Sunday, May 18, 2014

Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc. Part II.

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Peter Maverick: Plan of the City of New York (First Large Scale Plan of New York After The Revolution)

Title: Plan of the City of New York (First Large Scale Plan of New York After The Revolution)
Map Maker: Peter Maverick
Place / Date: New York / 1795 ca
Coloring: Uncolored
Size: 21.5 x 15 inches
Condition: VG
Price: $30,000.00
Inventory ID: 28259

Description: Virtually unknown first state of the first large-format plan of New York City published after the American Revolution, depicting a city fully recovered from the depredations of the war and beginning the explosive growth that made it the commercial capital of the world. Extraordinarily rare and all-but undescribed in the bibliographic literature.

The plan depicts the southern end of Manhattan Island, with streets laid out as far north as present-day Broome Street. Comparison with earlier plans reveals the rapid development of the city in the post-war years: the boundaries of the city’s seven wards have been reorganized; the old Anglo-Dutch fort at the Battery razed and replaced with Government House; Broadway extended and Greenwich Street completed; the huge De Lancey and Rutgers estates (either side of Bowery Lane, and east of Catharine Street, respectively) surveyed in anticipation of development; and numerous public buildings, churches, markets and wharves constructed. Beyond modern-day Broome and Montgomery Streets dotted lines indicate the beginnings of work to extend the street grid further into what had been the old Stuyvesant Farm and became Bowery Village. The very western tip of Long Island is seen at lower right, linked to Manhattan by ferries to the Fly Market, Ferry Street and Catherine Street. A table at upper left identifies 43 landmarks including government buildings, churches, markets, and even “Bakers Tamony Museum” established by the (Jeffersonian) Republican-leaning Tammany Society.

The only post-war plans of the city which pre-date the Maverick Plan appeared in editions of The New-York Directory and Register beginning in 1789. These were modest in size, less detailed, more crudely engraved, and showed the city at a somewhat earlier stage of development.

Peter Rushton Maverick (1755-1811) was the patriarch of a family of New York engravers. His son Peter Maverick engraved among other things the seminal Mangin-Goerck (1803) and Bridges (1811) plans of the city. The identity of mapmaker “J.A.” is not known.

The plan is undated, but from internal evidence can be placed with confidence somewhere between late June 1795 and some time in 1797.   Item 37 in the table of references identifies “Baker’s Tamony Museum,” a museum handed over by the Tammany Society to curator Gardiner Baker on June 25, 1795, “on condition that it was to be known for all time as the Tammany Museum and that each member of the society and his family were to have entrance free.” (Gustavus Myers, History of Tammany Hall, p. 8).  On the other hand the plan does not include important developments that appear on the monumental Taylor-Roberts plan of 1797, in particular the development of Stuyvesant family lands north of Grand Street.

The date of the map can be further narrowed to June 1795-mid/late 1796, based upon the following notice placed in the New York Daily Advertiser for May 9, 1796: “A large plan of the city of New York, is now engraving for Longworth’s American Almanac and NEW-YORK DIRECTORY. Subscriptions for a few copies of said Plan separate from the Directory, price only four shillings, will be received by the Editor No. 66, Nassau Street.” (p.3) Though the Almanack accordingly advertises that it is “embellished with an accurate Map of the City,” the plan may never have been bound in; according to Wheat & Brun #391 and 395 “no copy [of the Almanack] is known with the map.”

The plan was revised and reissued at least four times, with successive revisions reflecting the rapid development of the city and bearing the added imprint “Drawn and Engrav’d for D. LONGWORTH Map & Print Seller.” The last known state is dated May, 1808. The sequence appears to be as follows, though it is possible there are additional states not identified by this writer:

1. No date (but June 1795-1796), 43 references in table at upper left, no Longworth imprint (Probably Haskell, Manhattan Maps #630, possibly Wheat & Brun #391. The example offered here.)
2. No date (but May 1796 or later), 45 references, Longworth imprint added (Probably Haskell #631 and Stauffer and Fielding, American Engravers, #1047. For image see New York Public Library digital gallery #1650699.)
3. Dated May 1803, 52 references (For image see NYPL digital gallery #434799.)
4. Dated May 1804, 61 references (Arkway Catalog #39, item 30, incorrectly described as “third state.”)
5. Dated May 1808, 61 references (Haskell #632. For image see NYPL digital gallery #434800.)

There is also reason to speculate that the plan may have been published prior to the Daily Advertiser notice, as our first state of the plan does not reference Longworth, whereas all subsequent editions include his Longworth imprint. Therefore, it is also plausible that this notice is advertising the publication of a later state.

The map is likely the same edition as identifed by Haskell, Manhattan Maps, #630 (giving only an example at the New York Historical Society). Wheat & Brun #391?

The plan is rare in all states, and it goes unnoticed in most of the standard references, including Augustyn & Cohen, Manhattan in Maps; Phillips, A List of Maps of America; Ristow, American Maps and Makers; Rumsey; Stokes, Iconography of Manhattan Island; or Stokes & Haskell, American Historical Prints. Antique Map Price Record lists only the Arkway example of the 4th state, offered for sale in 1992. It appears that there are perhaps 10-15 institutional examples of the various states of the map.  It would appear that only one copy of this first state is known, as only the copy in the New York Historical Society does not include the attribution to Longworth.

Condition Description: Minor tears and cracks, repaired on verso. Minor loss at the bottom left and right corners, expertly restored in facsimile and a few other small losses in the blank sections.

Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.

Hi Resolution

Plan von New York

Title: Plan von New York
Map Maker: Place / Date: n.p. / 1844 ca
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 10 x 7.5 inches
Condition: VG+
Price: $245.00
Inventory ID: 37263

Description: Detailed map of Lower Manhattan, showing Hotels, Churches in denominations, Market Places, Schools, Theatres and other points of interest.

Extends north to Midtown, and parts of Brooklyn and Williamsburg.

A marvelous example of the fine, precise German engraving style of the mid-19th Century.

Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.

Hi Resolution

Samuel Augustus Mitchell: City of New-York
Title: City of New-York
Map Maker: Samuel Augustus Mitchell
Place / Date: Philadelphia / 1849
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 15 x 13 inches
Condition: VG+
Price: $275.00
Inventory ID: 32804

Description: Fine example of SA Mitchell's detailed map of New York, from his New Universal Atlas.

The map is hand colored by wards, with keys naming public buildings squares and markets; Hotels, churches; and a key for Brooklyn.

This is one of the earliest maps of New York City to appear in a commercial atlas.

Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.

Hi Resolution

Thomas Cowperthwait & Co.: City of New-York

Title: City of New-York
Map Maker: Thomas Cowperthwait & Co.
Place / Date: Philadelphia / 1852
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 15 x 13 inches
Condition: VG
Price: $275.00
Inventory ID: 30648

Description: Detailed map of New York, from Thomas Cowperthwait's New Universal Atlas.
The map is hand colored by wards, with keys naming public buildings squares and markets; Hotels, churches; and a key for Brooklyn. It is one of the earliest maps of NYC to appear in a commercial atlas.

Condition Description: Minor spotting and marginal soiling

Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.

Hi Resolution

John Tallis: New York

Title: New York
Map Maker: John Tallis
Place / Date: London / 1851
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 20 x 14 inches
Condition: VG+
Price: $1,800.00
Inventory ID: 35933

Description: Striking full color example of Tallis's town plan of New York City, one of the few double page plans published by Tallis.

Includes vignettes of City Hall, the Custom's House, the Narrow's from Fort Hamilton, a New York Steamer and two larger views of New York from Williamsburgh and Brooklyn, plus a coat of arms (eagle with flag). Extends north to 42nd Street and shows Ferry Lines, streets, buildings, wharfs, the Battery, squares, parks and a host of other details.

One of the most decorative and sought after town plans of the City to appear in an atlas in the 19th Century.

Engraved for R. Montgomery Martin's Illustrated Atlas. Tallis was one of the last great decorative map makers. His maps are prized for the wonderful vignettes of indigenous scenes, people, etc. The town plans engraved by Tallis appear in only a small percentage of his works, making them harder to obtain than his regional maps. One of a small group of American town plans to be included.

Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.

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Joseph Hutchins Colton: Map of New York And the Adjacent Cities

Title: Map of New York And the Adjacent Cities
Map Maker: Joseph Hutchins Colton
Place / Date: New York / 1857
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 25 x 15.5 inches
Condition: VG
Price: $195.00
Inventory ID: 35662

Description: Detailed map of the City extending north to 87th Street. Shows parks, streets, wards, buildings, rail lines, wharfs, and many other features.

Inset shows Harlem. Also shows much of Brooklyn, Hoboken and Jersey City. A nice large format map. From the first edition of JH Colton's Atlas.  . JH Colton was one of the pre-eminent American map publishing firms in the mid-19th Century.

Condition Description: Minor foxing

Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.

Hi Resolution

Henry Darwin Rogers & A. Keith Johnston: New York and its Environs

Title: New York and its Environs
Map Maker: Henry Darwin Rogers & A. Keith Johnston
Place / Date: London / 1857
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 7.5 x 12.5 inches
Condition: VG+
Price: $175.00
Inventory ID: 31368
Description: Rare map of New York City and environs, from Rogers & Johnston's Atlas of the United States.
Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.

Hi Resolution

David Burr: Map of the City and County of New York. With The Adjacent Country . . . 1832.

Title: Map of the City and County of New York. With The Adjacent Country . . . 1832.
Map Maker: David Burr
Place / Date: New York / 1832
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 50.5 x 20.5 inches
Condition: VG
Price: $6,800.00
Inventory ID: 30090

Description: Fine old color example of David Burr's large format map of New York City, published by Simeon De Witt, Surveyor General of the State of New York in 1832.

First issued in 1829, Burr's map is one of the most impressive commercial published maps of New York from the 1820s. The first edition of the map includes a key below the title, which was removed in the later editions. The map occasionally appears in wall map form, with adverising or an index below the map The map also appeared in Burr's 1829 Atlas of the State of New York, the second printed American State Atlas.

The present example is the second state of the map. Rumsey's copy of the Atlas of the State of New York also included this second state.

The map covers all of Manhattan Island with Hudson River and New Jersey to the west. To the east is the East River, "Town of Brooklyn", "Town of Bushwick", and "Town of Newtown." The coast line of the Bronx is also shown but not named. Covers also Jersey City and Horsimus and other communities in N.J. Ornamental cartouche. Includes "Remarks" on streets and distances.

The map seems to have appeared in editions of 1829, 1831, 1832, 1839 and 1841, the final 2 editions bearing the imprint of Stone & Clark, Ithica, New York.

David Burr is one of the most famous, yet ironically little understood mapmakers of the first part of the19th Century. His two most famous works, the Postal Atlas of the United States (1839) and Atlas of the State of New York (first published in 1829) are among the most import cartographic works of their respective genres, yet relatively little is known about Burr.

David H. Burr originally worked under Simeon DeWitt, New York State’s Surveyor General at the beginning of the 19th century. Burr had a brief career as a lawyer and an aide-de-camp for New York Governor De Witt Clinton before being appointed to his first position in charge of a team surveying a portion of the state for a proposed road in 1825. He then succeeded in getting approval from the state legislature to compile an atlas that included maps of each county as well as a separate map of the entire state. These were dated 1829, but not actually published until early 1830. Burr’s atlas has the distinction of being the second atlas published in the 19th century of one of the individual states in the U.S., preceded only by Mill’s Atlas of South Carolina (1825).

In the 1830s, Burr produced an important early map of Texas and was in the process of publishing his New Universal Atlas in the late 1830s, when he was apparently offered work as a mapmaker for the United States House of Representatives. He produced several maps for the House, before beginning work for the Post Office on a series of maps which would become his most imporant work. Work on the postal maps was completed by the end of 1839, at which time Burr contracted with John Arrowmsith in London to print the maps. During this time period, he clearly fell out of favor with the prevailing powers in the House of Representatives, and by 1841 his position with the government had been terminated. In this same time period, he petitioned the US Government for a tariff exemption on the import of his Postal Atlas and separate maps, which he apparently wished to distribute privately. The tarriff exemption was turned down, leaving Burr with a $10,800 unpaid printing bill and financially bankrupt.

It was during this same time that Burr apparently produced the present map. While there is no record of its being made under the auspices of the United States government, the dating of the map (January 1842) and its size and detail, clearly suggest that it was compiled during the same time period and from the same information as the Postal Atlas. In fact, a close examination shows that many of the details on this map are identical too, and/or derived directly from the same source.

It is reasonable to surmise that the map was intended by Burr to be a successor to Abraham Bradley's general postal map of the United States, which was nearly 15 years out-dated by the time Burr began work on this postal maps. The general map which accompanied Burr's postal atlas is basically a key map, with no real postal or other detail, and clearly not incorporating the details of the rest of the maps in the postal atlas. Moreover, as noted at the time of Burr's tarrif hearings, the Government had ordered very few separate copies of the general map of the US in the Postal Atlas, with only one remainng copy on hand at the time of the hearing, providing additional circumstantial evidence that Burr intended a larger format general map of the US of similar detail to the general maps of the Postal Atlas.

Of equal interest, Burr's title of Topographer of the United States Post Office and Geographer to the House of Representatives, may in fact have been self-appointed titles. In the House of Representatives committee proceedings which resultd in his censure and termination, Burr was classified as a clerk and his superiors were derided for having allowed temporary clerical positions to have grown far beyond their intended scope, perhaps because of the political weight carried by Burr's older brother, who seems to have initially recruited Burr into government service.

During his time with the Post Office, Burr produced his Postal Atlas of the United States. This "atlas" is one of the great rarities of American 19th century cartography, with complete sets being virtually unobtainable for modern collectors. John Arrowsmith engraved the plates in London, an unusual collaboration at this late a date between an American cartographer and a London engraver.

Burr also served as surveyor to the states of Florida and Louisiana, then returned to Washington and became geographer to the U.S. Senate. In the 1850s, President Franklin Pierce named him the surveyor general of Utah Territory, where as the top ranking federal official in the territory, he was “heavily involved with the legal and jurisdictional disputes between Mormon leaders and the U.S. government” (Ristow).

Condition Description: Original Color. Three folds, as issued. Minor repaired tear in lower right margin and minor fold splits, repaired on verso.

Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.

Hi Resolution

Pieter Goos: Pas caerte van Nieu Nederlandt en de Engelsche Virginies van Cabo Cod tot Cabo Canrick

Title: Pas caerte van Nieu Nederlandt en de Engelsche Virginies van Cabo Cod tot Cabo Canrick
Map Maker: Pieter Goos
Place / Date: Amsterdam / 1666
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 21 x 17 inches
Condition: VG
Price: $12,000.00
Inventory ID: 23180

Description: Fine wide margined example of one of the finest and most beautiful regional 17th-century charts of America, from De Zee Atlas ofter Water-Weereld, first published by Goos in 1666.

The map illustrates the Atlantic coast of America from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. The emphasis is on the Dutch colony of New Netherland. New Amsterdam (New York) is shown at the tip of Manhattan Island. Many other Dutch place names appear, including Staten Eylandt, Lange Eylandt, and Vlysingen (Flushing). Along the Delaware River a number of Dutch settlements are shown, including Fort Casimir, Nassau and Elsenburgh, as well as the Swedish Fort Christina. The Schuylkill River, future site of Philadelphia, is also shown.

In New England, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket are shown with their present names, and several early English settlements, such as New Plymouth are located. Excellent early delineation of the Chesapeake Bay, with Jamestown located. The Potomac River is shown as the Patwomeck.

The seventeenth century was the Golden Age of Dutch cartography. As the center of world commerce, chart making flourished. The unquestioned leader in beautiful and decorative sea charts was Pieter Goos. Finely drawn and engraved, printed on top quality paper, and beautifully colored, the charts were intended more for the merchant collector than the practical mariner. Goos' Zee-Atlas was the companion marine atlas of choice for Joan Blaeu's famous terrestrial atlas, the Atlas Maior. 

References: Burden 387; Humphreys, plate 63; Deak, 48

Hi Resolution

Arnold Colom:  Pascaerte van Brazil en Nieu Nederlandt van Cuorvo en Flores tot de Barbados nu eerst uyt gegeven door Arnold Colom tot

Title: Pascaerte van Brazil en Nieu Nederlandt van Cuorvo en Flores tot de Barbados nu eerst uyt gegeven door Arnold Colom tot

Map Maker: Arnold Colom
Place / Date: Amsterdam / 1655 ca
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 25.5 x 22.5 inches
Condition: VG+
Price: $6,500.00
Inventory ID: 36191

Description: An important and very rare early Dutch Sea Chart, focusing on Canada, New England, the Eastern Caribbean, Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela.

This attractive sea chart assumes the perspective of the westward direction facing upwards and embraces the Western Atlantic Ocean from the Canaries and Azores, in the east, to the eastern reaches of the American continents. It features North America from Delaware up to and including Newfoundland, the West Indies from Hispaniola through to the Barbados, and South America from eastern Colombia through to Pernambuco, Brazil.

Cartographically, the depiction of the Mid-Atlantic region, New England and eastern Canada is quite distinct.  It is derived from Anthonie Jacobsz Theunisz's very rare chart, Pascaert vande Carybes, Nieu Neder landt, Brazil... (Amsterdam, 1650).  

The depiction of the American coasts running from the Delaware River to Cape Cod departs from the portrayal commonly used on contemporary Dutch charts that were largely derived from Adiaen Block’s maps of 1614.  On the present chart, Long Island is more correctly shown to have an elongated (as opposed to bulbous) form, while Narragansett Bay is shown to correctly open to the south (whereas the Block maps show the mouth of the bay to be sheltered by an island).  The Hudson and the Connecticut Rivers are shown to be of exaggerated width, likely as a point of visual emphasis on their utility for inland travel, as opposed to being an accurate depiction of their breadth. Colom likely had access to a variety of Dutch sources emanating from the activities of the Dutch West India Company (the VOC).   As a result of its control of the colony of New Netherlands, the VOC controlled the region extending roughly from modern Delaware to Connecticut, holdings which they would maintain until the English conquest of New Amsterdam (New York) in 1664.

Colom’s depiction of Atlantic Canada and Northern New England is likewise interesting.  The coasts of Massachusetts Bay and the Gulf of Maine roughly follow the outline shown on John Smith’s 1616 map.  The overall shape of the Gulf and estuary of St. Lawrence is roughly derived from Samuel de Champlain’s 1632 map, but is not a precise copy.  Likewise, while not a clear case of duplication, the Nova Scotian peninsula is shown to take on a more bulbous form, akin to that shown on Sir William Alexander Stirlings’ 1625 map.  Newfoundland assumes a block-like from, in line with recent English cartography, notably John Mason’s 1625 map.

Further south, the depiction of the eastern Caribbean is relatively conventional for the time, and shows the WIC’s direct experience in the region, having recently settled a number of islands, including CuraƧao and Saint Martin. The coasts of South America prominently feature the mouths of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers.  The mapping of Northeastern Brazil is derived from WIC maps disseminated by Caspar Barlaeus during the recent Dutch hegemony over the region (the Portuguese only managed to evict the Dutch from the region in 1654, the year before this map was issued).

Arnold Colom was the son of Jacob Colom, a well regarded Amsterdam bookseller, printer, and chartmaker.  Colom produced two sea atlases, a guide and pilot for the Mediterranean and a general sea atlas of the World.  Colom's Zee Atlas, published between 1654–58, was one of the largest format sea atlases of the 17th Century, with each chart printed from an oversized copper plate.  Koeman describes the atlas as "One of the most important atlases in the well known category of Dutch sea-atlases".

Apart from its rarity, the Zee-Atlas was of importance for its inclusion of the earliest Dutch sea chart of the New Netherlands to appear in an atlas (Jacob Theunisz Lootsman's chart is believed to pre-date it, but seems not to have been regularly published until later), while the "three charts of the oceans are on the same scale (1:14mill.) as Portuguese and Spanish charts of that time. It marked the first time that such charts were published as atlas sheets" (Koeman IV, p.115).  

Condition Description: On a double sheet of paper, as issued for Colom's Sea Atlas

Hi Resolution

Anonymous: Vicinity of New York

Title: Vicinity of New York
Map Maker: Anonymous
Place / Date: n.p. / 1880 ca
Coloring: Hand Colored
Size: 11 x 9 inches
Condition: VG
Price: $125.00
Inventory ID: 29729

Description: Detailed map of the area around New York City.
Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.

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