SO far as I have been able to trace, there are but eight* views of the Fort and Town of New Amsterdam and the City of New York, engraved prior to the Revolutionary War, which differ sufficiently from one another to support the hypothesis that they may have been engraved from separate original drawings. These, for the sake of brevity, I designate as follows:
2 N. J. Visscher
4 Romeyn de Hooghe
5 Wm. Burgis
6 B. Ratzer
7 Howdell—S. W. View
8 Howdell—S. E. View
*This number should, perhaps, be reduced by one, as the engravings on the Visscher and Van der Donck maps and in the History of Montanus all may have been taken from the sketch made by Augustine Herremans
Of engraving No. 1 I find one early copy, or reprint; of No. 2, five; of No. 3, one; of No. 4, eleven. Of the remaining prints I am unable to state with exactness how often they may have been copied in whole or in part prior to the year 1800. Of these eight views, with the exception of Nos. 5 and 6, there have been numerous modern reproductions.
The public and private collections that I have been able to consult, which contain copies of the maps and views described in the following pages, are indicated in the footnotes.
Early Maps and Plans of the City of New York
1 The Duke's Plan, . . 1661
2 Plan de Manathes,ou Nouvelle Yorc, by J. B. L. Franquelin, . . . 1693
3 The Miller Plan,* . .1695
4 The Bradford Map, a . 1731
5 David Grim's Map, b . 1742
6 The Duyckinck Map,* c . 1755
7 Plan of the City, by Bernard Ratzer, d . . 1767
8 The Montresor Plan, e . 1775
9 Map in Hugh Gaine's Universal Register, f . 1776
10 The City of New York, surveyed by J. Hills, . 178
11 Plan of the City, by I. M. Comb June, g . 1789
12 Map of the City, by Wm.
13 Bridges, engraved by P. Maverick, . . . 1807
*Plan of the city by the Rev. John Miller as it existed in the year 1695. This plan (one of Albany and of the forts at New York, Albany, Schenectady and the Indian fort at the Flats) accompanies a description of the Province and City of New York in 1675, by the Rev. John Miller.Early Drawings of New York
"Now first printed from the original manuscript by Thomas Rodd, London, 1843, into whose possession it fell on the dispersion of the library of George Chalmers, Esq
a b c d. The New York Historical Society.
a e f g. The Andrews Collection.
*"A Plan of the City of New York from an actual Survey, Anno Domini MDCCIV." By Frank Maerschalk, city surveyor. Printed, Ingraved for and sold by G. Duyckinck. The map is dedicated to Lieutenant-Governor James de Lancey. The key contains forty-four names of buildings and localities. The copy of this map in the New York Historical Society was presented to that institution in 1807 by John Pintard.
The Journal of the Labadists, Jaspar Dankers and Peter Sluyter, 1679-80, contains three views of New York, as follows:
1 New York from Brooklyn Heights.Facsimile reproductions of the above will be found in the Memoirs of the Long Island Historical Society, Volume I, Brooklyn, 1867. The miniature views in the headbands of Chapters 11, III and IV are taken from illustrations in this publication.
2 View of New York from the East.
3 View of New York from the North,
Chronological Arrangement of the First Five Engraved Views of New York and the Early Copies or Reprints Thereof
Original in Joost Hartger's Befchrijvinghe van Virginia, etc. h; Amsterdam, 1651. (h The Lenox Library. The New York Historical Society. The Andrews Collection.)
click on all images for larger views
Copy A In Adriaen Van der Donck's Nieuvv-Nederlant. First Edition. i Amsterdam, 1655 (i The Lenox Library)
1651-1656, Map of Nicholas J. Visscher
1656, "Nieuw Amsterdam op t' Eylant Manhattans"
This engraving, which is the earliest copy, if it be a copy, of N. J. Visscher's view, is found in the "Beschryvinge van Nieuvv-Nederlant, etc," by Adriaen vander Donck,* published by Evert Nieuwenhof. Amsterdam, 1656.
Addenda, page 135.
Manatus gelegen op de noot rivier, New York about 1640, Size 0m68x0m45, In 1892 this plan was in the possession of M.H. Harrisse, purchased by him of Frederik Muller, the well-known bookseller of Amsterdam. It was made, it is claimed, about 1640 by Joan Vingboons for the Dutch West India Company. Our reproduction, which is on so reduced a scale that it must necessarily convey only a very imperfect idea of the original, is a facsimile of a process print after a photograph from the plan which was published with a number of other early and rare American views in 'L'Illustration' of July 2nd, 1892---the Columbian celebration number of that periodical.
Bewerkt en uitgegeven op last van de Froviuoiale Staten van dit gewest.
Title: Manatus gelegen op de Noot Rivier
Authors: Vinckeboons, Joan = Stephenson, Richard W., 1930 = Library of Congress
Size: 1 map : col.; 45 x 68 cm.
Notes: Added title: Map of Manhattan, 1639.
Facsimile of 1639 manuscript in the Library of Congress.
Includes references 1-45, A-F.
Accompanying notes by R.W. Stephenson in Map Info File. 4167revrev
Call Number: map4F G3804.N4A1 1639 V5 1981 (PrCt)
Subjects: New York Region - Maps - 1639 - Landowners - Manuscripts - Facsimiles / Manuscript maps - Facsimiles
A second, lesser-known, and very early map shares a distinguishing feature with the Manatus gelegen op de Noot Rivier map above, and that's indicated as a river that cuts across lower Manhattan from the East to the Hudson Rivers. Apparently this was part of a tidal estuary system, where on extremely high tides (or maybe not Sandy exceptionally high) river water would meet in the area of the Collect Pond in the center of the island. By its appearance, the cropped image below, of a circa 1635 map was published in a larger format. If it has a publishing history, how was it able to spend centuries underground? And why would the official mappers of Manhattan be so prevaricating about revealing the original topography of the island? The leveling of the hills to create a more-or-less uniform surface for development was no secret. (However, if builders had to ship all the excess fill by barge to Staten Island like 20th-century garbage tugs did, you can bet Manhattan would still be rolling hill and dale. Moving earth created land and value. The excavations from the World Trade Center in the late 1960's was used as fill to create Battery Park City, and somebody made millions---certainly no tax burdens were lightened when the acreage was sold off.1635, Een kaart van de vallei van de Hudsonrivier, afkomstig uit de kaart 'Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova' door Joan Blaeu, c. 1635,
1671, "Novum Amsterodamum"
6 3/8 x 5
This engraving will be found inserted in the text on folio 124 of the "Beschryving van Amerika, door Arnoldus Montanus," t' Amsterdam by lacoh Meurs, 1671
The View on Hugo Allard's Second Map
In his "Bibliographical and Historical Essay on Dutch Books and Pamphlets relating to New Netherland," Mr. Asher reproduces this view at the head of his list of names, copied, as he informs us, from the second map of Hugo Allard. He states that it is most probably the work of the celebrated artist, Romeyn de Hooghe,* and represents the recapture of New Amsterdam by the Dutch in the year 1673, from which time until its restoration to the English in the fall of 1674, the town was called New Orange in honor of the reigning Prince of Orange. In this engraving the flag-staff and the church in the fort remain, but the windmill at the southern extremity of the fort and the gallows on the East River shore are conspicuous by their absence.
* Romeyn de Hooghe, a noted and prolific Dutch engraver, was born at the Hague about the year 1638 and died in Holland about 1718. He engraved the illustrations in an edition of La Fontaine's "Contes et Nouvelles "published at Amsterdam in 1685; also the plates in "L'Heptameron de Marguerite de Valois," and in the "Contes de Bocace," Amsterdam 1698 and 1697. All well known works among bibliophiles.
According to Asher this Hugo Allard view is found upon five other maps---namely the first and second maps of Carolus Allard, the map of Joachim Ottens, of Renier and Josua Ottens, and (a poorly engraved copy) on the map of Tob. Conr. Lotter. To this list we add the view upon the map publishede by Matthew Seutter, not mentioned by Asher.
Whether the date of 1673 assigned to the view on Hugo Allard's second map be true or fictitious, this picture of New Amsterdam is apparently the last engraving from an original drawing produced by the Dutch. Naturally, after the final loss of the city in 1674 the interest of the Hollander in it would abate somewhat, and the date ascribed to this engraving by Asher is probably approximately correct. From this time on, so far as the writer is aware, no new picture of New York makes its appearance for a period of forty-four years, until we come to the engraving made by William Burgis in 1717. The English proprietors of the city do not appear to have considered the place of sufficient interest or importance to demand pictorial display, until the danger of losing their colonial possessions began to loom upon the horizon.
Then they made haste to spy out the land and the lay thereof, sound the approaches to it by water, and provide their lieutenant-governors, generals, and admirals with an assortment of elaborate maps, charts, and views.
1673, N; Amsterdam, ou N; Iork. In Ameriq; P. Mortier, cum Privil,
1700 "Nieu Amsterdam"
10¼ x 8
ON the left of the inscription " Pet. Schenck," on the right "Amstel. C. P. No. 92." Size (as given by Asher), 8 inches high by 10 broad. Asher, from whose list of views of New Amsterdam the above inscription is copied, states that this is the only separate view of New Amsterdam that he had ever seen. He calls it a copy of Allard's engraving, and informs us that: "Like all other engravings of Schenck, this one was executed between the years 1690 and 1700, and most likely was published in some of the various collections of views of different cities published by him."
This print bears the following inscription: Nieu Amsterdam, een stede- Amstelodamum recens postea ken in Noord Amerikaes / Nieu Anglis illud possidentibus / dic-Hollant, op het Eilant Manhatturn Ehoracum novum Holtan namaels Nieu-York gelandiae nova, id est America, naeint, toen het geraekte in t Mexicans si<ve Septentrionalis gebiet der Engelschen. oppidulum.
1717, "A South Prospect of ye Flourishing City of New York in the Province of New York in North America"
6 feet 3 ½ inches x 20 inches, Wm. Burgis, New York, 1717
This plate is dedicated to "His Excellency Robert Hunter, Esq., Captain General and Governor in Chief of the Provinces of New York, New Jersey and Territories depending thereon in America and Vice General of the same, by his Most Humble and Obedient Servant, Wm. Burgis, 1717."
This engraving was reissued in 1746, with the following inscription : "To His Excellency George Clinton, Esq., Capt. General and Governor in Chief of ye Province of New York and Territories thereon depending in America, Vice Admiral of the same and Vice Admiral of the White Squadron of his Majesty's Fleet. London, Printed and sold by Tho. Bakewell Map and Print Seller against Birchin Lane in Cornhill, where Merchants and others may be supplied with all sorts of Maps, Prints & Pictures at the lowest prices. Published March 25th, 1746."
At the foot of the engraving is the following account of the discovery of the colony and its history down to 1717:
"Captain Henry Hudson discovered this Countrey An° 1609 and sold it to ye Hollanders & Letters Patents being granted to some Merch*' by ye States a Colony was settled An° 1614, called New Netherland. But S' Samuel Argal, Governour of Virginia gave them disturbance ere they were warm in their Quarters, however upon application to King James, he permitted them to build some Cottages, for the Entertainment of Shipping that came for Water, under which umbrage they build Towns, and fortifie them, and upon expectation of a Governour from Amsterdam, they refuse to pay the accostomed Tribute & declare themselves and the Mercht' of Amsterdam sole Proprietors, which being complained of by King Charles 1st by his Embassador to the States at The Hague they by Publick Instrument declare it was only a private undertaking of some Merchants of Amsterdam. Then Commissions being granted by King Charles for settling Colonys to the Southward, & to the Northward of them, they declare themselves willing to depart and leave all they had upon condition of the payment of £2500, but the troubles in England soon after breaking out they recee'd from their first proposals, and begin to strengthen themselves, by all possible means. Thus affairs stood till after ye Restauration of King Charles ye 2d who being informed of his Right, resolved to seize on it, and accordingly it was recovered by S', Robert Car, those of the Inhabitants ye remained taking Oath of fidelity to the King of England, the other have Liberty to remove with all their Effects. Now begins New Netherland to lose it's name, for His Majesty having conferr'd by Patent upon his Royal Highness all acquisitions made upon Foreigners. His Royal Highness apointed Collonel Nicholls Governour who chang'd the Names of some of the Principal places and concluded a League between ye Inhabitants & the Indians & in ye year 1676, upon conclusion of ye War with the Dutch they had Surinam made over to them by the Treaty, as an equivalent for new York. The Province of new York is divided into 10 Counties, ye City one, then Albany, Ulster, Dutchess, Orange, Kings, Queens, Suffolk, Chester and Richmond. Y^ City of New York is builded on a point of land & is well Situate, having a Fortification on ye West & is in ye Lat 41°x40°Long.74° 30°in a good Air. The Province abounds with all Necessarys of Life and hath a Governour, Council & General Assembly, the City hath a Mayor, Alderman & Sheriff & is under the Regulation of the English Laws, and Customs. The Trade of this City in a few Yeares is become almost Universal, her Merchants having Extended their Commerce to most parts of ye known World. The Harbour is capable of Ships of ye greatest burthens & very secure lying 11 miles from ye Sea having great convenience of Buildings of Ships & vast Quantities of fine Timber in the adjacent Woods."
This is believed to be the first view of New York engraved in America and it is undoubtedly an entirely original production. The importance of this engraving in the pictorial annals of our city cannot well be over-estimated. It is beyond question an accurate representation of the place it claims to depict and in the key at the foot of the print, given herewith, is embraced the name of every building of note of which the city at that time could boast:
1 The Fort
2 The Chappel in the Fort
3 The Secretarie's Office
4 The Great Dock
5 The Ruins of Whitehall, built by Governour Duncan [Dongan]
6 Part of Nutten Island
7 Part of Long Island
8 The Lower Market
9 The Crane
10 The Great Flesh Market
11 The City Arms supported by Peace
12 The Dutch Church
13 The English Church
14 The City Hall
15 The Exchange
16 The French Church
17 Upper Market
18 The Station Ship
19 From A to A Warf
20 The Arms of the Province supported by Plenty
21 Warfs for Building Ships
22 Ferry House on Long Island Side
23 a Pen for Oxen and Cattell designed for the market
24 Collonell Morris's 'Fancy’ turning to Windward with Ships a Sloop of common mould
Copies of both the original engraving by Burgis (the only one known to the writer) and of the plate as reissued by Bakewell are In the collections of the New York Historical Society, and a copy of the Bakewell print, in poor condition, is also owned by the New York Society Library.
1732, The "New Dutch Church"
13 ¾ x 9 ¾
Engraved by William Burgis
Inscription---"This Church was founded A.D. 1728 and finished A.D. 1731, and is in length 100 feet, in Breadth 78 feet, The Revd Mr. Walter Du Bois and Mr. Henry Buel Ministers."
Dedication---"To the Honble Rip Van Dam Esqr. President of His Majesty's Council for the Province of New York this View of the New Dutch Church is most humbly dedicated by your Honour's most Obedient Srv' Wm, Burgis."
In addition to this and the preceding plate Wm. Burgis engraved a view of Harvard College in 1726. A view of Castle William in the Harbour of Boston executed about the same period is also attributed to him. These prints are, so far as known, the earliest examples extant of copperplate engraving in this country.
1733, "New York"
10½ x4 7/8
This view is found in a large collection of maps of the British Empire in America with the French and Spanish settlements adjacent thereto, by Henry Popple. Engraved by Wm. Henry Toms, London, 1733. It is probably copied after the Burgis print. The resemblance is indeed so close as to admit of little doubt upon this point.
In addition to this view of New York these maps contain pictures of the Falls of Niagara and the cities of Mexico and (Quebec. The view of New York appears to have been published separately from, as well as upon the map.
1768, "A South West View of the City of New York in North America."
19 5/8 x12½
"Vue de Sud Quest de la Ville de New York, dans I'Amerique Septentrionale." Drawn on the spot by Capt. Thomas Howdell, of the royal artillery. Engraved by P. Canot. London, printed for John Bowles at No. 13 in Cornhill, Robert Sayer at No. ^^ in Fleet Street, Thos. Jefferys the corner of St. Martin's Lane in the Strand, Carrington Bowles at No. 69 in St. Paul's Church Yard, and Henry Parker at No. 82 in Cornhill.
1 The Harbor
2 Nutting Island
3 Staten Island
4 Long Island
5 Rutgers College
6 South River
7 Brew House
1768, "A South East View of the City of New York, in North America"
19 5/8 x 12½
"Vue de Sud Est de la Viue de New York, dans t' Amerique Septentrionale." Drawn on the spot by Capt. Thomas Howdell, of the royal artillery. Engraved by P. Canot. London, printed for John Bowles at No. 13 in Cornhill, Robert Sayer at No. S3 in Fleet Street, Thos. Jeffreys the corner of St. Martin's Lane in the Strand, Carrington Bowles at No. 69 in St. Paul's Church Yard, and Henry Parker at No. 82 in Cornhill.
1 New College
2 Old English Church
3 City Hall
4 French Church
5 North River
6 Staten Island
7 The Prison
At lower right corner, close to the engraving, is b.4.
1772, ‘Kalm's (Peter) Reize’
8 ¼ x 5 7/8 UPRIGHT
The Utrecht edition of Peter Kalm's account of his visit to this country contains a frontispiece engraved on copper in which are four small circular views (one in each corner of the plate) of New York, Philadelphia, Montreal and Quebec. They are not of sufficient importance to be mentioned here except for the fact that they are connected with the writings of this noted Swedish traveler, whose book has been an authority with our local historians for generations past.
1780, (ca.) 'A South West View of the City of New York in North America', J. Carwitham, Sculp., London, n. d.
1780, (ca.) 'A South West View of the City of New York in North America', J. Carwitham, Sculp., London, n. d.
Printed for Bowles & Carrer, No. 69 St. Paul's Church Yard.
This is the most picturesque of all the larger views of New York which still exhibit the fort. The print is to be found both plain and colored. A companion picture by the same engraver, and issued by the same publisher, is entitled: "A Southeast View of the City of Boston in North America."
1790, ca. 'View of New York about 1790 Showing Side View of the Great House Built for President Washington',
This is a most interesting picture and the only eighteenth century engraving of which the writer is cognizant that affords a view of the Battery and Government House as seen from the water.
Bowling Green, Broadway
Drawn by J. H. Dakin, Engraved by Barnard & Dick
1853, The Fort in New York Engraved from the original Drawing for D.T. Valentine's History of New York, 1853
Other images from:
1897, New Amsterdam, New Orange, New York, A Chronologically Arranged Account of Engraved Views of the City From the First Picture Published in 1611 Until the year 1800, by William Loring Andrews, New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1897)
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Original On Map of Nicolas J. Visscher, 1651-1656.
Copy A On Map of Adriaen Van der Donck, in his Nieuvv-Nederlant. Second Edition, y 1656.
Copy B On first Map of Hugo Allard.
Copy C On Map of N. Visscher (said to be N. J. Visscher's old map retouched by N. Visscher about 1690).
Copy D On Map of Justo Danckers.
Copy E On Map of Johan Baptista Homan.*
Original In Arnoldus Montanus's "Beschryving van Amerika." 1671.
Copy A In Ogilby's "America." 1671.
Original On second Map of Hugo Allard. 1673.†
Copy J The Engraving signed P. Mortier, o
Copy K The small engraving on Map of P. Schenck. 1705. p
The titles upon these maps vary in voluminousness under the caption of "Novi Belgii in America Septentrionali" or its equivalent, while the views which ornament them bear in some cases the simple title " Neu Jorck sive Neu Amsterdam"; in others the following:
"Nieuw Amsterdam onlango Nieuw Yorck genant. Ende hernommen by de Nederlanders, op den 24th Aug. 1673," OJ* " Nieuw Amsterdam onlangs Nieuw jorck op den 24 Aug.
1673 eindelyk aan de Engelse weder afgestan."
Original The Engraving by William Burgis. N. Y. 1717.q
Copy A On the Popple Map. (?) 1733. r "
Copy B In the London Magazine. (?) 1761.
W. L. A.
j The Lenox Library. The Andrews Collection.
* Published in his "Neuer Atlas," Norimbergae, 1707. The view bears the name of N. Visscher. Whether it is a copy of, or an impression from the original N. Visscher plate it is difficult to determine.
† This engraving is supposed by Asher to have been executed by the celebrated Romeyn de Hooghe, and is called the "Capture of New Amsterdam by the Dutch, August, 1673." [Again surrendered to the English on the 10th of November (new style), 1674.] This view is reproduced by Joseph W. Moulton in his "New York 170 Years Ago," with the following explanatory note: "This view was copied from a manuscript copy of one which was originally published in Holland, and which copy was made in 1769 by Du Simitiere, a French gentleman of antiquarian research, taste and learning, who resided and died in Philadelphia. His manuscripts were preserved in the Loganian branch of the library of that city. "Satisfied of its authority as a correct delineation immediately prior to the conquest in July, 1673, upon various grounds in the recapitulation of which it is not necessary to occupy the reader's attention, the writer caused this interesting relic to be engraved."
k The Harvard College Library (plain and colored impression).
l The Emmet Collection, in the Lenox Library.
m The New York Historical Society. The Andrews Collection.
n The Andrews Collection.
o The Huntington Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
* According to Asher these are all from the same plate.
p The Andrews Collection.
q The New York Historical Society.
r The Lenox Library. The Holden Collection.
ALPHABETICAL list of books which have been consulted in the preparation of this account of views illustrating New York City:
Allard (Carolo). Orbis Habitabilis Oppida et Vestitus, etc. (One hundred colored views of cities.) Folio. Amsterdam, n. d.
Befchrijvinghe Van Virginia, Nieuw Nederlandt, Nieuw Engelandt, En D'Clanden Bermudes, Berbados, en S. Chriftoffel. . . . Met kopere Figuren verciert. Pot quarto. t'Amsterdam. By Joost Hartgers, 1651.
Beschryvinge Van Nieuw- Nederlant, etc., door Adriaen vander Donck (first edition). Pot quarto. t'Amsterdam. By Evert Nieuwenhof, Anno, 1655.
The same (second edition). 1656.
Davies (C. W.). History of Holland. Octavo. London, 1842.
Drake (Samuel G.). Biography and History of the Indians of North America. Octavo. Boston, 1851.
Gaine (Hugh). Universal Register or American and British Kalendar. Duodecimo. New York, 1776.
Goodrich's (A. T.) The Picture of New York and Stranger's Guide to the Commercial Metropolis of the United States. Douodecimo. New York, 1825-1828.
Hudsonus (Henricus). Descriptio ac delinea- to Geographica, etc. Medium quarto. Amsterodami, 161 2.
Lamb (Mrs. Martha J.). History of the City of New York. Quarto. New York, 1877.
Lambrechtsen (N. C). A Short Description of the Discovery and Subsequent History of the New Netherlands. Octavo. Middleburg, Holland, 1818.
Miller (Rev. John). A Description of the Province and City of New York in 1675. Now first printed from the original MS. by Thomas Rodd. Octavo. London, 1843.
Moulton (J. W.). New York 170 Years Ago. Octavo. New York, 1843.
O'Callaghan (E. B.). History of New Netherland, or New York, under the Dutch. Two Volumes, octavo. New York, 1855
Purchas (Samuel). His Pilgrimes. Five Volumes, folio. London, 1625.
Read (John M.). Henry Hudson. Octavo. Albany, 1846.
Smith (Wm. A. M.). The History of the Province of New York from the First Discovery to the Year MDCCXXXIL Quarto. London, 1757.
Valentine (D. T.). History of the City of New York. Octavo. New York, 1853.
Watson (John F.). Annals of New York. Octavo. Philadelphia, 1846.
Through the courtesy of the custodians of the New York Historical Society and the Lenox Library I have been able to examine such of the following maps as are not embraced in my own collection:
Ottens (J. & R.)
Also an atlas of 185 maps "collected in Holland about the Year 1760 by Dirk Van der Weyde, A.M. (presented to the Historical Society in the City of New Amsterdam by his grandson, Peter Henry Van der Weyde, M. D.)" ; The "Zee Atlas" of Peter Goos; The "Atlas Minor" of Abraham Allard, and the various extensive cartographical collections published by the Blaeu family.
The New York Historical Society Collections, New Series, Volume I, furnish translations of Van der Donck's "Beschryvinge," Lamlirechtsen's "New Netherlands," De Vries's "Voyages," Acrelius's "New Sweden," Verrazzano's "Voyage," A. D. 1524, Extracts from Juet's "Journal of Hudson's Voyage," and several other important publications relating to the History of New Netherland.
David T. Valentine, for many years Clerk of the Common Council of the City of New York, made his Manual of the Corporation a treasure-house of local history lore, and copied in its pages, by means of lithography, probably every rare map and view of New York that exists. In this antiquarian labor he was greatly assisted by the late Dr. George H. Moore, formerly librarian of the New York Historical Society and superintendent of the Lenox Library. To these enthusiastic students and chroniclers of our city's past every lover of reminiscences of old New York owes a constant and lively debt of gratitude.
W. L. A.
BIBLIOGRAPHY door Adriaen vander Donck (first edition). Pot quarto. t'Aemsteldam. By Evert Nieuwenhof, Anno, 1655. The same (second edition). 1656. Davies (C. W.). History of Holland. Octavo. London, 1842. Drake (Samuel G.). Biography and History of the Indians of North America. Octavo. Boston, 185 1. Gaine (Hugh). Universal Register or American and British Kalendar. Duodecimo. New York, 1776. Goodrich's (A. T.) The Picture of New York and Stranger's Guide to the Commercial Metropolis of the United States. Douodecimo. New York, 1825-1828. Hudsonus (Henricus). Descriptio ac delinea- to Geographica, etc. Medium quarto. Amsterodami, 161 2. Lamb (Mrs. Martha J.). History of the City of New York. Quarto. New York, 1877. Lambrechtsen (N. C). A Short Description of the Discovery and Subsequent History of the New Netherlands. Octavo. Middleburg, Holland, 18 18.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Miller (Rev. John). A Description of the Province and City of New York in 1675. Now first printed from the original MS. by Thomas Rodd. Octavo. London, 1843. Moulton (J. W.). New York 170 Years Ago. Octavo. New York, 1843. O'Callaghan (E. B.). History of New Netherland, or New York, under the Dutch. Two Volumes, octavo. New York, 1855 Purchas (Samuel). His Pilgrimes. Five Volumes, folio. London, 1625. Read (John M.). Henry Hudson. Octavo. Albany, 1846. Smith (Wm. A. M.). The History of the Province of New York from the First Discovery to the Year MDCCXXXIL Quarto. London, 1757. Valentine (D. T.). History of the City of New York. Octavo. New York, 1853. Watson (John F.). Annals of New York. Octavo. Philadelphia, 1846.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Through the courtesy of the custodians of the New York Historical Society and the Lenox Library I have been able to examine such of the following maps as are not embraced in my own collection: Allard (C.) McComb Bradford Montresor Duyckinck Ottens (J. & R.) Dancker Ratzer Gaine Schenck hotter Seutter Visscher (X.) Also an atlas of 185 maps "collected in Holland about the Year 1760 by Dirk Van der Weyde, A.M. (presented to the Historical Society in the City of New Amsterdam by his grandson, Peter Henry Van der Weyde, M. D.)"; The "Zee Atlas" of Peter Goos; The "Atlas Minor" of Abraham Allard, and the various extensive cartographical collections published by the Blaeu family. The New York Historical Society Collections, New Series, Volume I, furnish translations of Van der Donck's " Beschryvinge,"Lamlirechtsen's "New Netherlands," DeVries's,,