A batch number beginning with “A” indicates that there may well be a family group sheet in the FGRA.

The fourth era (1990 to the present)

About 1990, members began submitting GEDCOM files on diskette. Patron names and sources are not presently available. However, these entries may include links to other family members and other information, such as death dates and places.

In this case it may be helpful to refer to the Ancestral File, which was conceived as a great match-maker among family historians.  In fact, all genealogists were invited to contribute and make corrections to the Ancestral File.  Submitting to this file did not initiate temple work.  If you disagreed with data in the Ancestral File, you used to be able to make changes and document your information.  Then searching for “History of Changes” would provide documentation. 

However, no changes have been made to the Ancestral File for many years. The new Pedigree Resource File is the Church’s current collection of material submitted by GEDCOM.  In this resource each individual submitter’s file remains intact.  Evidently a new database is being planned.

The extraction projects will continue, and each extracted entry in the IGI will cite the original document.

Multiple entries

So what of all those entries for Hubbell Stevens?  They are indeed bewildering, but intelligible. (The pre-computer TIB correctly has only three cards—for Hubbell himself, “Mrs. Hubbell,” and Hubbell Jr.)  Five entries in the IGI are for “Mrs. Hubbell.” submitted before either wife was identified.  Of the many remaining entries, two are for Hubbell Jr.’s estimated birthdate and four for his marriage to Elizabeth Clark.  The original marriage sealing record was evidently typed “Hubber” so a patron submission in 1973 was not recognized as a duplicate.  For some odd reason it is itself duplicated.

We are still left with at least twelve entries for Hubbell Sr., most for his birth.  (1) The earliest, submitted in 1920, gave the wrong place of birth.  (2) In 1934 the baptism was performed again, this time with the correct birthplace.  (3)  In 1972 a patron again submitted the name with 1934 ordinance dates, but he or she had evidently not consulted the FGRA, so the sealing (performed in 1946) was repeated.  (4)  In 1974 the Connecticut vital records extraction program noted his birth. The program recognized the earlier 1934 entry, but did not catch the 1972 patron submission, perhaps because the place name was spelled 
differently.  (These initial four entries should, of course, have been more than enough.)  (5) In 1987, a patron resubmitted the name.  It was “cleared” again for temple work, but by the time of the 1992 edition of the IGI the 1946 sealing date to parents had been found and correctly added.  (6)  For some reason, however, in 1992 a patron submitted an entry with dates which, as far as I can see, are completely imaginary!  Since 1992 three more entries appear, the result of patrons not bothering to do research and not even checking the IGI before submitting their own guesstimates as to birthdate and place.  So the computer thinks these entries are for new people.  Newer is not necessarily better!

This story highlights the need to research thoroughly and check for previous temple work before making a submission.

Turning to Hubbell’s marriages, we find at least six entries: one to “Mrs. Hubbell,” three to Anna Shepard, and two to Deborah Jones.  The earliest with correct names are my own submissions (1986).  Because these submissions were not available to another researcher they were duplicated around 1990.  Then there are recent ones with imaginary dates.

The question remains, however: what is one to do with all these entries?  A request for TIB cards or an FGRA film would yield the 1946 family group sheets.  Of post-1969 submissions, the batch number beginning with F86 (1986 family group sheets) suggests that two recent family group sheets identify two different wives of Hubbell, Sr.  You can view these records on film, or order copies using the photoduplication form mentioned above. Later entries can only send you to the Internet or to published material—you will find my article about Hubbell Stevens by using PERSI at www.Ancestry.com.

“How likely am I to find the person I am looking for in the IGI?”

There is no simple answer to this frequently-asked question.  In the first place, temple work is only undertaken for persons known to have died.  Thus, in a program extracting birth records, it is assumed that anyone born less than 110 years ago might still be living.  For marriage records the cut-off date is 95 years earlier.  Many of the extractions were done in the 1970s and 1980s.  Thus you are not likely to find someone born after about 1875, unless an LDS relative supplied the death date in his member submission.  Many of the extractions from New England were taken from published “vital records to 1850” series.  Thus New Englanders in the IGI probably lived between the early 1600s and 1850.

Evaluating the entry

In using the IGI, those much-maligned terms “primary” and “secondary” are helpful.  If one understands a primary source to be one created at or near the time of the event (or at least by the person[s] directly concerned), then a secondary source would be someone else’s use of that primary source.  The IGI is at best secondary.  But very often it is “tertiary” material.  At times one might even call it “quaternary.”  Among Kent, Conn., vital records I was puzzled by the appearance of a James Swift, born 25 December 1767.  A Tamer Swift was baptized in 1769, but who was James?  Microfilm of the original town record appeared to say “Tamer, daughter,” but I could see how the transcriber had read it as “James.” 

The IGI contains extracted Connecticut vital records from the Barbour Collection, which in this case used an earlier copy of Kent data by James N. Arnold.  We are now three steps removed from the original, hence quaternary.

In the case of a member-submitted entry, it is a good idea to check the source and/or look for verifying material elsewhere using the entry as a clue.

One final example

I’d just about given up looking for what became of John Belden Mills, last known to be in Saybrook, Conn., in 1824.  The 1850 census listed a John B. in Utica, New York, born in New York, with wife Amelia and two children.  Could he be the right person?  Checking the IGI for John Belden Mills as a parent I found five children born in Nantucket.  That was a surprise! The batch number led me to the published Nantucket VRs, which had used a Bible that for once gave places of marriage and birth, including John’s known date and place of birth in Chester, Connecticut.  John and Amelia were married, and their children born, in upstate New York and Canada!  Here was a good lesson in using the IGI as an index, not a source.

A little bibliography

For more detail see the LDS research outlines, The International Genealogical Index (On Microfiche), the FamilySearch instructions for the International Genealogical Index (On Compact Disc) and Finding an IGI Source, as well as the IGI Reference Guide (on microfiche “Z” of the IGI itself). 
Articles on the IGI by G. David Dilts, AG, and/or Elizabeth L. Nichols, AG, appear in Genealogical Journal 20 (1992):5-21, Genealogists’ Magazine 24 (1993):294-97, 349-53, and FGS Forum 5 (Winter 1993):5-10 and 6 (Spring 1994):4-6.

[i] © May 2003. This article is an update of my earlier work, “A Perspective on the 1992-93 IGI” which appeared in the New England Historic Genealogical Society’s NEXUS, Vol. X, Nos. 5 & 6 (Oct.-Dec. 1993).
[ii] The IGI is updated weekly on www.FamilySearch.org, but only church members who register can view these dates online.  However, anyone using FamilySearch at a Family History Center can go to the menu item “LDS Options” and view the IGI as “Ordinance Index,” the same IGI but with the ordinance dates.  Keep in mind though that that old DOS program, which uses CDs, only contains entries through about March 2000.
[iii] Or you may be able to obtain a Temple Ordinance Index Request form (TOIR) at a Family History Center, but they are out of print.
[iv] These sources are often cryptic, sometimes incomplete.  To translate into present-day call numbers, call the Family History Library, ask for the first floor library attendants window, and explain carefully what you want.
  Howell, Michigan Family History Center Title Page
  Howell Michigan Family History Center Librarians
  Beginning Research Ideas
   Livingston County MI - USGenWeb/MIGenWeb Project
  MARDOS Memorial Library of Historical Books & Maps

© 1997-2003 All Rights Reserved CFC Productions 
For More Information Contact Pam Rietsch at:     pam@livgenmi.com


July 16, 2012, [1st web capture] International Genealogical Index,

International Genealogical Index

The International Genealogical Index (IGI) is a computer file created by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It was first published in 1973 and continued to grow through December 2008. It contains several hundred million entries, each recording one event, such as a birth, baptism (christening), marriage, or death. 
Information in the IGI came from two sources:
1.  Some of the entries in the IGI were indexed by the genealogical community from collections of vital and church records (approx. 460 million names). Indexed records are valuable sources of primary information. Unfortunately, attempts to prevent duplication resulted in the exclusion of some indexed records.
2.  Some of the information in the IGI was contributed by members of the Church about their ancestors (approx. 430 million names). The quality of this information varies. Duplicate entries and inconsistent information are common. Always verify contributed entries against sources of primary information.



Accessing the International Genealogical Index

Over the years, access to the IGI has advanced with technology. First available on microfiche, the IGI was subsequently available on compact disc and later as a collection on the Internet.
Today, FamilySearch publishes hundreds of collections of vital and church records for many locations throughout the world. Indexed entries from the IGI are treated consistently with other indexed records, published by country or state and organized into the record collections they were trasncribed from.
Performing a regular search on FamilySearch.org will search both IGI indexed records along with billions of more recently indexed records. To search just the entries from the International Genealogical Index, select the “International Genealogical Index (IGI)” collection from the list of historical record collections. From the collection page you may choose to search either community indexed entries or community contributed entries.


The International Genealogical Index is a finding aid. Always check original sources. Entries often do not contain all the information in the original records, such as death dates or names of additional relatives. Sometimes only portions of parish records or other sources were indexed.
Today’s implementation of the International Genealogical Index addresses key deficiencies in the previous implementation. However, it is not able to correct all of them.
1.  Previously, the IGI could not be searched by city or parish name, but only by country and one subdivision (such as U.S. state or U.K. county). Users compensated by searching by batch number. While batch number searching is still supported, most users will prefer searching by name instead of number.
2.  Previously, indexed entries and community contributed entries were mixed into a single collection. The reliability of the two is different, so users needed to know the source of each result. Users compensated by examining the first digit of the batch number of each result. Batch number charts assisted users in recognizing indexed (“extracted”) entries and user contributed entries. Today, the two types are searched separately, assisting users to distinguish between them.
3.  While it grew to contain a tremendous amount of duplication, the IGI was originally envisioned as a file containing just one entry for each birth and each marriage that has ever occurred. When new records were indexed, entries were discarded that duplicated existing IGI entries. To compensate for this limitation, when an entry is not found among indexed entries, search the community contributed entries as well.
4.  The original sources for entries in the IGI are not shown. For an indexed entry, look up the film number in the FamilySearch or Family History Library catalog. For a community contributed entry, the contributor may or may not have specified a source. See “Finding the Source of IGI Batch Numbers” for more information.


1973  Originally published as “the Computer File Index.” Published on microfiche. Contained 20 million entries. About 80% were extracted.
1975  Microfiche edition with 34 million names.
1981  This, the 4th edition, was the first to be called the International Genealogical Index. Contained 81 million entries.
1984  Record count was 108 million. Offered for sale to the public.
1988  First published on compact disc (CD-ROM). Part of the FamilySearch DOS computer program. Contained 147 million names. Excluded some indexed entries from the 1984 edition.
1992  Microfiche edition. Contained 187 million names. About 94.5% were indexed.
March 1993  The CD-ROM edition took longer. Contained over 200 million names from over 90 countries.
July 1994  CD-ROM release of the 1994 edition issued as an addendum with 42 million entries. Includes entries dropped from the 1988 edition. Duplication rate increased over previous editions.
1997  CD-ROM addendum increased entries from 240 to 284 million, of which 100 million were from extraction.
24 May 1999  FamilySearch website released. Not all 285 million IGI entries available immediately, but were released by region.
For more information see Ancestry Insider, “When was the IGI?” The Ancestry Insider dated 4 January 2011).


Discover what records are included in this collection at the International Genealogical Index Coveragepage.


  • Burials and death records were not indexed, unless they apply to children who died before the age of 8
  • Illegitimate infants who died young were not indexed
  • Many extracted entries have been redacted because FamilySearch does not have permission to publish these records online; these entries can now only be viewed on the microfiche and CD-ROM versions of the IGI
  • Entries before 1752 followed no standards in double-year entries dated between January and March
  • Patronymic surnames were incorrectly assigned to many individuals who were using fixed hereditary surnames

Further Reading

The following articles were originally written for previous versions of the International Genealogical Index and some information may no longer apply.
The following blog articles were written by the Ancestry Insider.

January 4, 2011, The Ancestry InsiderArchived,
The Ancestry InsiderThe unofficial, unauthorized view of Ancestry.com and FamilySearch.org. The Ancestry Insider reports on, defends, and constructively criticizes these two websites and associated topics. The author attempts to fairly and evenly support both.Tuesday, January 4, 2011

When was the IGI?

With the release of the new FamilySearch.org website, many are asking where the International Genealogical Index (IGI) went. To understand where it went, you first need to understand what it is and where it came from. This week I address the what, when, whence, why, and where of the IGI.

Example Fiche Mar 1992, England p. 2,299, Derby, Berry, Christoph

When was the IGI?

The IGI was originally known as the Computer File Index, according to the book Hearts Turned to the Fathers.1 According to Elizabeth Nichols, retired FamilySearch employee, it was first published on microfiche in 1973. It contained 20 million entries, consisting of all names gathered since October 1969, and six million of the names gathered before then. About 80% were extracted.2, 3


The 1975 edition contained 34 million names. The fourth edition, published in 1981, was the first to be called “the International Genealogical Index” and contained 81 million names. By 1984, the name count had grown to 108 million and the IGI was offered for sale to the public.1

Compact Disc

In 1988 it was published on compact disc as part of the FamilySearch DOS computer program and contained 147 million names. Because of computer system changes, some extraction entries from the 1984 edition had to be left out. They were included in a later edition.1, 3 The 1992 edition was published on microfiche and contained 187 million names. About 94.5 million entries (50%) were extracted. Nearly 90% of the 72 million entries for the British Isles came from extraction. The compact disc version took until November 1993, becoming the March 1993 Compact Disc Edition. It contained over 200 million names from over ninety countries. Few, if any, extraction records were added.1, 2, 3 “Creating a compact-disc version of the IGI became problematic. Amassing the names from the various files created in different databases and by different systems was a technical nightmare,” according to Hearts Turned.1 This may explain why the 1994 edition—released in July 1995—consisted of an addendum to the previous edition. The addendum held 42 million entries. Many of the additional 5 million extracted names were those dropped from the 1988 edition. Many of the member submitted entries were duplicates, coming from newly digitized pre-1970 submissions and from TempleReady.4 The 1997 edition of the IGI, repeating the pattern of the previous edition, was published as an addendum. The number of entries increased from 240 million to 284, of which, about 100 million were from extraction.5


Rumors that a FamilySearch website—without the IGI—started circulating in early 1999.6 In early March the Church (of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) issued a statement confirming that a website was in the works7and on the first of April announced the beta test. The official announcement and release of FamilySearch.org came on 24 May 1999. The press release noted the inclusion of the International Genealogical Index. Not all 285 million entries were available immediately. Said the release, “The IGI will be made available in phases by region.”8 Tomorrow: “Whence is the IGI?”


     1. James B. Allen, et. al., Hearts Turned to the Father, a special issue of BYU Studies 34:2 (1994-95), pp. 306, 317-9; digital images online (http://byustudies.byu.edu : accessed 28 December 2010). This is a history of FamilySearch as the Genealogical Society of Utah and the family history department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It was also published as a hard-cover book.      2. Elizabeth L. Nichols, “The International Genealogical Index 1992 Edition : Part 1: The Main Changes,”Genealogists’ Magazine 24 (September 1993): 294-7.      3. Elizabeth L. Nichols, “The International Genealogical Index (IGI), 1993 Edition : Part I,” Federation of Genealogical Societies Forum, Spring 1994, 5-10.      4. Elizabeth L. Nichols, “The International Genealogical Index (IGI) Updated by Addendum—Part I,”Federation of Genealogical Societies Forum, Fall 1995, 5-8.      5. Elizabeth L. Nichols, “The International Genealogical Index (IGI) Updated by Addendum—Part I,”Federation of Genealogical Societies Forum, Summer 1998, 1,14.      6. Ryan Taylor, “Routes to Roots,” The Global Gazette : Canada’s Genealogy & Heritage Magazine (www.globalgenealogy.com/gazrt23.htm : 24 February 1999); on Internet Archive Wayback Machine (http://web.archive.org : archived 8 May 1999, accessed 2 January 2011).      7. “FamilySearchTM Internet Genealogy Service,” The Official Website of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (www.lds.org : 4 March 1999), News Updates > Archive; on Internet Archive Wayback Machine (http://web.archive.org : archived 31 May 2000, accessed 2 January 2011).      8. “President Hinckley Launches New genealogy Internet Site,” The Official Website of the Church…(www.lds.org : 24 May 1999), on Internet Archive… (http://web.archive.org : archived 4 June 2000, accessed 2 January 2011); and “Press Kit: FamilySearch Databases,” The Official Website of the Church… (www.lds.org : [24 May 1999?]), on Internet Archive… (http://web.archive.org : archived 22 June 2000). See also, “New Family Tree Internet Service Swamped by Demand” (archived 31 May 2000).

Anonymous said...
So how many entries are in the Internet version of the IGI, and how does its composition compare to the fiche and CD versions?

Ros's Blog said...
It's amazing how we take the internet IGI for granted now. But I well remember when you had to search fiches for each county - so you had to have an idea of where a person was. Like mobile phones, there are so many things I can't do without these days that didn't exist not so long ago! Ros


FamilySearch currently has mutually beneficial agreements with more than 200 archives throughout the world. Over the years, FamilySearch has worked with more than 10,000 archives in over 100 countries throughout the world. It partners with archives in order to share best practices as well as to broaden user access to valuable historical records. Because it is an archive, FamilySearch understands the concerns of record sovereignty, provenance, and access control.

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