Nordic Compagie's Noordsche Company (Northern Company or Company of Spitsbergen) was a Dutch cartel of whaling, established by the participating cities, which existed from 1614 to 1642. The target was the production and marketing of tear, a commercially attractive product. The Company was also important to be in conflict with British and the Danes on access to fishing areas stronger. The Dutch took a long time, about 40% of all captured bowhead whales on their behalf. In the Republic, the Company had for years the trade monopoly for whale oil in hands. At the end of its existence, the name Greenland Shaving Company came into vogue.
During the year 1612 report was first made by a Dutch commercial expedition to Spitsbergen, after it had come to the conclusion earlier whaling at the Cape of Good Hope did not offer good prospects. The skippers Willem Cornelisz. Muyden of Amsterdam and Claes Cornelisz of Sardam fished that year in the archipelago discovered by Willem Barents in 1596. Van Muyden had included five French Basque as harpooners and an English pilot on board, the rest of the crew were from England. Sardam enter English service. The Noordsche Company was incorporated on January 27, 1614 by Amsterdam and Delft merchants who had interests in whaling; Two of the twelve directors are Medemblik Cherry. They received on that date for a period of three years from the States General the exclusive in Arctic coastal waters. Soon joined by others from all major Dutch port cities in the Company at. The patent granted by the States General in 1614 (exclusive) was extended in 1617 for four years, and afterwards renewed several times until 1642.
, the capture area of the northern Serbian Compagnie stretched from the Davis Strait to Newfoundland to Russia Nova Zembla. For this area, it had the States General obtained the exclusive. Whaling was strictly seasonal. Ships and crews left in June the various ports of the Republic. After a three-week journey they arrived in the coastal waters of Svalbard and Jan Mayen. In September and by October the ships turned back again to the Republic.
were Soon on Jan Mayen Island and Amsterdam, and some try houses built later on the island of Zeeland Lookout, the blubber was processed here. This was close to transport to the Netherlands considerably in loading and odor. The whaling station on the Spits Bergse Amsterdam Island was named Smeerenburg. This has become more known through archaeological research that has been done. Around 1980 by Dutch researchers  Each room did about their own blubber ovens, there were also staying buildings, workshops and a small fort. In this inhospitable northwest corner of Spitsbergen are buried several hundred sailors who died during the seventeenth century.
rooms of the Company remained for a long time use of Basque harpooners and other practitioners. Gradually there were more and more Dutch and North German sailors who had homemade. The art of catching and afspekken It was except whales sometimes hunted walrus, seals and polar bears. The walrus ivory and polar bear fur delivered. Whale Baleen were wanted for making picture frames, walking sticks and razor clams.
When in the year 1642, the patent period was over, there was no further extension requested. Compagnie probably was already largely disintegrated. However, there has never been a formal waiver meeting. Rooms from Amsterdam and Harlingen continued existence as a company. Whaling was now allowed for all business. Many people who formerly one of the rooms of the Noordsche Compagnie conduct were now in private service. Was it in the time of the Company to approximately 15 vessels per year, little tricks companies rested in the second half of the 17th century, every year around 200 ships for whaling. The first was the fishes tooth well tolerated, but the second number in the long run led to the decimation of the state of the bowhead whale
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The whaling or whaling is the hunting and killing of whales, mainly for whale oil and meat. The ship that hunted whales is called a whaler , as the captain of such a ship. These days are usually caught with a harpoon whales. Among conservationists and the population in most European countries, the highly controversial whaling.
Begin commercial whaling sailing
Early commercial whaling
at the beginning of the 17th century realized the Dutch, British and others the possibilities of whaling. Willem Cornelisz. of Muyden was the first Dutch whaler. By now, the competition was fierce for the richest "fishing grounds". Around 1640-1650, the American colonists also started to hunt from New England also whales People hunt whales at all since prehistoric times. Archaeological finds show in Ulsan in South Korea that captivate, harpoons and lines already around 6000 BC. were used to hunt whales. The oldest known method of catching whales is by simply driving by cutting with a number of small boats. Down the road to the open ocean to the shore they This was mainly used for smaller species, such as the pilot whale, white dolphin and narwhal. After this they started hunting with a buoy at the end of a harpoon line. This buoy was often a wooden buoy or inflated sealskin. The buoy caused the harpooned animal became so tired that they could come and kill. Different cultures from around the world using such a mark, such as the Inuit, Indians, and the Basques.
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Cornelis de Houtman,
The Seven Provinces
The seven provinces was a ship of the line of the Admiralty of the Maze with 80 guns, the name of the ship was also gescheven as the 7 Provinces.
The ship had a length of 163 feet, a width of 43 feet and a cavity of 16.5 feet (NOTE: Amsterdam foot is 28.3 cm).
, the displacement was about 1,600 tons, and the ship carried 2,000 m² sail.
crew had more than 420 heads. The ship was built in 1664-1665 on the old admiral capacity enlist the Haringvliet in Rotterdam.
The architect was Salomon of the Temple, a scion of a famous family of Rotterdam shipbuilders.
ship began his career as temporary flagship of Vice Admiral Aert Jansse Nes , then became the flagship of Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter Adriaenszoon (1666-1674). It took part in the Four Days Battle of North Foreland (1666), the two-day battle (1666), and the journey naae Chatham (1667) in the Second British naval war. Furthermore, the ship took part in the following battles: Soleday (1672), double blow to clean field (1673) and the Battle of Kijkduin (1673).
In 1674 it went under De Ruyter expedition to Marinique. After the death of De Ruyter's flagship of Rear-Admiral Jan van Brakel. Was in 1678
In 1691, Rear-Admiral Johan was swift command of the ship, he died that same year on board. The ship also was part of a combined
Dutch-English fleet under John Edward Russell in 1692 where the leak was shot by the French at the Battle of La Hogue. The last commander of the ship was the captain Evert Lieffde whose logbook from 1692 has been preserved. eventually it was sold for scrapping in one thousand six hundred ninety-four.
one thousand nine hundred ninety-five is the Batavia Yard in Lelystad built a replica of the ship that is considered. as one of the most famous warships from the Dutch Golden Age The construction of this new seven provinces, will bog definitely going to take until 2015. The aim is to reconstruct using all available resources and as authentic as possible on the ship.
Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp had for years insisted on building a bigger ship to the flagship Brederode, which had 56 guns too lightly armed to replace. Due to cost and practical considerations (the Dutch waters were relatively shallow) this was refused until the results of the First English War made painfully clear that significantly heavier ships were needed. The Admiralty of Rotterdam decided to build. Larger ship 165
In February 1653 it was agreed by the States-General that the cost would be about all the Seven Provinces. divided
by conflicts over the cost, size and material of the Unity was not ready in January 1655, when the First English War all past and Tromp was deceased.
Originally the ship would be named after Prince William, the two-year-old son of the deceased William II, but the State Forgiving Johan de Witt , Grand Pensionary of the States of Holland decided to name the project. Eendragt the Eendragt is derived from the motto of the Republic of Concordia PARVAE res CRESCUNT, derived from Sallust Bellum Iugurthinum of X. This means: Unity does the little things grow or freely translated Unity is strength. For patriotic reasons why Unity was a popular name for ships. When Johan de Witt month was absent from the Orangists took the opportunity to change the name. Again in Prince William It was for the States enough that Witt upon return are expressed surprise about to like greased lightning again to reverse.
Spelling Unity or Eendragt is arbitrary, in the 17th century there was in the absence of the green pants no uniformity . Here, for in the seventeenth century, more common spelling chosen to distinguish them from other ships of the same name.
design and construction.
The design was the shipwright Rotterdam Jan Salomonsz of the Temple, which also Brederode and the former flagship Aemilia had designed. In 1652, Rotterdam was the keel. When the funding was taken over by the Provinces the project was instigated by Cornelis de Witt, moved to the shipyard Goossen Schacks van der arent in Dordrecht (the Witt came from Dordt), Jan Salomonsz retained supervision.
length was 152 Amsterdam feet measured at the stack walk, 150 feet in the design. The ship had a width of 38 feet and a depth of 15 feet (14 '8 "below the overflow, 15' 3" at the stern) Over the years, the number and capacity of the guns steadily widened. Of The 58 pieces in the new building in 1653, divided into sixteen 24-pounders, 12 twelve-pounders, 20 eight-pounders and six 10-pounders, and 73 units in the sinking in 1665: thirty-six 3-pounders, twenty-four 22 pounders, 14 eighteen-pounders, 12 twelve-pounders, and 22 six-pounders
First English War
Hendrick de Keyser
Hendrick de Keyser came from a family of sculptors. His father was the Utrecht master cabinetmaker Dirxzoon Cornelis de Keyser.
Hendrick de Keyser was a student of the Utrecht sculptor Cornelis Bloemaert. But he has also been influenced by the Delft sculptor Willem van Tetrode (1525-1580), who had made an Italian study.
De Keyser was in the early nineties of the 16th century with Bloemaert to Amsterdam. During a stay in London, he was influenced by Inigo Jones, which are classical inspiration on his journey had gained to Rome. It was there, in particular, inspired by the legacy of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, an architect from Roman antiquity, and his Ten Books on Architecture, which to date has an impact on the architecture.
De Keyser was in 1595 the city architect and city stonemason in Amsterdam , where he designed several buildings. These include the East India House Administration and administration of the former Dutch East India Company and the famous Westerkerk Westerkerk, which was completed by his son Peter after his death and his most famous work would be. Besides these buildings he designed and well built houses for wealthy individuals. Famous are the possible he completed House with the Heads and the House Bartolotti. Or the House Bartolotti his hand is being challenged from various sides.
in Delft, he rebuilt it in 1618 burned Delft town hall, which only the medieval tower remained. This is a fine example of the Dutch Renaissance style. The Reformed Church in Middenbeemster in the then just empty ground Beemster polder from De Keyser. In Deventer Mountain Gate where De Keyser would have. Was also cooperated This port is now in the garden of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.
Keyser in 1619 winning the tower of Rotterdam Laurens church with a wooden spire. Later, the spire was removed again, but next to the church still stands the statue of Erasmus of Rotterdam in 1622, which was also designed. De Keyser It is the oldest preserved bronze statue in the Netherlands; it was by Jan Cornelisz. Old Rye cast. Hendrick de Keyser also designed the mausoleum of William of Orange in Delft New Church, which, like the Westerkerk was completed by his son Peter.
De Keyser died in 1621 and is buried in the South Church designed by him. His tombstone is still present. On 10 June 2009 in the South Church a renovation starting to get. Resurfaced the gravestone Henrick de Keyser
Of the sons of Pieter de Keyser Hendrick de Keyser (1595-1676), Willem de Keyser (1603 were after- 1674) and Hendrick de Keyser II (the Younger, 1613-1665) sculptor. Thomas de Keyser (c. 1596-1667) was a famous painter.
style Keyser is rich and recognizable, with many separate elements of white stone facades of red brick. Typically, the small pilasters, cornices, pediments and decorative elements such as vases and even equally monumental pinnacles. In the work of De Keyser also designate. Classical elements